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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 31047 matches for " Paulo Cesar Soares "
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Warming Power of CO2 and H2O: Correlations with Temperature Changes  [PDF]
Paulo Cesar Soares
International Journal of Geosciences (IJG) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ijg.2010.13014
Abstract: The dramatic and threatening environmental changes announced for the next decades are the result of models whose main drive factor of climatic changes is the increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Although taken as a premise, the hypothesis does not have verifiable consistence. The comparison of temperature changes and CO2 changes in the atmosphere is made for a large diversity of conditions, with the same data used to model climate changes. Correlation of historical series of data is the main approach. CO2 changes are closely related to temperature. Warmer seasons or triennial phases are followed by an atmosphere that is rich in CO2, reflecting the gas solving or exsolving from water, and not photosynthesis activity. Interannual correlations between the variables are good. A weak dominance of temperature changes precedence, relative to CO2 changes, indicate that the main effect is the CO2 increase in the atmosphere due to temperature rising. Decreasing temperature is not followed by CO2 decrease, which indicates a different route for the CO2 capture by the oceans, not by gas re-absorption. Monthly changes have no correspondence as would be expected if the warming was an important absorption-radiation effect of the CO2 increase. The anthropogenic wasting of fossil fuel CO2 to the atmosphere shows no relation with the temperature changes even in an annual basis. The absence of immediate relation between CO2 and temperature is evidence that rising its mix ratio in the atmosphere will not imply more absorption and time residence of energy over the Earth surface. This is explained because band absorption is nearly all done with historic CO2 values. Unlike CO2, water vapor in the atmosphere is rising in tune with temperature changes, even in a monthly scale. The rising energy absorption of vapor is reducing the outcoming long wave radiation window and amplifying warming regionally and in a different way around the globe.
Distribution of polychaetes in the shallow, sublittoral zone of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica in the early and late austral summer  [PDF]
Letícia de Souza Barbosa, Abílio Soares-Gomes, Paulo Cesar Paiva
Natural Science (NS) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2010.210143
Abstract: This study assessed the spatial distribution pa- ttern of soft-sediment polychaetes on the near-shore of Admiralty Bay, King George Island, Antarctica. In the early and late summer of 2003 /04, seven sites at three different depths (20,30 and 60 meters) were sampled using a van Veen grab. 8,668 individuals all told, belonging to 67 species and 23 families, were identified. The families Terebellidae, Syllidae and Maldanidae were the most speciose. Mean densities ranged from 45.2 to 388.1 ind. 0.1 m-2 in the early summer, and from 29 to 183 ind.0.1m-2 in the late. The species Aphelochaeta cincinnata, Levinsenia gracilis and Rhodine antarctica were the most frequent and abundant. Initially, mean biomass ranged from 0.11 to 5.27 g.0.1 m-2, in the early season and from 0.35 to 5.86 g.0.1 m-2 towards the end. Aglaophamus trissophyllus, Eupolymnia sp. and Barrukia cristata were the species with the highest biomass. Polychaete taxocoenosis structure remained similar in both periods. In the early summer, mean densities, biomass and number of species were lower at 30 meters and higher at 60, whereas in the late, these differences were higher among transects. Ice impacts, mainly anchor-ice, in the early summer, as well as icebergs later on, most likely caused the differences encountered.
Exigência de treonina para leitoas dos 15 aos 30 kg
Pozza Paulo Cesar,Gomes Paulo Cezar,Donzele Juarez Lopes,Ferreira Aloísio Soares
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia , 2000,
Abstract: Foram utilizadas 40 leitoas, com peso médio inicial de 15,47 kg, distribuídas em um delineamento de blocos casualizados, com cinco tratamentos (0,49; 0,54; 0,59; 0,64; e 0,69% de treonina), quatro repeti es e dois animais por unidade experimental, com o objetivo de estimar a exigência de treonina digestível para leitoas de 15 a 30 kg. As ra es experimentais foram formuladas à base de milho, sorgo, farelo de soja e glúten de milho, suplementadas com minerais, vitaminas e aminoácidos, tendo sido fornecidas à vontade aos animais. No final do experimento, quando os animais atingiram o peso médio de 33,36 kg, foram coletadas amostras de sangue para análise de uréia no soro sangüíneo. A determina o da exigência de treonina total foi realizada com base nos parametros de desempenho e teor de uréia no soro sangüíneo e estimada por meio dos modelos quadrático e, ou, descontínuo LRP. Na determina o da exigência de treonina digestível verdadeira, foi utilizado um coeficiente de digestibilidade ileal verdadeira da treonina da ra o basal de 84,6%, em que a treonina sintética foi considerada 100% digestível. Observou-se efeito quadrático dos níveis de treonina sobre o consumo de ra o, a convers o alimentar e o teor de uréia no soro sangüíneo. Entretanto, para o teor de uréia no soro sangüíneo, o modelo descontínuo LRP permitiu melhor ajustamento dos níveis de treonina em rela o aos resultados obtidos. A exigência de treonina total foi estimada em 0,60% e a de treonina digestível verdadeira, em 0,53%.
