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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 189852 matches for " Peadar G Noone "
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Primary ciliary dyskinesia: a report from ATS 2001, May 18–23, San Francisco
Peadar G Noone
Respiratory Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/rr75
Abstract: The American Thoracic Society Meeting was held this year in San Francisco, California. This meeting is the largest scientific meeting in the world targeted to diseases of the lung, with several thousand delegates in attendance in 2001. Clinicians, scientists, and clinician-scientists attended the meeting, together with a range of personnel from allied fields. Though the main emphasis of the meeting is on the common lung diseases, generally, each year relatively rare diseases get some special attention. This year, on consecutive days there were two sessions on primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), a genetic disease of ciliary structure and function. The sessions were well attended by delegates from a range of disciplines, and the speakers were selected from across the research spectrum. The aims of the presentations were to provide updates on the nature of the disease and its use as a human disease model, and also to report exciting new findings in relation to clinical aspects, cell biology and genetics.The aspects of the clinical features of PCD were reviewed by two featured speakers, Peter Cole (Host Defence Unit, Brompton Hospital London, UK) and Peadar Noone (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA). Aruna Sannuti (University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA) also presented clinical and phenotypic data from a prospective study of a large cohort of patients with PCD. The high proportion of patients with a history of neonatal respiratory distress, recurrent otitis media, and a requirement for ear drainage tubes was again emphasized. The importance of a careful diagnostic work-up and accurate phenotyping for subsequent genetic studies was stressed. Of particular note was the report of isolation of mucoid Pseudomonas aeruginosa in older patients (9 out of 54) with PCD. This is usually regarded as a strong marker of cystic fibrosis (CF), a similar but distinct airway host defence disease. Normal ion transport in nasal epithelia in a subset of patients, the p
'CFTR-opathies': disease phenotypes associated with cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator gene mutations
Peadar G Noone, Michael R Knowles
Respiratory Research , 2001, DOI: 10.1186/rr82
Abstract: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a recessive genetic disease that is caused by mutations on both CFTR alleles, resulting in abnormal sweat electrolytes, sino-pulmonary disease, male infertility, and pancreatic exocrine insufficiency in 95% of patients [1,2]. In its classic form, the disease is easily diagnosed early in life, through a combination of clinical evaluation and laboratory testing (including sweat testing, and CFTR mutation analysis) [3]. Depending on the ethnic background of the populations tested, common genetic mutations are identified in the majority of cases of CF. In the USA, two-thirds of patients carry at least one copy of the ΔF508 mutation, with approximately 50% of CF patients being homozygous for this mutation [4].A wide spectrum of molecular abnormalities may occur in the CFTR gene, and uncommon mutations that result in partial (residual) CFTR function may be associated with nonclassic presentations of disease. Overall, 7% of CF patients are not diagnosed until age 10 years, with a proportion not diagnosed until after age 15 years; some of these patients present a considerable challenge in establishing a diagnosis of CF. Moreover, the phenotype in these patients may vary widely [5,6]. The focus of the present review is on nonclassic phenotypes associated with mutations in the CFTR gene, which may manifest as male infertility (congenital bilateral absence of the vas deferens [CBAVD]), mild pulmonary disease and idiopathic chronic pancreatitis (ICP). These phenotypes are included within the definition of 'atypical CF'.CFTR is a transmembrane spanning protein with multiple activities that are related to normal epithelial cell function [2]. Mutations in CFTR result in abnormalities in epithelial ion and water transport, which are associated with derangements in airway mucociliary clearance and other cellular functions related to normal cell biology [7]. Depending on the molecular abnormality, the defect in CFTR may be the equivalent of that associated wit
A review of factors influencing litter size in Irish sows
Peadar G Lawlor, P Brendan Lynch
Irish Veterinary Journal , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/2046-0481-60-6-359
