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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 924 matches for " Pauline Bourne "
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Synthesis and biological activities of turkesterone 11?-acyl derivatives
Laurence Dinan,Pauline Bourne,Pensri Whiting,Ada Tsitsekli
Journal of Insect Science , 2003,
Abstract: Turkesterone is a phytoecdysteroid possessing an 11alpha-hydroxyl group. It is an analogue of the insect steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Previous ecdysteroid QSAR and molecular modelling studies predicted that the cavity of the ligand-binding domain of the ecdysteroid receptor would possess space in the vicinity of C-11/C-12 of the ecdysteroid. We report the regioselective synthesis of a series of turkesterone 11alpha-acyl derivatives in order to explore this possibility. The structures of the analogues have been unambiguously determined by spectroscopic means (NMR and low-resolution mass spectrometry). Purity was verified by HPLC. Biological activities have been determined in Drosophila melanogaster BII cell-based bioassay for ecdysteroid agonists and in an in vitro radioligand-displacement assay using bacterially expressed D. melanogaster EcR/USP receptor proteins. The 11alpha-acyl derivatives do retain a significant amount of biological activity relative to the parent ecdysteroid. Further, although activity initially drops with the extension of the acyl chain length (C2 to C4), it then increases (C6 to C10), before decreasing again (C14 and C20). The implications of these findings for the interaction of ecdysteroids with the ecdysteroid receptor and potential applications in the generation of affinity-labelled and fluorescently-tagged ecdysteroids are discussed.
Ecdysteroid 7,9(11)-dien-6-ones as potential photoaffinity labels for ecdysteroid binding proteins
Pauline C. Bourne,Pensri Whiting,Tarlochan S. Dhadialla,Robert E. Hormann
Journal of Insect Science , 2002,
Abstract: Three ecdysteroid 7,9(11)-dien-7-ones (dacryhainansterone, 25-hydroxydacryhainansterone and kaladasterone) were prepared by dehydration of the corresponding 11alpha-hydroxy ecdysteroids (ajugasterone C, turkesterone and muristerone A, respectively). The biological activities of the dienones in the Drosophila melanogaster BII cell bioassay, which reflect the affinity for the ecdysteroid receptor complex, showed that the dienones retain high biological activity. Irradiation at 350 nm of the ecdysteroid dienones (100 nM) with bacterially-expressed dipteran and lepidopteran ecdysteroid receptor proteins (DmEcR/DmUSP or CfEcR/CfUSP), followed by loading with [3H]ponasterone A revealed that irradiation of dacryhainansterone or kaladasterone resulted in blocking of >70% of the specific binding sites. Thus, ecdysteroid dienones show considerable potential as photoaffinity analogues for ecdysteroid binding proteins.
Self-evaluated health of married people in Jamaica  [PDF]
Paul A. Bourne
Health (Health) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/health.2009.14055
Abstract: Background: In the Caribbean in particular Ja-maica, no study has been done to examine married respondents in order to understand reasons for their greater health status. The ob-jectives of the current study are: 1) examine the sociodemographic characteristics of married people in Jamaica; 2) evaluate self-rated health status of married people in Jamaica; 3) deter-mine factors that account for good health status of married people and 4) provide public health practitioners with empirical studies that can be used to formulate policies for men in particular non-married men in Jamaica. Materials and me- thods: Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 6,783 respondents. It was a nationally representative sample. Logistic re-gression analysis was used to ascertain the correlates of health status. Results: The mean age for women in marriage in Jamaica was 6 years lower than that of men. The correlates of good health status (including moderate health) of respondents in descending order were self- reported illness (OR = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.01- 0.17); age (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.93-0.96); income (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 1.05-1.66) and sex of respon-dents (Or = 1.14-2.32)—χ2(df = 4) = 383.2, P < 0.05. The four variables accounted for 44.4% of the explanatory power of the model; with self-reported illness accounting for 32.5% of the explanatory power. Conclusion: Marriage pro-vides greater access to more socioeconomic resources for its participants as well as increase men’s unwillingness to visit medical care prac-titioners.
