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Mobile Based Electricity Bill Deposit System through UML  [PDF]
Pawan Kumar Chaurasia, Vipin Saxena
Journal of Software Engineering and Applications (JSEA) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jsea.2011.43021
Abstract: The present paper deals with a model design through Unified Modeling Language (UML) for a mobile based elec-tricity bill deposit system. Due to complex life style of people this model is proposed in the form of UML Class, Sequence and Use Case diagrams. For implementation of proposed model, a real case study of Uttar Pradesh Electricity Bill deposit System is considered. By the use of this model, one can display the status of deposited electricity bill on a hand held mobile device system.
Purification and Characterization of Thermostable Cellulase Free Xylanase from Pseudomonas Sp. XPB-6  [PDF]
Pawan Kumar Sharma, Duni Chand
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.21003
Abstract: Extracellular cellulase free xylanase from Pseudomonas sp. XPB-6 was purified to homogeneity with 2.15 fold of purity and 60.31% yield, respectively by ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE ion exchange chromatography. The protein was found to be a homotrimer consisting of three subunits of 41 kDa each and the native molecular weight of 123 kDa. The pH and temperature optimum for enzyme were 7.5 in 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer at 60°C and was stable to a high and broader range of pH and to a temperature up to 75°C. Kinetic experiments at 60°C gave Vmax and Km values of 144.92 U/mg and 0.60 mg·ml-1 respectively for birch wood xylan. The enzyme had no apparent requirement for cofactors, and its activity was strongly inhibited 1 mM Hg2+ and Cu2+ while it was slightly inactivated by 1 mM Mg2+ and Pb2+. Shelf life of xylanase of Pseudomonas sp. XPB-6 was studied both at room temperature and 4°C. The enzyme was stable both at room temperature and at 4°C for 90 and 28 days respectively. The half-life of the enzyme was approximately 40 days at room temperature.
Natural Remedies against Multi-Drug Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis  [PDF]
Ramesh Pandit, Pawan Kumar Singh, Vipin Kumar
Journal of Tuberculosis Research (JTR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jtr.2015.34024
Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis is an infectious deadly disease and the treatment of which is one of the most severe challenges at the global level. Currently more than 20 chemical medications are described for the treatment of TB. Regardless of availability of several drugs to treat TB, the causative agent, M. tuberculosis is nowadays getting resistant toward the conventional drugs and leading to conditions known as Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). This situation has terrified the global health community and raised a demand for new anti-tuberculosis drugs. Medicinal plants have been used to cure different common as well as lethal diseases by ancient civilizations due to its virtue of variety of chemical compounds which may have some important remedial properties. The aim of the present review is to focus the anti-tubercular medicinal plants native to India as well as the plants effective against MDR or XDR-TB across the globe. In the present review, we have addressed 25 medicinal plants for TB and 16 plants effective against MDR-TB testified from India and 23 herbal plants described for MDR-TB across the world during 2011-2015. These herbal plants can serve as promising candidates for developing novel medications to combat multidrug resistant M. tuberculosis.
Significance of the Ratio of Exhaust Temperature to Coolant Temperature and Its Effect on Various Engine Working Parameters
Pawan Kumar
Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science , 2009,
Abstract:
PRODUCT OF MULTIPLICATION, AND DIFFERENTIATION OPERATORS BETWEEN WEIGHTED BERGMAN-NEVANLINNA AND ZYGMUND TYPE SPACES
Pawan Kumar
Journal of Global Research in Mathematical Archives , 2013,
Abstract: Let be a holomorphic self- map of D in the complex plane C. Let M ;D be the multiplication, and dierentiation operators respectively. In this paper, we taken linear operators induce by product of these operators from weighted Bergman- Nevanlinna spaces to Zygmund spaces. The boundedness and compactness of these operators from weighted Bergman- Nevanlinna spaces to Zygmund spaces are studied in this paper.
Excitation of Solar Acoustic Oscillations
Pawan Kumar
Physics , 1996,
Abstract: The stochastic excitation of solar oscillations due to turbulent convection is reviewed. A number of different observational results that provide test for solar p-mode excitation theories are described. I discuss how well the stochastic excitation theory does in explaining these observations. The location and properties of sources that excite solar p-modes are also described. Finally, I discuss why solar g-modes should be linearly stable, and estimate the surface velocity amplitudes of low degree g-modes assuming that they are stochastically excited by the turbulent convection in the sun.