Abstract: In the past 20 years, litter size in Irish sows has increased by almost one pig. However, most of this increase had occurred by 1996. Since then, litter size has increased by only 0.40 of a pig (Table 1). When broken down into quartiles, the 2005 PIGSYS data show that there is a difference of 1.1 pigs in number born alive and in total born between the top 25% and bottom 25% performing herds (Table 2). However, even the top quartile is falling behind our European competitors (Table 3). Denmark, for example, had an average born alive figure of 12.7 in 2004 compared to the 11.6 figure for the top 25% of Irish herds in 2005.This paper will attempt to address some of the factors that are limiting litter size in Ireland. Genetics is obviously an important factor in this regard (but will be discussed only briefly here). However, genetic improvements are worthless unless we possess the management and nutritional information to exploit these advances. Therefore, this paper will concentrate on some of the management and nutrition factors that can make the most improvements in litter size.As a result of heterosis, litter size of crossbred sows is on average 0.25 to 0.5 pigs greater than that of purebred sows [1]. Literature estimates of heritability of litter size range between 0 and 0.76 with an average of 0.10 [33]. A policy of selecting gilts from prolific sows, and serving them with boars from a prolific dam line, will gradually increase litter size over time because litter size and its component traits (ovulation rate, embryonic survival and uterine capacity) respond to selection [18]. However, it has been suggested that genetic improvement programmes should emphasise live born pigs and weight of live born pigs because of undesirable genetic relationships between ovulation rate and number of foetuses with numbers of stillborn and mummified pigs and because birth weight has decreased as litter size has increased [18].One of the most important determinants of litter size is
Political Participation of Civil Society in Latin America
Peadar Kirby
European Review of Latin American and Caribbean Studies , 2013,
Abstract: Review Essay of: – Social Movements and Leftist Governments in Latin America: Confrontation or co-optation?, edited by Gary Prevost, Carlos Oliva Campos and Harry E. Vanden, Zed Books, 2012. – Culturas políticas en la región andina, edited by Christian Buschges, Olaf Kaltmeier and Sebastian Thies, Iberoamericana, 2011. – La plasmación política de la diversidad: Autonomía y participación política indígena en América Latina, edited by Felipe Gómez Isa and Susana Ardanaz Iriarte, Universidad de Deusto, 2011. – Venezuela's Bolivarian Democracy: Participation, Politics, and Culture under Chávez, edited by David Smilde and Daniel Hellinger, Duke University Press, 2011.
Developing a Music Therapy Programme within a Person Centred Planning Framework
Jason Noone
Voices: A World Forum for Music Therapy , 2008,
Abstract: This report describes the development of a music therapy programme for people with developmental disabilities in a day facility in Ireland. The facility is run by Enable Ireland, a national voluntary organisation, and provides therapies, supports and training for service users. Service provision is organised according to the principles of person centred planning (PCP), a model which places the desires, interests and capacities of each service user at the centre of the decision-making process. As the music therapy programme has developed, the parallels between the music therapy concepts which informed it and the PCP model have became more apparent. The main purpose of this report is to detail the core features and aimed-for outcomes of the person-centred planning process and highlight corresponding concepts from humanistic music therapy, community music therapy and music therapy for empowerment. Implications of coordinating the music therapy programme with the PCP process as implemented at Enable Ireland are also suggested. The core features of PCP are considered highly useful in conceptualising a resource-based, humanistic music therapy programme for people with disabilities. In addition, music-making in its various forms is considered a valuable activity which has the potential to satisfy the outcomes of the PCP model.
Prebiotics from Marine Macroalgae for Human and Animal Health Applications
Laurie O’Sullivan,Brian Murphy,Peter McLoughlin,Patrick Duggan,Peadar G. Lawlor,Helen Hughes,Gillian E. Gardiner
Marine Drugs , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/md8072038
Abstract: The marine environment is an untapped source of bioactive compounds. Specifically, marine macroalgae (seaweeds) are rich in polysaccharides that could potentially be exploited as prebiotic functional ingredients for both human and animal health applications. Prebiotics are non-digestible, selectively fermented compounds that stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial gut microbiota which, in turn, confer health benefits on the host. This review will introduce the concept and potential applications of prebiotics, followed by an outline of the chemistry of seaweed polysaccharides. Their potential for use as prebiotics for both humans and animals will be highlighted by reviewing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies conducted to date.
