Abstract:
Technical and physical reasons are given in favor of the idea that single universes, accelerating or not, essentially are quantum-mechanical entities without any classical analogs, even when they are forming part of a given multi- verse.

Abstract:
The dynamics of baby universes which are branched off in pairs from a large universe and whose respective members are entangled to each other has been studied in quantum gravity and string theory. It is shown that the probability measure for such pairs essentially keeps its Planckian form when one of their two members is trapped by a Lorentzian tunnel and travels through it into another large universe, so that the two baby universes of the pairs preserve their mutual entanglement even when they are going to be finally branched in distinct large universes. The conclusion is thus drawn that big fixing the fundamental constants in our universe actually big fixes such constants in the set of all single universes of the multiverse.

Abstract:
Increasing astronomical evidence indicates that the expansion of the universe is accelerating. By simply solving Einstein equations we show in this letter that a wide class of generic quintessence models leading to eternal acceleration is associated with spacetime static metrics which do not exhibit future event horizons, and therefore do not pose the same problems for string theory as asymptotic de Sitter space.

Abstract:
Using the known result that the nucleation of baby universes in correlated pairs is equivalent to spacetime squeezing, we show in this letter that there exists a T-duality symmetry between two-dimensional warp drives, which are physically expressible as localized de Sitter little universes, and two dimensional Tolman-Hawking and Gidding-Strominger baby universes respectively correlated in pairs, so that the creation of warp drives is also equivalent to spacetime squeezing. Perhaps more importantly, it has been also seen that the nucleation of warp drives entails a violation of the Bell's inequalities, and hence the phenomena of quantum entanglement, complementarity and wave function collapse. These results are generalized to the case of any dynamically accelerating universe filled with dark or phantom energy whose creation is also physically equivalent to spacetime squeezing and to the violation of the Bell's inequalities, so that the universe we are living in should be governed by essential sharp quantum theory laws and must be a quantum entangled system.

Abstract:
The current accelerating phase of the evolution of the universe is considered by constructing most economical cosmic models that use just general relativity and some dominating quantum effects associated with the probabilistic description of quantum physics. Two of such models are explicitly analyzed. They are based on the existence of a sub-quantum potential and correspond to a generalization of the spatially flat exponential model of de Sitter space. The thermodynamics of these two cosmic solutions is discussed, using the second principle as a guide to choose which among the two is more feasible. The paper also discusses the relativistic physics on which the models are based, their holographic description, some implications from the classical energy conditions, and an interpretation of dark energy in terms of the entangled energy of the universe.

Abstract:
It is argued that whereas the Shatskiy single rings produced by the gravitational inner field of a spherically symmetric wormhole and the concentric double Einstein rings generated by a toroidal ringhole could not be used without some uncertainty to identify the presence of such tunnelings in the universe or the existence of a parallel universe, the image which the inner gravitational field of a non orientable Klein-bottle hole tunneling would leave by lensing a single luminous source is that of a truncated double spiral, which is a signature that cannot be attributed to any other single or composite astronomical object in whichever universe it may be placed. In this report we argue some more reasons to predict that such a signature would imply the discovery of one such non orientable tunneling in our or other universe. After all, a nonorientable Klein-bottle hole is also a perfectly valid solution to the Einstein equations and the stuff which would make it feasible is becoming more and more familiar in cosmology.

Abstract:
In this work, we obtain isotropic extensions of the usual spherically symmetric vacuum geometries in general relativity. Exact and perturbative solutions are derived. The classes of geometries obtained include black holes in compact and noncompact universes, wormholes in the interior region of cosmological horizons, and anti-de Sitter geometries with excess/deficit solid angle. The tools developed here are applicable in more general contexts.

Abstract:
In this paper we study the accretion of dark energy onto a black hole in the cases that dark energy is equipped with a positive cosmological constant and when the space-time is described by a Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric. It is shown that, if confronted with current observational data, the results derived when no cosmological constant is present are once again obtained in both cases.

Abstract:
By assuming that only (i) bilocal vertex operators which are diagonal with respect to the basis for local field operators, and (ii) the convergent elements with nonzero positive energy of the density matrix representing the quantum state of multiply-connected wormholes, contribute the path integral that describes the effects of wormholes on ordinary matter fields at low energy, it is obtained that the probability measure for multiply connected wormholes with nondegenerate energy spectrum is given in terms of a Planckian probability distribution for the momenta of a quantum field $\frac{1}{2}\alpha^ {2}$, where the $\alpha$'s are the Coleman parameters, rather than a classical gaussian distribution law, and that an observable classical universe can exist if, and only if, such multiply connected wormholes are allowed to occur.

Abstract:
A semiclassical two-dimensional dilaton-gravity model is obtained by dimensional reduction of the spherically symmetric five-dimensional Einstein equations and used to investigate black hole evaporation. It is shown that this model prevents the formation of naked singularity and allows spacetime wormholes to contribute the process of formation and evaporation of black holes.