Use of markers to determine the ileal digestibility of amino acids for swine Uso de indicadores para determinar a digestibilidade ileal de aminoácidos para suínos
Paulo Cesar Pozza,Paulo Cezar Gomes,Magali Soares Santos Pozza,Ricardo Vianna Nunes
Ciência e Agrotecnologia , 2013,
Abstract: Many markers can be used in digestibility assays for swine, but needs to be evaluated before its use. An assay was carried out with the objective of measuring the coefficients of ileal apparent (CIAD) and standardized digestibility (CISD) of amino acids in meat and bone meal for swine using different markers. Eight crossbred barrows were equipped with T-cannulas in the distal ileum. Four animals received a free protein diet and another four received a diet containing meat and bone meal as the only protein source in the diet. The treatments consisted in evaluating the chromic oxide, acid-insoluble ash naturally occurring in the diet, cellulose and lignin as markers to determine the apparent and standardized digestibility of the amino acids contained in the meat and bone meal. All data were submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared using the Tukey test, with a significance of 5%. The CIAD, obtained using chromic oxide as external marker, were lower (P<0.05) than those obtained when acid insoluble ash, lignin and cellulose were used as markers, observing differences for all the amino acids evaluated. Similarly, the CISD from all the studied amino acids were lower (P<0.05) when the chromic oxide was used for determining the indigestibility factor. It is concluded that chromic oxide used as a external marker, to determine the coefficients of apparent and standardized ileal digestibility of the amino acids of the meat and bone meal, is most appropriate than the acid insoluble ash naturally occurring in diets, lignin and cellulose. Muitos indicadores podem ser utilizados em ensaios de digestibilidade para suínos, mas precisam ser avaliados antes de serem utilizados. O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar os coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparentes (CDIA) e estandardizados (CDIE) dos aminoácidos da farinha de carne e ossos, para suínos, utilizando diferentes indicadores. Oito suínos, machos castrados, foram submetidos à cirurgia para aimplanta o de canulas T simples, no íleo distal. Quatro animais receberam uma dieta isenta de proteína e outros quatro uma dieta contendo farinha de carne e ossos como única fonte protéica na dieta. Os tratamentos consistiram em avaliar o óxido crómico, cinza insolúvel em ácido naturalmente contido na dieta, celulose e lignina como indicadores para determinar os CDIA e CDIE dos aminoácidos da farinha de carne e ossos. Os dados foram submetidos a análise de variancia e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste de Tukey, ao nível de 5% de significancia. Os CDIA, obtidos usando o óxido cr mico co
Emprego da RT-PCR em tempo real para a quantifica??o da express?o de genes associados à resposta imune em bezerros bovinos experimentalmente infectados por Neospora caninum
Nishi, Sandra Mayumi;Viero, Luciana Mori;Soares, Rodrigo Martins;Maiorka, Paulo Cesar;Gennari, Solange Maria;
Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária , 2009, DOI: 10.4322/rbpv.01801002
Abstract: neospora caninum is one of the main causes of abortion and natimortality in cattle. host immune defense is capable to inhibit tachyzoite activity during acute infection, but there is no action against bradyzoites in tissue cysts. activation and modulation of this response is controlled by cell mediators. the real-time rt-pcr technique was employed to detect some of those mediators during n. caninum infection. holstein and nelore calves intramuscularly infected with tachyzoites and uninfected controls were slaughtered at the sixth day post-infection and popliteal lymph node, liver and brain cortex samples were analyzed. real-time rt-pcr detected gene expression in all tissues. no significant variation of gapdh gene expression was detected among groups, its amplification efficiency was similar to the other genes tested and it was used as the endogenous control for the analysis. comparisons between infected and uninfected groups allowed the relative gene expression quantification. ifn-γ and tnf-α genes showed increased expression in some samples. inos and tgf-β1 genes had some non-significant variations and il-4 and il-10 stayed pratically inaltered.
