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Jürgen Habermas: Religion, Cultural Diversity and Publicity  [PDF]
Paula Montero
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2014.43022
Abstract:

The aim of this essay is to reflexively consider the particular way in which Jürgen Habermas faces some theoretical challenges that are particularly interesting to contemporary anthropological thought, i.e., the issue of cultural translation and the presence of religion in the public sphere.

Development of an Agent-Based Model and Its Application to the Estimation of Global Carbon Emissions  [PDF]
Paula Castesana, Salvador Puliafito
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2013.44A003
Abstract:

With the purpose of studying the influence of population dynamics and economic growth on energy consumption and carbon emissions, an endogenous economic growth model is proposed incorporating physical and human capital and using an Agent-Based Model. The model can test different development strategies by identifying the key factors existing at the agent level that may speed up or slow down a given path, and therefore it is an interesting tool to develop and to test mitigation and/or adaptation measures. Favorable scenarios may be possible in societies that encourage investment in human capital through education and technological development, provided that this is accompanied by a reduction in consumption rates and the creation of physical capital by the population. Moreover, this model shows that human capital resulting from education not only raises productivity, but also plays a key role in the development and adoption of new technologies that drive long-term growth.

Teaching with an Attitude: Finding Ways to the Conundrum of a Postmodern Curriculum  [PDF]
Ana Paula Martinez Duboc
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.412A2009
Abstract: Several scholars in the field of education have questioned the constituent aspects of a curriculum that would better respond to the rising demands in contemporary societies. The relevance of such enquiry finds its place in the very transformations in today’s societies marked by significant changes in the ways of knowing, being, and acting primarily due to the advent of new digital media in more recent globalizing processes. As Burke (2009) has stated, if schools wish to maintain their relevance in society, they must take into account such changes by first and foremost acknowledging the new and complex ways of making meanings in out-of-school literacy practices as equally legitimating those happening within school contexts. Along with Burke (ibid.), this paper advocates the need of rethinking the notion of curriculum in the light of the new ontologies and epistemologies of postmodernity. Such task proves itself to be a conundrum inasmuch as the very notion of curriculum has been traditionally founded on modern principles such as linearity, stability, and universality (Silva, 2009). In view of this, how can educators respond to the challenge of redefining what should be taught in schools in postmodern times so that students would better perform in relation to the self and the other within their social practices? This paper aims to analyse the relationship between postmodern philosophical concepts, curriculum theory and educational practice by presenting the notion of curricular attitude (Duboc, 2012) as a local redesign of teaching practices within a Brazilian educational context. Despite being situated in the field of foreign language teaching, the notion of a curricular attitude might be of interest of other areas of knowledge since it seeks to revisit teaching practices in the light of wider philosophical concerns.
Rad51 ATP binding but not hydrolysis is required to recruit Rad10 in synthesis-dependent strand annealing sites in S. cerevisiae  [PDF]
Justin Karlin, Paula L. Fischhaber
Advances in Biological Chemistry (ABC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abc.2013.33033
Abstract:

Several modes of eukaryotic of DNA double strand break repair (DSBR) depend on synapsis of complementary DNA. The Rad51 ATPase, the S. cerevisiae homolog of E. coli RecA, plays a key role in this process by catalyzing homology searching and strand exchange between an invading DNA strand and a repair template (e.g. sister chromatid or homologous chromosome). Synthesis dependent strand annealing (SDSA), a mode of DSBR, requires Rad51. Another repair enzyme, the Rad1-Rad10 endonuclease, acts in the final stages of SDSA, hydrolyzing 3 overhanging single-stranded DNA. Here we show in vivo by fluo-rescence microscopy that the ATP binding function of yeast Rad51 is required to recruit Rad10 SDSA sites indicating that Rad51 pre-synaptic filament formation must occur prior to the recruitment of Rad1-Rad10. Our data also show that Rad51 ATPase activity, an important step in Rad51 filament disassembly, is not absolutely required in order to recruit Rad1- Rad10 to DSB sites.

