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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 402663 matches for " Pavlovi? Dragan M. "
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Dementia and diabetes mellitus
PavloviDragan M.,Pavlovi? Aleksandra M.
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2008, DOI: 10.2298/sarh0804170p
Abstract: Dementia and Diabetes mellitus (DM) are major health problems nowadays. DM leads to a significant cognitive decline and increases the risk of dementia, mostly Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) by 50-100% and 100-150%, respectively. Amyloid beta (Abeta), the main pathogenic factor in AD development, is eliminated by advanced glycation end products (AGEs) and degraded by insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) for which it competes with insulin. Insulin stimulates secretion of Abeta and promotes brain inflammation. DM I and II cause slowing down of mental speed, lowering of mental flexibility and DM II learning and memory disturbances. DM acts both directly by hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia and by the blood vessel changes. Hyperglycaemia changes synapse plasticity and leads to cognitive decline. AGEs disrupt the neuron function and bonding to Abeta increases its aggregability. Glycation of tau protein promotes production of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), the main intracellular pathogenic factor in AD. AGE2 in DM causes pathological angiogenesis and apoptosis of neurons. AGE receptor (RAGE) is also the specific Abeta receptor with which it produces reactive oxygen species that has, as a result, disruption of mitochondrial function and reduction of neuronal energy resources. Insulinoresistance is linked with the dysexecutive syndrome, and hyperinsulinaemia increases the risk of AD especially by enhancing phosphorylation of tau protein and formation of NFT. Application of insulin showed improvement of memory, behaviour and affect in AD patients. Good glycoregulation emerged as an important factor in dementia prevention, and a better insight in relations of DM and brain function will lead to new potential dementia therapies. .
Antiphospholipid syndrome
PavloviDragan M.,Pavlovi? Aleksandra M.
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/sarh1010651p
Abstract: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease with recurrent thromboses and pregnancy complications (90% are female patients) that can be primary and secondary (with concomitant autoimmune disease). Antiphospholipid antibodies are prothrombotic but also act directly with brain tissue. One clinical and one laboratory criterion is necessary for the diagnosis of APS. Positive serological tests have to be confirmed after at least 12 weeks. Clinical picture consists of thromboses in many organs and spontaneous miscarriages, sometimes thrombocytopaenia and haemolytic anaemia, but neurological cases are the most frequent: headaches, stroke, encephalopathy, seizures, visual disturbances, Sneddon syndrome, dementia, vertigo, chorea, balism, transitory global amnesia, psychosis, transversal myelopathy and Guillain-Barre syndrome. About 50% of strokes below 50 years of age are caused by APS. The first line of therapy in stroke is anticoagulation: intravenous heparin or low-weight heparins. In chronic treatment, oral anticoagulation and antiplatelet therapy are used, warfarin and aspirin, mostly for life. In resistant cases, corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis are necessary. Prognosis is good in most patients but some are treatment-resistant with recurrent thrombotic events and eventually death.
Mild cognitive impairment
PavloviDragan M.,Pavlovi? Aleksandra M.
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2009, DOI: 10.2298/sarh0908434p
Abstract: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a syndrome that spans the area between normal ageing and dementia. It is classified into amnestic and non-amnestic types, both with two subtypes: single domain and multiple domains. Prevalence of MCI depends on criteria and population and can vary from 0.1 to 42% persons of older age. In contrast to dementia, cognitive deterioration is less severe and activities of daily living are preserved. Most impaired higher cognitive functions in MCI are memory, executive functions, language, visuospatial functions, attention etc. Also there are depression, apathy or psychomotor agitation, and signs of psychosis. Aetiology of MCI is multiple, mostly neurodegenerative, vascular, psychiatric, internistic, neurological, traumatic and iatrogenic. Persons with amnestic MCI are at a higher risk of converting to Alzheimer's disease, while those with a single non-memory domain are at risk of developing frontotemporal dementia. Some MCI patients also progress to other dementia types, vascular among others. In contrast, some patients have a stationary course, some improve, while others even normalize. Every suspicion of MCI warrants a detailed clinical exploration to discover underlying aetiology, laboratory analyses, neuroimaging methods and some cases require a detailed neuropsychological assessment. At the present time there is no efficacious therapy for cognitive decline in MCI or the one that could postpone conversion to dementia. The treatment of curable causes, application of preventive measures and risk factor control are reasonable measures in the absence of specific therapy.
Constructional apraxia in patients with closed head injury
PavloviDragan M.,Pavlovi? Aleksandra M.
