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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 92437 matches for " Paul Y. Kim "
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Insulin Resistance in Pregnancy Is Correlated with Decreased Insulin Receptor Gene Expression in Omental Adipose: Insulin Sensitivity and Adipose Tissue Gene Expression in Normal Pregnancy  [PDF]
Arnold M. Mahesan, Dotun Ogunyemi, Eric Kim, Anthea B. M. Paul, Y.-D. Ida Chen
Journal of Diabetes Mellitus (JDM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jdm.2016.61011
Abstract: Aims: To determine correlations of insulin sensitivity to gene expression in omental and subcutaneous adipose tissue of non-obese, non-diabetic pregnant women. Methods: Microarray gene profiling was performed on subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue from 14 patients and obtained while fasting during non-laboring Cesarean section, using Illumina HumanHT-12 V4 Expression BeadChips. Findings were validated by real-time PCR. Matusda-Insulin sensitivity index (IS) and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were calculated from glucose and insulin levels obtained from a frequently sampled oral glucose tolerance test, and correlated with gene expression. Results: Of genes differentially expressed in omental vs. subcutaneous adipose, in omentum 12 genes were expressed toward insulin resistance, whereas only 5 genes were expressed toward insulin sensitivity. In particular, expression of the insulin receptor gene (INSR), which initiates the insulin signaling cascade, is strongly positively correlated with IS and negatively with HOMA-IR in omental tissue (r = 0.84). Conclusion: Differential gene expression in omentum relative to subcutaneous adipose showed a pro-insulin resistance profile in omentum. A clinical importance of omental adipose is observed here, as downregulation of insulin receptor in omentum is correlated with increased systemic insulin resistance.
p38 MAPK-Mediated Bmi-1 Down-Regulation and Defective Proliferation in ATM-Deficient Neural Stem Cells Can Be Restored by Akt Activation
Jeesun Kim,Jeon Hwangbo,Paul K. Y. Wong
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016615
Abstract: A-T (ataxia telangiectasia) is a genetic disease caused by a mutation in the Atm (A-T mutated) gene that leads to neurodegeneration. Despite an increase in the numbers of studies in this area in recent years, the mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration in human A-T are still poorly understood. Previous studies demonstrated that neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of Atm-/- mouse brains show defective self-renewal and proliferation, which is accompanied by activation of chronic p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and a lower level of the polycomb protein Bmi-1. However, the mechanism underlying Bmi-1 down-regulation and its relevance to defective proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs remained unclear. Here, we show that over-expression of Bmi-1 increases self-renewal and proliferation of Atm-/- NSCs to normal, indicating that defective proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs is a consequence of down-regulation of Bmi-1. We also demonstrate that epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced Akt phosphorylation renders Bmi-1 resistant to the proteasomal degradation, leading to its stabilization and accumulation in the nucleus. However, inhibition of the Akt-dependent Bmi-1 stabilizing process by p38 MAPK signaling reduces the levels of Bmi-1. Treatment of the Atm-/- NSCs with a specific p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 extended Bmi-1 posttranscriptional turnover and H2A ubiquitination in Atm-/- NSCs. Our observations demonstrate the molecular basis underlying the impairment of self-renewal and proliferation in Atm-/- NSCs through the p38 MAPK-Akt-Bmi-1-p21 signaling pathway.
Long Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Alter Oxytocin Signaling and Receptor Density in Cultured Pregnant Human Myometrial Smooth Muscle Cells
Paul Y. Kim, Miao Zhong, Yoon-Sun Kim, Barbara M. Sanborn, Kenneth G. D. Allen
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041708
Abstract: Epidemiological studies and interventional clinical trials indicate that consumption of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) lengthen gestational duration. Although the mechanisms are not well understood, prostaglandins (PG) of the 2-series are known to play a role in the initiation and progress of labor. In animal studies, modest DHA provision has been shown to reduce placental and uterine PGE2 and PGF2α, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9 expression, and placental collagenase activity. However, modulation of PG biosynthesis may not account for all the effects of LC n-3 PUFAs in labor. We investigated one potential PG-independent mechanism of LC PUFA action using cultured pregnant human myometrial smooth muscle cells. Our goal was to characterize the effect of LC PUFA treatment on oxytocin signaling, a potent uterotonic hormone involved in labor. The addition of 10 μM–100 μM DHA or arachidonic acid (AA) to the culture media for 48 h resulted in dose dependent enrichment of these fatty acids in membrane lipid. DHA and AA significantly inhibited phosphatidylinositol turnover and [Ca2+]i mobilization with oxytocin stimulation compared to bovine serum albumin control and equimolar oleic acid. DHA and AA significantly reduced oxytocin receptor membrane concentration without altering binding affinity or rate of receptor internalization. These findings demonstrate a role for LC n-3 PUFAs in regulation of oxytocin signaling and provide new insight into additional mechanisms pertaining to reports of dietary fish and fish oil consumption prolonging gestation.
