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Acute Herpetic Keratitis: What is the Role for Ganciclovir Ophthalmic Gel?
Afsun Sahin, and Pedram Hamrah
Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/OED.S7267
Abstract: Herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) is a major cause of corneal blindness in the world. Following the primary infection, the virus enters into a latent phase. Recurrent infectious or immune keratitis cause structural damage to the cornea, scarring, and may lead to blindness. Several commercially available topical and oral antiviral drugs for HSK are currently available. However, toxicity and low patient compliance hamper their use in HSK. Further, oral antiviral drugs alone are not always effective in HSK. Thus, there had been a need for safe and effective topical antiviral agents against HSK. Systemic ganciclovir has been in use for the treatment of cytomegalovirus infections. Recently, topical ganciclovir has become available for use in patients with HSK. Ganciclovir 0.15% ophthalmic gel has been shown to be both safe and effective against viruses of the herpes family. Topical ganciclovir ophthalmic gel is well tolerated and does not cause significant toxic effects on the ocular surface. Several multicenter studies have revealed the potential role of ganciclovir ophthalmic gel in the treatment and prophylaxis of epithelial HSK. In this paper, we have reviewed the pharmacology, efficacy, side effects, and the role of ganciclovir ophthalmic gel 0.15% in the treatment of acute herpetic keratitis.
Acute Herpetic Keratitis: What is the Role for Ganciclovir Ophthalmic Gel?
Afsun Sahin,Pedram Hamrah
Ophthalmology and Eye Diseases , 2012,
Bilateral Nerve Alterations in a Unilateral Experimental Neurotrophic Keratopathy Model: A Lateral Conjunctival Approach for Trigeminal Axotomy
Takefumi Yamaguchi, Aslihan Turhan, Deshea L. Harris, Kai Hu, Harald Prüss, Ulrich von Andrian, Pedram Hamrah
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070908
Abstract: To study bilateral nerve changes in a newly developed novel mouse model for neurotrophic keratopathy by approaching the trigeminal nerve from the lateral fornix. Surgical axotomy of the ciliary nerve of the trigeminal nerve was performed in adult BALB/c mice at the posterior sclera. Axotomized, contralateral, and sham-treated corneas were excised on post-operative days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 and immunofluorescence histochemistry was performed with anti-β-tubulin antibody to evaluate corneal nerve density. Blink reflex was evaluated using a nylon thread. The survival rate was 100% with minimal bleeding during axotomy and a surgical time of 8±0.5 minutes. The blink reflex was diminished at day 1 after axotomy, but remained intact in the contralateral eyes in all mice. The central and peripheral subbasal nerves were not detectable in the axotomized cornea at day 1 (p<0.001), compared to normal eyes (101.3±14.8 and 69.7±12.0 mm/mm2 centrally and peripherally). Interestingly, the subbasal nerve density in the contralateral non-surgical eyes also decreased significantly to 62.4±2.8 mm/mm2 in the center from day 1 (p<0.001), but did not change in the periphery (77.3±11.7 mm/mm2, P = 0.819). Our novel trigeminal axotomy mouse model is highly effective, less invasive, rapid, and has a high survival rate, demonstrating immediate loss of subbasal nerves in axotomized eyes and decreased subbasal nerves in contralateral eyes after unilateral axotomy. This model will allow investigating the effects of corneal nerve damage and serves as a new model for neurotrophic keratopathy.
High-risk penetrating keratoplasty Alto riesgo en la queratoplastia penetrante
P Hamrah
Archivos de la Sociedad Espa?ola de Oftalmología , 2005,
Inclusion of CD80 in HSV Targets the Recombinant Virus to PD-L1 on DCs and Allows Productive Infection and Robust Immune Responses
Kevin R. Mott, Sariah J. Allen, Mandana Zandian, Omid Akbari, Pedram Hamrah, Hadi Maazi, Steven L. Wechsler, Arlene H. Sharpe, Gordon J. Freeman, Homayon Ghiasi
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0087617
Abstract: CD80 plays a critical role in stimulation of T cells and subsequent control of infection. To investigate the effect of CD80 on HSV-1 infection, we constructed a recombinant HSV-1 virus that expresses two copies of the CD80 gene in place of the latency associated transcript (LAT). This mutant virus (HSV-CD80) expressed high levels of CD80 and had similar virus replication kinetics as control viruses in rabbit skin cells. In contrast to parental virus, this CD80 expressing recombinant virus replicated efficiently in immature dendritic cells (DCs). Additionally, the susceptibility of immature DCs to HSV-CD80 infection was mediated by CD80 binding to PD-L1 on DCs. This interaction also contributed to a significant increase in T cell activation. Taken together, these results suggest that inclusion of CD80 as a vaccine adjuvant may promote increased vaccine efficacy by enhancing the immune response directly and also indirectly by targeting to DC.