Chemical composition and energetic values of different corn cultivar for poultry Composi o química e valores energéticos de cultivares de milho para aves
Cinthia Eyng,Ricardo Vianna Nunes,Paulo Cesar Pozza,Magali Soares dos Santos Pozza
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produ??o Animal , 2009,
Abstract: The aim of the present was determinate the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME), AME corrected by nitrogen retention (AMEn), true metabolizable energy (TME) and TME corrected by the nitrogen retention (TMEn), its metabolizability coefficients, moreover, adjust prediction equations from experimental results and chemical composition of eight different corn cultivar originating from Copagril experimental station. The total excreta collecting method was used to determinate the energy values, where 160 broiler chicken Cobb, aging 21 days, were shared in a completely randomized blocks design. The experiment lasted 10 days, five of them for adaptation and the other ones for total excrements collecting. The energy values of the foods and excretas were determined using the calorimetric method. Significative differences were not observered (P>0,05) for metabolizability coefficients of corn samples. The AME, AMEn, TME and TMEn values varied of 3295 up to 3498 kcal/kg, 3227 up to 3416 kcal/kg, 3315 up to 3454 kcal/kg and 3235 up to 3424 kcal/kg, respectively. The prediction equations had not been adjusted adequately for energetic values, they demonstrated a low R2 value. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA), EMA corrigida pela reten o de nitrogênio (EMAn), energia metabolizável verdadeira (EMV) e EMV corrigida pela reten o de nitrogênio (EMVn), seus respectivos coeficientes de metabolizabilidade, bem como estabelecer equa es de predi o por meio dos resultados experimentais obtidos e de composi o química para oito diferentes cultivares de milho provenientes da esta o experimental da Copagril. Para a determina o dos valores de energia foi utilizado o método de coleta total de excretas, onde 160 pintos da linhagem Cobb com 21 dias de idade foram distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso. O experimento teve dura o de dez dias, sendo cinco dias de adapta o e cinco de coleta total de excretas. Para determinar os valores de energia realizaram-se análises de energia bruta (EB) dos alimentos e das excretas em bomba calorimétrica. N o foram observadas diferen as significativas (P>0,05) entre os coeficientes de metabolizabilidade das amostras de milho. Os valores de EMA, EMAn, EMV, EMVn variaram de 3.295 a 3.498 kcal/kg, 3.227 a 3.416 kcal/kg, 3.315 a 3.454 kcal/kg e 3.235 a 3.424 kcal/kg, respectivamente. As equa es de predi o n o se ajustaram adequadamente aos valores energéticos, apresentando um baixo valor de R2.