Health measurement  [PDF]
Paul Andrew Bourne
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.25070
Abstract: Jamaicans are not atypical in how they conceptualize health and/or how they address patient care as the antithesis of diseases or dysfunctions (i.e. health conditions). In the 1900s and earlier, Western Societies were using the biomedical model in the measurement and trea- tment of health, health attitudes and the utilization of health services. This approach emphasizes sickness, dysfunction, and the identification of symptomology or medical disorders to evaluate health and health care. Such an approach places significance on the end (i.e. genetic and physical conditions), instead of the multiplicity of factors that are likely to result in the existing state, or issues outside of the space of dysfunctions. Notwithstanding the limitations of the biomedical approach, it is still practiced by many Caribbean societies, and this is fundamentally the case in Jamaica. The current paper is an examination of health measurement, and provides at the same time a rationale for the need to have a more representative model as opposed to the one-dimensional approach of using pathogens in measuring health. Owing to the importance of health in development, patient care and its significance for other areas in society, this paper seeks to broaden more than just the construct, as it goes to the core of modern societies in helping them to understand the constitution of health and how patient care should be treated. Thus, it provides a platform for the adoption of the biopsychosocial model, which integrates biological, social, cultural, psychological and environmental conditions in the assessment of health and the outcome of research, by using observational survey data.
Health of children less than 5 years old in an upper middle income country: parents' views  [PDF]
Paul Andrew Bourne
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.24054
Abstract: Health literature in the Caribbean, and in particular Jamaica, has continued to use objective indices such as mortality and morbidity to examine children’s health. The current study uses subjective indices such as parent-reported health conditions and health status to evaluate the health of children instead of traditional objective indices. The study seeks 1) to examine the health and health care-seeking behaviour of the sample from the parents’ viewpoints; and 2) to compute the mean age of the sample with a particular illness and describe whether there is an epidemiological shift in these conditions. Two nationally representative cross-sectional surveys were used for this study (2002 and 2007). The sample for the current study is 3,062 respondents aged less than 5 years. For 2002, the study extracted a sample of 2,448 under 5 year olds from the national survey of 25,018 respondents, and 614 under 5 year olds were extracted from the 2007 survey of 6,728 respondents. Parents-reported information was used to measure issues on children under 5 years old. In 2007, 43.4% of the sample had very good health status; 46.7% good health status; 2.5% poor health and 0.3% very poor health status. Almost 15% of children had illnesses in 2002, and 6% more had illnesses in 2007 over 2002. In 2002, the percentage of the sample with particular chronic illnesses was: diabetes mellitus (0.6%); hypertension (0.3%) and arthritis (0.3%). However, none was recorded in 2007. The mean age of children less than 5 years old with acute health conditions (i.e. diarrhoea, respiratory diseases and influenza) increased over 2002. In 2007, 43.4% of children less than 5 years old had very good health status; 46.7% good health status; 7.1% fair health status; 2.5% poor and 0.3% very poor health status. The association between health status and parent- reported illness was –x2 (df = 4) = 57.494, P< 0.001-with the relationship being a weak one, correlation coefficient=0.297. A cross-tabulation between health status and parent-reported diagnosed illness found that a significant statistical correlation existed between the two variables –x2 (df = 16) = 26.621, P < 0.05, cc = 0.422, – with the association being a moderate one, correlation coefficient = 0.422. A cross tabulation between health status and health care- seeking behaviour found a significant statistical association between the two variables –x2 (df = 4) = 10.513, P < 0.033-with the correlation being a weak one-correlation coefficient = 0.281. Rural children had the least health status. The health disparity that existed
Births, economic growth, mortality and murder in a developing country  [PDF]
Paul A. Bourne
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.42009
Abstract: Background: In 1960, total fertility rate in Jamaica was 5.6 children per woman which declined by 57.5% in 2008. The reduction in fertility is primarily attributable to contraceptive measures; but murder and other selected macroeconomic variables have never been included in the literature. Objectives: This study examines murder, mortality, and selected macroeconomic variables are factors of births, using data for Jamaica from 1989-2009. Methods: The study is a secondary data analysis of statistics on Jamaica from 1989 - 2009 but also includes data on births from 1900s. Find- ings: In the decade of the 1950s, births increased by 79.9% over the decade of 1900s, grew by 22.4% in the 1960s over the previous decade and declined by 17.6% in 2000s compared with the 1990s. Four emerged as statistically significant predictors of lnbirth—inflation, GDP per capita growth, mortality and murder, with an explanatory power of 90.6%—F = 19.291, P < 0.0001. With there being a strong statistical correlation between annual exchange rate and murder (rs = 0.962), when murder was excluded and replaced by annual exchange rate, the factors influencing lnbirth was exchange rate, inflation, unemployment, GDP per capita growth and mortality—all factors account for 92.2% of the variability in lnbirth—F = 30.572, P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Murder is more that a crime it is a cause of birth decline, suggesting that public health practitioners as well as epidemiologists must take this factor into account as it is a birth determinant.