Measurements of the acid-binding capacity of ingredients used in pig diets
Peadar G Lawlor, P Brendan Lynch, Patrick J Caffrey, James J O'Reilly, M Karen O'Connell
Irish Veterinary Journal , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/2046-0481-58-8-447
Abstract: In the pig, protein digestion begins in the stomach with the action of pepsins, secreted as the enzyme precursors - pepsinogens - by stomach mucosa. Conversion of pepsinogen to pepsin occurs rapidly at pH 2.0 but only slowly at pH 5.0 to 6.0. In turn, pepsins work best in an acidic environment, pH 2.0 to 3.5, and activity declines rapidly above this pH. Carbohydrate hydrolysis in the stomach occurs by the action of salivary amylase, which, in contrast to pepsin, is inactivated once pH falls to 3.5 [14,18,22].In the suckling pig, acid secretion is low and the principal source of acidity is bacterial fermentation of lactose from sows milk to lactic acid [9,10,14]. A high level of lactate in the stomach tends to inhibit HCl secretion [10,22]. Ingestion of solid feed reduces the level of lactic acid in the stomach [22] and stimulates HCl production [10,7] but, in practice, creep feed consumption is low and variable at least up to four weeks of age [15].At weaning, a combination of low acid secretion, lack of lactose substrate, and consumption of large meals at infrequent intervals can result in elevated pH, often to over 5.0 and it may remain high for several days [14]. The high acid-binding/buffering capacity of the feed (its ability to neutralise feed acid) helps to further raise the stomach pH [20,13,6]. Inclusion of whey or lactose in the starter diet ensures continuation of bacterial fermentation and some, though reduced, lactic acid production [14,11]. Development of HCl secretory capacity occurs more rapidly in the weaned pig than in the suckling pig [8].Lowering the acid-binding capacity of diets for newly-weaned pigs can help ease the transition from milk to solid food at weaning.Raised stomach pH after weaning results in reduced digestion of feed which will then be fermented in the hind gut and may provoke diarrhoea. A high gastric pH will also allow pathogens to survive and allow them greater opportunity to colonise the digestive tract [6,22].The concept of m
Thunderstorms and upper troposphere chemistry during the early stages of the 2006 North American Monsoon
M. C. Barth, J. Lee, A. Hodzic, G. Pfister, W. C. Skamarock, J. Worden, J. Wong,D. Noone
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP) & Discussions (ACPD) , 2012,
Abstract: To study the meteorology and chemistry that is associated with the early stages of the North American Monsoon, the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is applied for the first time at high resolution (4 km grid spacing, allowing for explicit representation of convection) over a large region (continental US and northern Mexico) for a multi-week (15 July to 7 August 2006) integration. Evaluation of model results shows that WRF-Chem reasonably represents the large-scale meteorology and strong convective storms, but tends to overestimate weak convection. In the upper troposphere, the WRF-Chem model predicts ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) to within 10–20% of aircraft and sonde measurements. Comparison of UT O3 and CO frequency distributions between WRF-Chem and satellite data indicates that WRF-Chem is lofting CO too frequently from the boundary layer (BL). This excessive lofting should also cause biases in the WRF-Chem ozone frequency distribution; however it agrees well with satellite data suggesting that either the chemical production of O3 in the model is overpredicted or there is too much stratosphere to troposphere transport in the model. Analysis of different geographic regions (West Coast, Rocky Mountains, Central Plains, Midwest, and Gulf Coast) reveals that much of the convective transport occurs in the Rocky Mountains, while much of the UT ozone chemical production occurs over the Gulf Coast and Midwest regions where both CO and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are abundant in the upper troposphere and promote the production of peroxy radicals. In all regions most of the ozone chemical production occurs within 24 h of the air being lofted from the boundary layer. In addition, analysis of the anticyclone and adjacent air indicates that ozone mixing ratios within the anticyclone region associated with the North American Monsoon and just outside the anticyclone are similar. Increases of O3 within the anticyclone are strongly coincident with entrainment of stratospheric air into the anticyclone, but also are from in situ O3 chemical production. In situ O3 production is up to 17% greater within the anticyclone than just outside the anticyclone when the anticyclone is over the southern US indicating that the enhancement of O3 is most pronounced over regions with abundant VOCs.