Microbiological quality of raw milk and factors that influence its quality Qualidade microbiológica de leite cru refrigerado e fatores associados
Angela Schedler Citadin,Magali Soares Santos Pozza,Paulo Cesar Pozza,Ricardo Viana Nunes
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produ??o Animal , 2009,
Abstract: In order to investigate the microbiological conditions of raw milk and some factors that influence its quality, 31 dairy farms of municipality of Marechal Candido Rondon were evaluated. Analyses of aerobic mesophilic microorganisms, coliforms at 35oC, thermotolerant coliforms and fungi and yeasts were accomplished. The following issues were evaluated: type of milking management, cleaning of utensils, separation of animals in batches during milking, teat washing and use of pre and post dipping disinfectant solution. The results showed that 25.8% (for aerobic mesophilic) and 19.35% (for coliforms at 35°C) of the analyzed samples had their counting above the actual legislation standard and 58.06% of the samples were contaminated with thermotolerant coliforms. It was verified that 64.51% of samples had fungi and yeasts counting above 100 UFC/mL. There were failures at hygiene and cleaning procedures in all dairy farms. Severe regulatory policies must be adopted for this kind of product aiming a food safety warranty to the customer. Para avalia o das condi es microbiológicas do leite cru e estudo de alguns dos fatores que influenciam sua qualidade, foram analisadas 31 propriedades leiteiras do município de Marechal Candido Rondon. Realizaram-se análises de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos, coliformes a 35oC, coliformes termotolerantes e de bolores e leveduras. Foram analisados tipo de ordenha, lavagem dos utensílios, separa o dos animais no momento da ordenha por lotes, lavagem dos tetos e uso de solu es desinfetantes para pré e pós-dipping. Entre as amostras analisadas, 25,8% (para aeróbios mesófilos) e 19,35% (para coliformes a 35oC) apresentaram contagens acima do padr o vigente pela legisla o e 58,06% possuíam coliformes termotolerantes. Verificou-se que 64,51% das amostras apresentaram contagem de bolores e leveduras acima de 100 UFC/mL. Em todas as propriedades havia falhas nos procedimentos de higiene e limpeza. Devem ser adotadas medidas mais severas na fiscaliza o deste tipo de produto, visando garantir maior seguran a alimentar ao consumidor.
Balan os metabólicos de suínos alimentados com ra es referências e inclus es de farelo de soja Substitution of reference rations by soybean meal over metabolic balances in swines
Doglas Batista Lazzeri,Paulo Cesar Pozza,Magali Soares dos Santos Pozza,Luis Daniel Giusti Bruno
Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produ??o Animal , 2011,
Abstract: Objetivou-se avaliar dietas referências e inclus es de farelo de soja como ingrediente teste sobre o balan o metabólico de suínos. Foram utilizados 24 suínos mesti os, machos castrados, peso médio inicial de 29,01 ± 3,64kg, distribuídos em um delineamento em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2x2 + 2 (duas ra es referência e dois níveis de substitui o do alimento teste), mais dois tratamentos adicionais. A metodologia utilizada foi a coleta total de fezes, e a urina filtrada e coletada diariamente. Para avaliar o teor de nitrogênio da ureia plasmática, amostras de sangue foram obtidas mediante pun o na veia jugular. Foram determinados os coeficientes de digestibilidade e metabolizabilidade da energia bruta, os valores de energia digestível e metabolizável e o balan o de nitrogênio. As varia es das médias dos coeficientes de digestibilidade da energia bruta est o associadas às diferen as na digestibilidade dos nutrientes que constituem a matéria organica. Os valores médios de energia digestível também foram significativos para os dois níveis de substitui o. Em rela o à eficiência de utiliza o de nitrogênio, melhor resultado foi obtido para a ra o que continha o menor nível de proteína bruta, uma vez que houve intera o significativa (P=0,01) entre os fatores estudados, sendo que a substitui o de 15% do alimento teste apresentou o melhor resultado. Concluiu-se que os níveis de substitui o do farelo de soja, nas ra es referências, influenciaram os valores de energia digestível para suínos, e a ra o teste, contendo um nível de proteína bruta próximo da recomenda o, proporcionou otimiza o na eficiência de utiliza o do nitrogênio. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reference diets and inputs of soybean meal as test ingredient on the metabolic balance in swines. Twenty four crossbred barrows with initial weight of 29.01 ± 3.64kg were used, allotted in a randomized blocks design in a 2x2 + 2 factorial scheme (two reference rations and two levels of substitution for the test food), plus two extra treatments. The methodology used was the total collection of feces, and the urine was daily filtered and collected. Blood samples were obtained from puncture in the jugular vein to evaluate the levels of plasma urea nitrogen. The digestibility and metabolizability coefficients of gross energy were determined, as the digestible and metabolizable energy values and the nitrogen balance. Variations of DCGE mean are associated with differences in the digestibility of the nutrients that make up the organic matter. The average DE values were a