Bottom-Up Analysis of Energy Consumption and Carbon Emissions, with Particular Emphasis on Human Capital Investment  [PDF]
Paula Castesana, Salvador Enrique Puliafito
Low Carbon Economy (LCE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/lce.2013.44A001
Abstract:

Short-term and mid-term projections of energy consumption and carbon emissions raise significant concern about the availability of the necessary energy resources to meet the growing demand and about the impact of emissions on global change. Different macroeconomic models address this issue through global variables, such as gross domestic product, production of goods and services, total population and natural resources extraction. However, the relations among these variables are neither linear nor simple. In an attempt to base said relations on a “bottom-up” perspective, the individual behavior of representative agents of economy, in terms of energy consumption and related carbon emissions, was studied, with particular emphasis on their investment in human capital. It was found that a higher investment in human capital (e.g., education, research) was translated into a better distribution of consumption, with a higher level of energy efficiency and a slight improvement in carbon emissions intensity.

You Know What It Is: Learning Words through Listening to Hip-Hop
Paula Chesley
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028248
Abstract: Music listeners have difficulty correctly understanding and remembering song lyrics. However, results from the present study support the hypothesis that young adults can learn African-American English (AAE) vocabulary from listening to hip-hop music. Non-African-American participants first gave free-response definitions to AAE vocabulary items, after which they answered demographic questions as well as questions addressing their social networks, their musical preferences, and their knowledge of popular culture. Results from the survey show a positive association between the number of hip-hop artists listened to and AAE comprehension vocabulary scores. Additionally, participants were more likely to know an AAE vocabulary item if the hip-hop artists they listen to use the word in their song lyrics. Together, these results suggest that young adults can acquire vocabulary through exposure to hip-hop music, a finding relevant for research on vocabulary acquisition, the construction of adolescent and adult identities, and the adoption of lexical innovations.
NIH research to be open access
Paula Park
Genome Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20040802-01
Abstract: Zerhouni stopped short of setting deadlines for depositing full-text materials in the searchable PubMed database, as recommended in a House Appropriations Committee report released earlier this month. Instead, he asked the publishing executives to inform him how best to manage material so that the public can freely use it."The public needs to have access to what they've paid for," Zerhouni told commercial and nonprofit publishing executives at a meeting he called on the NIH campus. Congress, he said, also demanded evidence of the agency's productivity. "I need to manage the portfolio," he said. "The status quo just can't stand."The executive conference was the first of several planned meetings that will lead to the creation of an approach public access, which NIH will publish in the Federal Register for comment before it becomes official policy, Zerhouni said. He would not say when the policy-making would begin, but the Appropriations Committee report requested that NIH produce some language by December 1.That report recommended that papers resulting from NIH-funded research be deposited in PubMed 6 months after their publication in a journal. Papers for which NIH pays publishing costs would be deposited immediately upon publication. Last year, a member of Congress introduced a bill that would have banned copyright on all publications based on federally funded research; that bill has been in committee since last fall.Several meeting participants expressed exasperation with the House report, which they termed a "government mandate." Paul W. Kincade, president of the Federation of American Societies of Experimental Biology, told us that he resented the "coercion." Others grumbled that the government couldn't tell publishers what to do."They were a little startled by the language," Pat Schroeder, president and executive director of the Association of American Publishers, explained diplomatically in the meeting. She likened the report's recommendations to the "federal g
NIH unveils open access draft
Paula Park
Genome Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20040909-01
Abstract: Under the proposed policy, journal peer-review committees would vet papers that report results from NIH-sponsored research. Once the journal has edited and published the articles, editors would upload them to a searchable Web site and NIH would make them publicly available within 6 months."Establishing a comprehensive, searchable electronic resource of NIH-funded research results and providing free access to all, is perhaps the most fundamental way to collect and disseminate this information," the draft policy says. "The NIH must balance this need with the ability of journals and publishers to preserve their critical role in the peer review, editing, and scientific quality control process."Originally, a House Appropriations Committee report suggested that the NIH require the immediate public release of papers for which the