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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 191936 matches for " Paulo Canelas de Castro "
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Trends of Development of International Water Law  [PDF]
Paulo Canelas de Castro
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2015.64025
Abstract: International water law has been witnessing profound changes in the latter twenty years. These changes denote certain cardinal options for new goals and values that the newer international water law is seeking to embrace. Amongst these new goals and values, the ones of environmentalization, humanisation, economicisation stand out as attempts at bringing efficient response to the challenges set by the current global water crisis and the more complex expectations of the international community. They amount to an innovative normative message and even true paradigm-shifts in the understanding of international water law. These trends of development of international water law set this legal field in line with other chapters of contemporary international law and derive in part from the cross-fertilisation of normative ideas and principles between these chapters of international law.
Validade da topografia de córnea na cirurgia refrativa com excimer laser
Silva Filho, Orlando da;Schor, Paulo;Campos, Mauro;Abreu, Mariza Toledo de;Beer, Sandra Maria Canelas;
Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0004-27492003000700008
Abstract: purpose: to evaluate the refractive results and safety of prk (photorefractive keratectomy) based on the preoperative corneal topography. methods: 44 operated eyes, using the photorefractive keratectomy process, and which presented preoperative topographical abnormalities. the control group consisted of 44 eyes with preoperative normal corneal topography. eighty-eight eyes were submitted to the photorefractive keratectomy process using the summit apex plus excimer laser. corneal topographies were accessed by the eyesys analysis system; the topographic abnormalities which were considered are the following: apex displacement above 1.5d (ad), asphericity above 0.25d/mm (as), obliquity above 15 degrees (ob), inferior-superior asymmetry equal to or more than 1.5d (is), curvature above 47d (cu) and two combined features (cb). main measured outcome: loss of one or more lines were safety defined for the prognosis. results: all patients were followed up during 6 months. a significant loss of bcva occurred in prk-ad (p<0.001) and prk-co (p<0.05). conclusion: these data suggest that patients, who wish to be submitted to the refractive surgery must undergo preoperative corneal topography analysis and if any topographic abnormality is found in these patients, this can indicate the loss of lines of corrected vision after surgery.
O ensino do Rorschach em uma amostra brasileira
Paulo Francisco de Castro
Psicologia: Ciência e Profiss?o , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/s1414-98932001000100006
Abstract: Apresenta-se uma descri o de um levantamento realizado sobre as características do ensino do Psicodiagnóstico de Rorschach em uma amostra de Institui es de Ensino Superior brasileiras. Ser o enfocados aspectos da caracteriza o das Institui es e de suas disciplinas; além disto, ser o apresentados dados sobre o sistema de classifica o adotados, sobre a metodologia de ensino adotada e uma descri o das atividades práticas. A description of a survey realized about the teaching characteristiecs of the Method of Rorschach is presented in a model of brazilian higher education institutes. Characterization aspects from the institutes will be put in focus and its subjects. Furthermore, information on the adapted classification system and the adapted teaching metodology will br presented and one practical activities description as well.
Editorial
Paulo Tavares de Castro
Ciência & Tecnologia dos Materiais , 2010,
Abstract:
Broad histogram: tests for a simple and efficient microcanonical simulator
Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro de;
Brazilian Journal of Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-97332000000400025
Abstract: the broad histogram method (bhm) allows one to determine the energy degeneracy g(e), i.e. the energy spectrum of a given system, from the knowledge of the microcanonical averages < nup (e) > and < ndn (e) > of two macroscopic quantities nup and ndn defined within the method. the fundamental bhm equation relating g(e) to the quoted averages is exact and completely general for any conceivable system. thus, the only possible source of numerical inaccuracies resides on the measurement of the averages themselves. in this text, we introduce a monte carlo recipe to measure microcanonical averages. in order to test its performance, we applied it to the ising ferromagnet on a 32 × 32 square lattice. the exact values of g(e) are known up to this lattice size, thus it is a good standard to compare our numerical results with. measuring the deviations relative to the exactly known values, we verified a decay proportional to 1/, by increasing the counter (counts) of averaged samples over at least 6 decades. that is why we believe this microcanonical simulator presents no bias besides the normal statistical fluctuations. for counts ? 1010, we measured relative deviations near 105 for both g(e) and the specific heat peak, obtained through bhm relation.