Weighted Sum Rate Maximization in OFDM Based Cooperative Cognitive Radios: A Joint Optimization Approach  [PDF]
Pedram Johari, Vahid Tabataba Vakili
Int'l J. of Communications, Network and System Sciences (IJCNS) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcns.2012.55035
Abstract: Improving utilization of the radio spectrum is the main goal of Cognitive Radio Networks (CRN). Recent studies made use of cooperative relay technology in cognitive networks, to increase transmission diversity gain. In this paper we consider an OFDM based cooperative cognitive network with a pair of Source-Destination nodes as the primary user (PU), and a pair of Source-Destination nodes—which is assisted with a relay—as the secondary (cognitive) user (SU). Both primary and secondary users share a same spectrum. In a two hop transmission, the source transmits in the first hop, and the half-duplex relay decodes the message, re-encodes and forwards it to the destination in the second hop on a different subcarrier. The cognitive network obeys an underlay paradigm where the SU is allowed to transmit simultaneously with PU, while its power is limited such that the interference caused for PU does not exceed a defined temperature. Under this constraint, a joint subcarrier pairing and power allocation is proposed for SU to maximize its weighted sum rate. The problem is transformed to a convex optimization problem and solved in the dual domain. Then an algorithm to achieve feasible solutions is used based on the optimization results. Through extensive simulations, we compare the spectrum utilization of the proposed approach with the existing ones, and show that interestingly the proposed method improves the weighted sum rate of SU.
On the Boundary Conditions in Deformed Quantum Mechanics with Minimal Length Uncertainty
Pouria Pedram
Advances in High Energy Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/853696
Abstract: We find the coordinate space wave functions, maximal localization states, and quasiposition wave functions in a GUP framework that implies a minimal length uncertainty using a formally self-adjoint representation. We show how the boundary conditions in quasiposition space can be exactly determined from the boundary conditions in coordinate space. 1. Introduction The existence of a minimal length uncertainty proportional to the Planck length ~ ?m is one of the common predictions of various candidates of quantum gravity. This idea in the context of the Generalized (Gravitational) Uncertainty Principle (GUP) has attracted much attention in recent years and many papers have appeared in the literature to address the effects of this minimal length on various quantum mechanical systems [1–14]. It is pointed out by Mead that gravity amplifies the Heisenberg’s measurement uncertainty which makes it impossible to measure distances more accurate than Planck’s length [15]. In fact, since the increase of the energies to probe small distances considerably disturbs the spacetime structure because of the gravitational effects, the spatial uncertainty eventually increases at energy scales as large as the Planck scale. This minimal length can be considered as a fundamental property of quantum spacetime, a natural UV regulator, and a solution for the trans-Planckian problem. Since the string theory with large or warped extra dimensions can lower the Planck scale into the TeV range, this fundamental length scale also moved into the reach of the Large Hadron Collider. The thought experiments that support the minimal length proposal include the Heisenberg microscope with Newtonian gravity and its relativistic counterpart [15], limit to distance measurements [16], limit to clock synchronization, and limit to the measurement of the blackhole horizon [4]. Moreover, different approaches to quantum gravity such as string theory, loop quantum gravity, and loop quantum cosmology, quantized conformal fluctuations [17, 18], asymptotically safe gravity [19], and noncommutative geometry all indicate a fundamental limit to the resolution of structure. Based on the Heisenberg’s microscope and taking into account both the normal and the gravitational uncertainties one finds [20] where is the gravitational constant. As Adler and Santiago observed this GUP is invariant under and therefore has a momentum inversion symmetry. Because of the universality of the gravity, this correction modifies all Hamiltonians for the quantum systems near the Planck scale. Recently, an experimental scheme is
Modification of Coulomb's law in closed spaces
Pouria Pedram
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1119/1.3272020
Abstract: We obtain a modified version of Coulomb's law in two- and three-dimensional closed spaces. We demonstrate that in a closed space the total electric charge must be zero. We also discuss the relation between total charge neutrality of a isotropic and homogenous universe to whether or not its spatial sector is closed.
How to prepare quantum states that follow classical paths
Pouria Pedram
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/92/30007
Abstract: We present an alternative quantization procedure for the one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics. We show that, for the case of a free particle and a particle in a box, the complete classical and quantum correspondence can be obtained using this formulation. The resulting wave packets do not disperse and strongly peak on the classical paths. Moreover, for the case of the free particle, they satisfy minimum uncertainty relation.
An approach to construct wave packets with complete classical-quantum correspondence in non-relativistic quantum mechanics
Pouria Pedram
Physics , 2008, DOI: 10.1007/s10773-009-9955-7
Abstract: We introduce a method to construct wave packets with complete classical and quantum correspondence in one-dimensional non-relativistic quantum mechanics. First, we consider two similar oscillators with equal total energy. In classical domain, we can easily solve this model and obtain the trajectories in the space of variables. This picture in the quantum level is equivalent with a hyperbolic partial differential equation which gives us a freedom for choosing the initial wave function and its initial slope. By taking advantage of this freedom, we propose a method to choose an appropriate initial condition which is independent from the form of the oscillators. We then construct the wave packets for some cases and show that these wave packets closely follow the whole classical trajectories and peak on them. Moreover, we use de-Broglie Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics to quantify this correspondence and show that the resulting Bohmian trajectories are also in a complete agreement with their classical counterparts.
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