agency pays publication costs, as well as requiring that papers on other NIH-sponsored research be released 6 months after publication.But during a July meeting with NIH director Elias Zerhouni, publishers complained that the immediate release of papers would dramatically affect their businesses. Immediate release was not included in the NIH draft, which was released for 60 days of public comment before becoming official policy, in deference to publishers.The compromise satisfied neither publishers nor open-access advocates, however. "The policy is admirable and a step in the right direction, but it's not open access," said Harold Varmus, chairman, Public Library of Science, and president, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. "The ultimate goal is true open access, with publications available at the time they are issued," Varmus told us.Marc Kirschner, professor of systems biology at Harvard Medical School, said that the 6-month publication delay is less than ideal because it will prevent scientists from immediately accessing research critical to their own work. "That's going to cause a duplication," said Kirschner, who serves on the board of B
Universal bioinformatics system
Paula Park
Genome Biology , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20020612-01
Abstract: The Interoperable Informatics Infrastructure Consortium (I3C) demonstrated a universal nomenclature at the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO) 2002 Annual Convention. The Life Science Identifier (LSID) defines a simple convention for identifying and accessing biological data stored in multiple formats.Today, researchers use more than 400 file formats, and each lab has its own system for naming and structuring the data. "[LSID] allows us to identify an object in a database or flat file and assign it a single name," said Brian Gilman, head of the I3C technical architecture working group, one of 1000 exhibitors at the convention. "We're trying to make things as open and transparent as possible."Gilman, who is also a group leader for informatics in the medical and population genetics program at the Whitehead Institute, said I3C hopes to help gain support for a single forum for open source software and bioinformatics tools.In January 2001, to help bioinformatics specialists focus on analyzing data rather than on simply translating it from one system to another, Sun Microsystems' Informatics Advisory Council, the Biotechnology Industry Organization (BIO), IBM, and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) created I3C. These groups loosely modeled the organization after the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), which attempts to ensure that web pages employ universal standards and formats. I3C now consists of 75 member organizations.I3C plans to establish common protocols by accepting and evaluating proposed standards and conventions submitted by life scientists around the world, Gilman said. On Monday, the group also demonstrated how to integrate information using the Bioinformatic Sequence Markup Language (BSML), which was developed with funding from the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI)."We are completely supportive of the idea of community-based architecture," said Caroline Kovac, general manager of IBM life science solutions group in Somers, New York. "I thi
The ethics and regulation of direct-to-consumer genetic testing
Paula Boddington
Genome Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/gm71
Abstract: The one-day workshop 'Direct-to-consumer genetic testing: ethical and regulatory issues' was an initiative of the Oxford Bioethics Network, organized by The Program on the Ethics of the New Biosciences and The Ethox Centre. A small event with approximately 70 delegates attending from greatly varying disciplinary backgrounds, it produced vigorous discussion. This was the first time a group of diverse experts has been gathered together in the UK to discuss the scientific, ethical and regulatory aspects of commercial genetic testing, and throughout the day there were far more questions and comments than could be accommodated, with breaks between sessions continuing the lively discussions.Jenny Taylor (Oxford Biomedical Research Institute, Oxford, UK) explained the translation of genetic research into clinical practice, within the context of the UK National Health Service (NHS). Taylor explained the lengthy translational process and the many barriers that can stand in its way. Importantly, unlike pharmaceutical products, there is no clear regulatory pathway for diagnostics; thus, there is little guidance about whether tests are clinically appropriate. Taylor herself suggested that the NHS should offer genetic testing to optimize the correct dosing of the blood-thinning drug warfarin, but did not feel that the clinical utility of many cancer tests had yet been shown. In an overview of the very different services that direct-to-consumer (DTC) companies are offering, she pointed out that the tests offered commercially have almost no overlap with the list of genetic tests currently available through the NHS.One of the commentators from the floor observed that the commercial companies act as gatekeepers to genetic information just as much as health care services and government regulators do in deciding what tests to offer, and how, and for what price. This reflected a theme taken up at various points during the meeting.Andrew Wilkie (Weatherall Institute, University of Oxfor
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