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2005, DOI: 10.2298/vsp0505339p
Abstract: Introduction. Constructional apraxia is a disorder characterized by an inability to join the elements into a unity. It has not been studied much in patients with closed head injury (CHI). Methods. Forty-one patients with CHI were examined, of which 11 (26.83%) were with the right-sided, 12 (29.27%) with the left-sided, and 18 (43.90%) with bilateral lesion using the Wechsler Individual Intelligence Test (VITI) - Serbian version, Rey Complex Figure (RCF) test, Trail Making Test - TMT A and B, and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Results. Intelligence quotient (IQ) was significantly higher in the patients with the right-sided (95.27) and bilateral cerebral lesions (87.56) than in the left-sided (84.42). RCF scores did not show any significant difference regarding the side of the lesion, but was numerically the lowest scores were in patients with bilateral brain damage. Patients with left-sided lesions had the score of 30.63, right-sided of 28.68, and bilateral of 27.39. TMT B showed a significantly lower result in patients with the left-sided (196.50 seconds) and bilateral lesions (192.07 seconds) compared to the right-sided (140.14 seconds). WCST scores were not significantly different regarding the side of the lesion, but the absolute value of the categories was less than expected. Conclusion. Constructional apraxia was more frequently present in the patients with CHI than it was previously considered. The use of sensitive tests can show the presence of the disorder mainly in bilateral, but also in unilateral lesions.
Pharmacotherapy of dementia
PavloviDragan M.,Pavlovi? Aleksandra M.,Toti? Sanja
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2010, DOI: 10.2298/vsp1005419p
Abstract: nema
Pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease
PavloviDragan M.,Pavlovi? Aleksandra M.,?ugi? Stana
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2007, DOI: 10.2298/vsp0711765p
Abstract:
Social cognition in schizophrenia
Toti?-Poznanovi? Sanja,PavloviDragan M.,?or?evi? Jelena R.,Pavlovi? Aleksandra M.
Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/sarh1112828t
Abstract: Patients with schizophrenia display alterations in social cognition, as well as in the realm of neurocognition. It is still unclear to what extent these two cognitive domains represent two separate dimensions or different expressions of a unified deficit. Tasks used to assess social cognition subcomponents cover basic social cognition, such as mentalisation, data collection and making conclusions, source monitoring and characteristics of life-styles. The variety of findings of various studies is probably related to the fact that most studies considered social cognition as one-dimensional construct represented, for example, by unique measurements of emotional recognition. Research results dealing with social cognition suggest that the impairment of social cognition is the characteristic feature of schizophrenia and have important implications for the development, course and outcome of this disorder.
Neuropsychological assessment and treatment possibilities of cognitive deficit in schizophrenic patients
Toti?-Poznanovi? Sanja,PavloviDragan M.,?or?evi? Jelena R.,Pavlovi? Aleksandra M.
Vojnosanitetski Pregled , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/vsp1206510t
Abstract: nema
Ultrasound diagnosis of gallbladder polyps
Tomi? Dragan V.,Pavlovi?-Markovi? Aleksandra R.,Alempijevi? Tamara M.,Davidovi? Dragana B.
Acta Chirurgica Iugoslavica , 2011, DOI: 10.2298/aci1104031t
Abstract: The most frequent benign gallbladder polyps are cholesterol polyps. Next in frequency were adenomas, which may have malignant potential. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of ultrasonography in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of cholesterol polyps compared to adenomas. Patients were examined during the period from October 2006. to December 2008. In Department of Ultrasound, Clinic for Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Belgrade. The group of 54 patients analyzed consisted of 30 women (56%) and 24 men (44%). Most (59%) had solitary polyps. In 92.6% of patients the size of polyps was below 10 mm. 74% of respondents were over 50 years. Ultrasonography is the method of choice and gold standard in diagnosis of gallbladder polyps. Based on echoic properties cholesterol polyps can not be distinguished from adenomas. Malignant alteration of polyps also could not be detected. Appropriate ultrasonographic characteristics such as size of polyps, appearance of a broad base that sits on the wall, concomitant lithiasis findings and patient age may be indicative for malignancy.
Temperature based validation of the analytical model for the estimation of the amount of heat generated during friction stir welding
Mil?i? Dragan S.,Mijajlovi? Miroslav M.,Pavlovi? Nenad T.,Vuki? Mi?a V.
Thermal Science , 2012, DOI: 10.2298/tsci120209173m
Abstract: Friction stir welding is a solid-state welding technique that utilizes thermomechanical influence of the rotating welding tool on parent material resulting in a monolith joint - weld. On the contact of welding tool and parent material, significant stirring and deformation of parent material appears, and during this process, mechanical energy is partially transformed into heat. Generated heat affects the temperature of the welding tool and parent material, thus the proposed analytical model for the estimation of the amount of generated heat can be verified by temperature: analytically determined heat is used for numerical estimation of the temperature of parent material and this temperature is compared to the experimentally determined temperature. Numerical solution is estimated using the finite difference method - explicit scheme with adaptive grid, considering influence of temperature on material's conductivity, contact conditions between welding tool and parent material, material flow around welding tool, etc. The analytical model shows that 60-100% of mechanical power given to the welding tool is transformed into heat, while the comparison of results shows the maximal relative difference between the analytical and experimental temperature of about 10%.
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