Modelling social determinants of self-evaluated health of poor older people in a middle-income developing nation  [PDF]
Paul A. Bourne
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2010.37094
Abstract: Over the last 2 decades (1988-2007), poverty in Jamaica has fallen by 67.5%, and this is within the context of a 194.7% increase in inflation for 2007 over 2006. It does not abate there, as Jamaicans are reporting more health conditions in a 4-week period (15.5% in 2007) and at the same time this corresponds to a decline in the percentage of people seeking medical care. Older people’s health status is of increasing concern, given the high rates of prostate cancer, genitourinary disorders, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and the presence of risk factors such as smoking. Yet, there is a dearth of studies on the health status of older people in the two poor quintiles. This study examined 1) the health status of those elderly Jamaicans who were in the two poor quintiles and 2) factors that are associated with their health status. A sample of 1,149 elderly respondents, with an average age of 72.6 years (SD = 8.7 years) were extracted from a total survey of 25,018 Jamaicans. The initial survey sample was selected from a stratified probability sampling frame of Jamaicans. An administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Descriptive statistics were used to examine background information on the sample, and stepwise logistic regression was used to ascertain the factors which are associated with health status. The health status of older poor people was influenced by 6 factors, and those factors accounted for 26.6% of the variability in health status: Health insurance coverage (OR = 13.90; 95% CI: 7.98-24.19), age of respondents (OR = 7.98; 95% CI: 1.02-1.06), and secondary level education (OR=1.82; 95% CI: 1.35-2.45). Males are less likely to report good health status than females (OR = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.42-0.75). Older people in Jamaica do not purchase health insurance coverage as a preventative measure but as a curative measure. Health insurance coverage in this study does not indicate good health but is a proxy of poor health status. The demand of the health services in Jamaica in the future must be geared towards a particular age cohort and certain health conditions, and not only to the general population, as the social determinants which give rise to inequities are not the same, even among the same age cohort.
Usefulness of Natural Starters in Food Industry: The Example of Cheeses and Bread  [PDF]
Demarigny Yann, Gerber Pauline
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.517181
Abstract: Natural starters have been extensively used for many centuries to make many different fermented food products from different raw materials: Milk, meat, roots, vegetables, etc. The industrialisation of food production at the end of the 19th century necessitated the use of regular selected starters to standardize the organoleptic characteristics of the final product. As a consequence, during the 20th century, there was a decline in the use of natural starters in Western countries except in the production of local cheeses or sourdough breads. The beginning of this new millennium has witnessed a deep change in consumer demand, in pursuit of quality, safety and pleasure. In this context, natural starters could, in the future, play an important role in the development of fermented products. However, food producers and researchers have first to cope with fundamental problems in the understanding of these complex ecosystems. The dynamic evolution of the microbial population inside the natural starter (its resilience, its genetic and physiological aptitudes) and the consequences on the product are still partially unknown. This document reviews a broad range of articles concerning the use of natural starters with a specific focus on cheeses and breads, and discusses the major stakes for local food production and the consumption of typical products.
Guardians and Targets: A Routine Activity Approach to Terrorism in Southeast Asia  [PDF]
Camille Laurence Pauline Bigot
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.512011
Abstract:
Since 9/11, terrorism has been an important subject of study within the political and social fields, having often been examined critically. However, empirical frameworks have been lacking within the study of terrorism. This paper aims to counter reductionist views of terrorism and provide a holistic analysis under the arch of a criminological ontological framework. This study tests the relevance of routine activity theory to terrorism, taking the specific case study of terrorism within Southeast Asia. Working with Interpol, terror attacks, and counter-terrorism operations were quantified to mathematically model Routine Activity Theory where I aimed to find predictive terror patterns. Using a time-series analysis of terrorist attacks and counter-terrorism operations, Deterrence Theory, Randomness Theory in targeting and Contagion theory will be tested. A comparative framework will be established between religious attacks and politically related ones. My research aims to disprove any discursive assumptions of terrorism through a quantitative empirical focus. Furthermore, it aims to find patterns within terrorism to learn how to better combat it.
Deployment of Soft Skills for Effective Customer Service in the 21st Century Library  [PDF]
Adeniran Pauline Oghenekaro
Journal of Computer and Communications (JCC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jcc.2018.63003
Abstract: The advent of information communication technology in the information environment has brought dramatic changes in the way information is being handled and managed today. This wind of change engineered by ICT has also changed the information seeking behavior of users making them to place more demands on libraries. There is a need for libraries to strive to be effective in their services to customers in order to remain relevant in the information age. The paper considered the deployment of soft skills expressed in terms of staff appearance, approachability, effective communication, positive attitude, ability to cope in difficult situation, and so on, for more effective customer services in the 21st century library. The paper concluded that, effective customer service in libraries is imperative in the 21st century library as it will make library users feel important, improves learning, increases patronage, and promotes library and university image. The outcome of this paper will help the management of libraries irrespective of the type to be more effective in the services they render to their clients. This will ultimately increase patronage and clients retention.
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