Utiliza o de promotores de crescimento para frangos de corte em ra es fareladas e peletizadas = Utilization of growth promoter for broiler chickens in mashed and pellets diets
Letícia Loren?on,Ricardo Vianna Nunes,Paulo Cesar Pozza,Magali Soares dos Santos Pozza
Acta Scientiarum : Animal Sciences , 2007,
Abstract: Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementa o de dietas com diferentes promotores de crescimento sobre o desempenho e rendimento de carca a de frangos de corte de 1 a 42 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 576 pintos da linhagem Cobb 500, machos, alojados em cama reutilizada, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquemafatorial 2 x 3 (forma física da ra o x diferentes promotores de crescimento), totalizando 6 tratamentos, com 6 repeti es e 16 aves por unidade experimental. As características de desempenho avaliadas foram ganho de peso, peso final, consumo de ra o, convers o alimentar, mortalidade e o índice de eficiência produtiva. Avaliou-se também o rendimento de carca a, bem como rendimento em cortes, cora o, fígado e gordura abdominal. Os resultados obtidos demonstram n o haver efeito dos tratamentos estudados sobre as características de desempenho e rendimento de carca a. This study evaluated the supplementation effect of diets with different growth promoters on the performance and carcass yield in broilers from 1 to 42 days of age. Five hundred seventy six broilers of the Coob 500 lineage were used, all males, lodged in reused litter, allocated according to a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial scheme (physical forms of the ration x growth promoters), totalizing 6 treatments, 6 repetitions per treatment and 16 broilers per experimental unit. The performance parameters evaluated were weight gain, final weight, feed consumption, feed conversion, mortality and index productive efficiency. The carcass yield was also evaluated, as the cuts yield and percentage of abdominal fat at 42 days. The results demonstrated no effect of thetreatments studied on the performance characteristics and carcass yield.
Avalia o de inulina e probiótico para frangos de corte = Evaluation of inulin and probiotic for broiler chickens
Wagner Thiago Mozer da Silva,Ricardo Vianna Nunes,Paulo Cesar Pozza,Magali Soares dos Santos Pozza
Acta Scientiarum : Animal Sciences , 2011,
Abstract: Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de aditivos promotores de crescimento (prebiótico, probiótico e simbiótico) em substitui o ao antibiótico sobre o desempenho e características de carca a (cortes nobres, órg os e gordura abdominal), em dietas para frangos de corte de um a 42 dias de idade. Foram utilizados 384 pintos de um dia de idade alojados sobre cama reutilizada. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e seis repeti es, sendo: PRO - suplementa o com probiótico (2 kg t-1), ANT – suplementa o com antibióticos(flavomicina 10% - 4 ppm e halquinol 60% - 15 ppm), PRE – suplementa o com prebiótico (5 kg t-1), SIMB – suplementa o com probiótico e prebiótico (2 e 5 kg t-1, respectivamente). O probiótico utilizado era composto por Lactobacillus acidophillus; Streptococcus faecium e Bifidobacterium bifidum e o prebiótico utilizado foi inulina (extrato de raiz de chicória). Na fase inicial, os frangos alimentados com dietas contendo probiótico e simbiótico tiveram maior ganho de peso e peso total aos 21 dias. A suplementa o na ra ocom antibiótico proporcionou menor consumo de ra o de um a 21 dias de idade. Os promotores de crescimento n o apresentaram efeito sobre as variáveis de desempenho, rendimento de carca a e cortes nobres estudadas na fase de um a 42 dias de idade. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of growth promoter additives (prebiotic, probiotic and symbiotic) as an antibiotic replacement on the performance and carcass characteristics(prime cuts, organs and abdominal fat) in diets for broiler chickens 1 to 42 days old. A total of 384 birds were used, one-day-old, on a reused bed. A completely randomized design was used, with four treatments and six replications, namely: PRO - supplementation withprobiotic (2 kg t-1), ANT - supplementation with antibiotics (flavomycin 10% - 4 ppm and halquinol 60% - 15 ppm), PRE - supplementation with prebiotic (5 kg t-1), SIMB - supplementation with probiotic and prebiotic (2 and 5 kg t-1, respectively). The probiotic used consisted of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus faecium and Bifidobacterium bifidum, and the prebiotic used consisted of inulin (chicory root extract). In the initial phase, the chickens fed diets containing probiotic and symbiotic had higher weight gain and total weight at 21 days. Supplementation with antibiotics in feed provided a lower feed intake at 1 to 21 days old. The growth promoters did not show an effect on the variables of performance, carcass yield and prime cuts studied in the phase
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