The Effect of Feeding Bt MON810 Maize to Pigs for 110 Days on Intestinal Microbiota
Stefan G. Buzoianu, Maria C. Walsh, Mary C. Rea, Orla O’Sullivan, Fiona Crispie, Paul D. Cotter, R. Paul Ross, Gillian E. Gardiner, Peadar G. Lawlor
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033668
Abstract: Objective To assess the effects of feeding Bt MON810 maize to pigs for 110 days on the intestinal microbiota. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty male pigs (~40 days old) were blocked by weight and litter ancestry and assigned to one of four treatments; 1) Isogenic maize-based diet for 110 days (Isogenic); 2) Bt maize-based diet (MON810) for 110 days (Bt); 3) Isogenic maize-based diet for 30 days followed by a Bt maize-based diet for 80 days (Isogenic/Bt); 4) Bt maize-based diet for 30 days followed by an isogenic maize-based diet for 80 days (Bt/Isogenic). Enterobacteriaceae, Lactobacillus and total anaerobes were enumerated in the feces using culture-based methods on days 0, 30, 60 and 100 of the study and in ileal and cecal digesta on day 110. No differences were found between treatments for any of these counts at any time point. The relative abundance of cecal bacteria was also determined using high-throughput 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. No differences were observed in any bacterial taxa between treatments, with the exception of the genus Holdemania which was more abundant in the cecum of pigs fed the isogenic/Bt treatment compared to pigs fed the Bt treatment (0.012 vs 0.003%; P≤0.05). Conclusions/Significance Feeding pigs a Bt maize-based diet for 110 days did not affect counts of any of the culturable bacteria enumerated in the feces, ileum or cecum. Neither did it influence the composition of the cecal microbiota, with the exception of a minor increase in the genus Holdemania. As the role of Holdemania in the intestine is still under investigation and no health abnormalities were observed, this change is not likely to be of clinical significance. These results indicate that feeding Bt maize to pigs in the context of its influence on the porcine intestinal microbiota is safe.
Effects of Feeding Bt MON810 Maize to Pigs for 110 Days on Peripheral Immune Response and Digestive Fate of the cry1Ab Gene and Truncated Bt Toxin
Maria C. Walsh, Stefan G. Buzoianu, Mary C. Rea, Orla O’Donovan, Eva Gelencsér, Gabriella Ujhelyi, R. Paul Ross, Gillian E. Gardiner, Peadar G. Lawlor
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036141
Abstract: Background The objective of this study was to evaluate potential long-term (110 days) and age-specific effects of feeding genetically modified Bt maize on peripheral immune response in pigs and to determine the digestive fate of the cry1Ab gene and truncated Bt toxin. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty day old pigs (n = 40) were fed one of the following treatments: 1) isogenic maize-based diet for 110 days (isogenic); 2) Bt maize-based diet (MON810) for 110 days (Bt); 3) Isogenic maize-based diet for 30 days followed by Bt maize-based diet for 80 days (isogenic/Bt); and 4) Bt maize-based diet (MON810) for 30 days followed by isogenic maize-based diet for 80 days (Bt/isogenic). Blood samples were collected during the study for haematological analysis, measurement of cytokine and Cry1Ab-specific antibody production, immune cell phenotyping and cry1Ab gene and truncated Bt toxin detection. Pigs were sacrificed on day 110 and digesta and organ samples were taken for detection of the cry1Ab gene and the truncated Bt toxin. On day 100, lymphocyte counts were higher (P<0.05) in pigs fed Bt/isogenic than pigs fed Bt or isogenic. Erythrocyte counts on day 100 were lower in pigs fed Bt or isogenic/Bt than pigs fed Bt/isogenic (P<0.05). Neither the truncated Bt toxin nor the cry1Ab gene were detected in the organs or blood of pigs fed Bt maize. The cry1Ab gene was detected in stomach digesta and at low frequency in the ileum but not in the distal gastrointestinal tract (GIT), while the Bt toxin fragments were detected at all sites in the GIT. Conclusions/Significance Perturbations in peripheral immune response were thought not to be age-specific and were not indicative of Th 2 type allergenic or Th 1 type inflammatory responses. There was no evidence of cry1Ab gene or Bt toxin translocation to organs or blood following long-term feeding.
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