The Distribution of Burst Energy and Shock Parameters for Gamma-ray Bursts
Pawan Kumar
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/312821
Abstract: We calculate the statistical distribution of observed afterglow flux, in some fixed observed frequency band, and at some fixed observer time after the explosion ($t_{obs}$) in two models - one where the explosion takes place in a uniform density medium and the other where the surrounding medium has a power-law stratification such as is expected for a stellar wind. For photon energies greater than about 500 electron-volt and $t_{obs}\gta 10^3$ sec the afterglow flux distribution functions for the uniform ISM and the wind models are nearly identical. We compare the width of the theoretical distribution with the observed x-ray afterglow flux and find that the FWHM of the distribution for energy in explosion and the fractional energy in electrons ($\epsilon_e$) are each less than about one order of magnitude and the FWHM for the electron energy index is 0.6 or less.
Gas accretion in a clumpy disk with application to AGNs
Pawan Kumar
Physics , 1997,
Abstract: We analyze the collective gravitational interaction among gas clouds in the inner regions of galactic disks and find that it leads to accretion at a rate $\sim M_{mc}\Omega (M_{mc}/M_t)^2$; where $M_{mc}$ is the molecular mass of the disk, $M_t$ is sum of the central plus any axisymmetrically distributed mass, and $\Omega$ is the mean angular speed of clumps. We discuss applications of this result to the mega-maser galaxy NGC 4258, for which we have observational evidence that the maser spots are concentrated in a thin molecular disk which is clumpy, and find the accretion rate to be about $1.5\times 10^{-3}$ solar mass per year. If the gravitational energy release of this inward falling gas were to be radiated away efficiently, then the resulting luminosity would greatly exceed the observed central luminosity of NGC 4258, indicating that most of the thermal energy of the gas is advected with the flow into the blackhole as proposed by Lasota et al. (1996). The gravitational interactions among molecular clouds lying within the inner kpc of our galaxy give an accretion rate of about $10^{-5}$ solar mass per year, which is consistent with the value obtained by Narayan et al. (1995) by fitting the spectrum of Sagitarrius A$^*$. We also discuss possible application of this work to quasar evolution.
Gamma-ray Burst Energetics
Pawan Kumar
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/312265
Abstract: We estimate the fraction of the total energy in a Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) that is radiated in photons during the main burst. Random internal collisions among different shells limit the efficiency for converting bulk kinetic energy to photons. About 1% of the energy of explosion is converted to radiation, in 10-1000 kev energy band in the observer frame, for long duration bursts (lasting 10s or more); the efficiency is significantly smaller for shorter duration bursts. Moreover, about 50% of the energy of the initial explosion could be lost to neutrinos during the early phase of the burst if the initial fireball temperature is about 10 Mev or greater. If isotropic, the total energy budget of the brightest GRBs is about $10^{55}$erg, a factor of more than 20 larger than previously estimated. Anisotropy of explosion, as evidenced in two GRBs, could reduce the energy requirement by a factor of 10-100. Putting these two effects together we find that the energy release in the most energetic bursts is about 10$^{54}$ erg.
The structure of the central disk of NGC 1068: a clumpy disk model
Pawan Kumar
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1086/307375
Abstract: NGC 1068 is one of the best studied Seyfert II galaxies, for which the blackhole mass has been determined from the Doppler velocities of water maser. We show that the standard $\alpha$-disk model of NGC 1068 gives disk mass between the radii of 0.65 pc and 1.1 pc (the region from which water maser emission is detected) to be about 7x10$^7$ M$_\odot$ (for $\alpha=0.1$), more than four times the blackhole mass, and a Toomre Q-parameter for the disk is $\sim$0.001. This disk is therefore highly self-gravitating and is subject to large-amplitude density fluctuations. We conclude that the standard $\alpha$-viscosity description for the structure of the accretion disk is invalid for NGC 1068. In this paper we develop a new model for the accretion disk. The disk is considered to be composed of gravitationally bound clumps; accretion in this clumped disk model arises because of gravitational interaction of clumps with each other and the dynamical frictional drag exerted on clumps from the stars in the central region of the galaxy. The clumped disk model provides a self-consistent description of the observations of NGC 1068. The computed temperature and density are within the allowed parameter range for water maser emission, and the rotational velocity in the disk falls off as $r^{-0.35}$.
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