Broad histogram: an overview
Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro de;
Brazilian Journal of Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-97332000000100022
Abstract: the broad histogram is a method allowing the direct calculation of the energy degeneracy g(e). this quantity is independent of thermodynamic concepts such as thermal equilibrium. it only depends on the distribution of allowed (micro) states along the energy axis, but not on the energy changes between the system and its environment. once one has obtained g(e), no further effort is needed in order to consider different environment conditions, for instance, different temperatures, for the same system. the method is based on the exact relation between g(e) and the microcanonical averages of certain macroscopic quantities nup and ndn . for an application to a particular problem, one needs to choose an adequate instrument in order to determine the averages < nup (e) > and < ndn(e) >, as functions of energy. replacing the usual fixed-temperature canonical by the fixed-energy microcanonical ensemble, new subtle concepts emerge. the temperature, for instance, is no longer an external parameter controlled by the user. instead, the microcanonical temperature tm(e) is a function of energy defined from g(e) itself, being thus an internal (environment independent) characteristic of the system. accordingly, all microcanonical averages are functions of e. the present text is an overview of the method. some features of the microcanonical ensemble are also discussed, as well as some clues towards the deffinition of efficient monte carlo microcanonical sampling rules.
O papel das flutua??es na biologia
Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro de;
Revista Brasileira de Ensino de Física , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-47442007000300009
Abstract: environment fluctuations as well as random fluctuations within a biological organism take part of its life or evolution. the quoted ''organism'' maybe a cell, a multicellular organ, an individual, a population or a set of populations, etc. it is possible to understand many general aspects of these fluctuations' influence on the life or evolution of these organisms through simplified models, in particular dynamic equations like that of langevin.
El papel de la prensa en el debate acerca de la reglamentación sobre Biotecnología en Brasil: ?seguridad de los transgénicos o de las células madre embrionarias?
Fonseca,Paulo de Freitas Castro;
Revista iberoamericana de ciencia tecnolog?-a y sociedad , 2010,
Abstract: the new policy of bio-safety in brazil was implemented among a strong social controversy. the opposition to the liberalization of the transgenics claimed that the common discussion and policy making of the agricultural and therapeutic biotechnology deviated the public attention to the embryonic stem cells. this paper does a content analysis of the folha de s?o paulo and o globo newspapers aiming for a comprehension of their given approach during the discussion for the approval of the new law. we conclude that both themes were noticed and that the newspapers presented a framing favourable to the commercialization of the transgenics and to the research of embryonic stem cells.
El papel de la prensa en el debate acerca de la reglamentación sobre Biotecnología en Brasil: seguridad de los transgénicos o de las células madre embrionarias?
Paulo de Freitas Castro Fonseca
Revista iberoamericana de ciencia tecnolog?-a y sociedad , 2010,
Abstract: La promulgación de la nueva legislación sobre bioseguridad en Brasil se produjo en medio de fuertes controversias. Activistas opositores a la liberación de los transgénicos argumentaron que la discusión y reglamentación conjunta de la biotecnología agrícola y terapéutica había desviado la atención de la opinión pública a las células madre embrionarias. Este trabajo realiza un análisis del contenido de los periódicos Folha de S o Paulo y O Globo a fin de comprender cuál fue el tratamiento dado a la discusión para la aprobación de la nueva ley, conocida como ley de bioseguridad. Se concluye que ambos temas fueron abordados y que los periódicos presentaron un planteamiento favorable a la comercialización de los transgénicos y a la investigación con células madre. The new policy of bio-safety in Brazil was implemented among a strong social controversy. The opposition to the liberalization of the transgenics claimed that the common discussion and policy making of the agricultural and therapeutic biotechnology deviated the public attention to the embryonic stem cells. This paper does a content analysis of the Folha de S o Paulo and O Globo newspapers aiming for a comprehension of their given approach during the discussion for the approval of the new law. We conclude that both themes were noticed and that the newspapers presented a framing favourable to the commercialization of the transgenics and to the research of embryonic stem cells.
Broad histogram: an overview
Oliveira Paulo Murilo Castro de
Brazilian Journal of Physics , 2000,
Abstract: The Broad Histogram is a method allowing the direct calculation of the energy degeneracy g(E). This quantity is independent of thermodynamic concepts such as thermal equilibrium. It only depends on the distribution of allowed (micro) states along the energy axis, but not on the energy changes between the system and its environment. Once one has obtained g(E), no further effort is needed in order to consider different environment conditions, for instance, different temperatures, for the same system. The method is based on the exact relation between g(E) and the microcanonical averages of certain macroscopic quantities Nup and Ndn . For an application to a particular problem, one needs to choose an adequate instrument in order to determine the averages < Nup (E) > and < Ndn(E) >, as functions of energy. Replacing the usual fixed-temperature canonical by the fixed-energy microcanonical ensemble, new subtle concepts emerge. The temperature, for instance, is no longer an external parameter controlled by the user. Instead, the microcanonical temperature Tm(E) is a function of energy defined from g(E) itself, being thus an internal (environment independent) characteristic of the system. Accordingly, all microcanonical averages are functions of E. The present text is an overview of the method. Some features of the microcanonical ensemble are also discussed, as well as some clues towards the deffinition of efficient Monte Carlo microcanonical sampling rules.
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