Prevalence of antibody to Trypanosoma cruzi in Hispanic-surnamed patients seen at Parkland Health & Hospital System, Dallas, Texas
Roberto Arena, Christine E Mathews, Anne Y Kim, Tim E Lenz, Paul M Southern
BMC Research Notes , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1756-0500-4-132
Abstract: Five hundred serum specimens from Hispanic-surnamed patients were tested by a preliminary ELISA method. On a subset of 50 sera confirmatory testing was also performed using an alternative ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence, and TESA immunoblot. For 274 of 500 Hispanic-surnamed patients, we were able to ascertain immigration status upon medical chart review. Of the 274 sera analyzed, one sample tested as positive for anti-T. cruzi antibody by the preliminary ELISA, and by the three confirmatory methods.The goal of this study is to increase the awareness of T. cruzi infection and Chagas disease in areas where the Latin American immigrant communities are growing. Our study highlights the importance of testing for Chagas disease in the populations most at risk, and the need for current data on the actual seroprevalence in areas where such immigrant populations are conspicuous. Larger-scale epidemiologic surveys on Chagas disease in the immigrant communities from Latin America are warranted.Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is an infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This parasite is usually transmitted to humans by Triatominae insects as vectors. Transmission of the infection also occurs transplacentally, via blood transfusion, organ transplantation, laboratory incident, and ingestion of triatomine-contaminated food or drink [1-12]. Chagas disease has an acute stage, typically asymptomatic or with mild symptoms (e.g., fever, malaise, swelling at the site of inoculation, and lymphadenopathy) during the first 6 to 8 weeks after infection. This acute stage is often undetected and thus not treated. If not treated, Chagas disease becomes a chronic, lifelong condition which can go undetected for several decades in any given patient. The majority of infected persons remain asymptomatic in the chronic indeterminate phase (i.e., a prolonged period of clinically silent infection that follows acute primary infection). However, an estimated ~30%
Bacterial Inactivation of Wound Infection in a Human Skin Model by Liquid-Phase Discharge Plasma
Paul Y. Kim, Yoon-Sun Kim, Il Gyo Koo, Jae Chul Jung, Gon Jun Kim, Myeong Yeol Choi, Zengqi Yu, George J. Collins
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024104
Abstract: Background We investigate disinfection of a reconstructed human skin model contaminated with biofilm-formative Staphylococcus aureus employing plasma discharge in liquid. Principal Findings We observed statistically significant 3.83-log10 (p<0.001) and 1.59-log10 (p<0.05) decreases in colony forming units of adherent S. aureus bacteria and 24 h S. aureus biofilm culture with plasma treatment. Plasma treatment was associated with minimal changes in histological morphology and tissue viability determined by means of MTT assay. Spectral analysis of the plasma discharge indicated the presence of highly reactive atomic oxygen radicals (777 nm and 844 nm) and OH bands in the UV region. The contribution of these and other plasma-generated agents and physical conditions to the reduction in bacterial load are discussed. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the potential of liquid plasma treatment as a potential adjunct therapy for chronic wounds.
How Important Is ‘Accuracy’ of Surrogate Decision-Making for Research Participation?
Scott Y. H. Kim, H. Myra Kim, Kerry A. Ryan, Paul S. Appelbaum, David S. Knopman, Laura Damschroder, Raymond De Vries
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0054790
Abstract: Background There is a longstanding concern about the accuracy of surrogate consent in representing the health care and research preferences of those who lose their ability to decide for themselves. We sought informed, deliberative views of the older general public (≥50 years old) regarding their willingness to participate in dementia research and to grant leeway to future surrogates to choose an option contrary to their stated wishes. Methodology/Principal Findings 503 persons aged 50+ recruited by random digit dialing were randomly assigned to one of three groups: deliberation, education, or control. The deliberation group attended an all-day education/peer deliberation session; the education group received written information only. Participants were surveyed at baseline, after the deliberation session (or equivalent time), and one month after the session, regarding their willingness to participate in dementia research and to give leeway to surrogates, regarding studies of varying risk-benefit profiles (a lumbar puncture study, a drug randomized controlled trial, a vaccine randomized controlled trial, and an early phase gene transfer trial). At baseline, 48% (gene transfer scenario) to 92% (drug RCT) were willing to participate in future dementia research. A majority of respondents (57–71% depending on scenario) were willing to give leeway to future surrogate decision-makers. Democratic deliberation increased willingness to participate in all scenarios, to grant leeway in 3 of 4 scenarios (lumbar puncture, vaccine, and gene transfer), and to enroll loved ones in research in all scenarios. On average, respondents were more willing to volunteer themselves for research than to enroll their loved ones. Conclusions/Significance Most people were willing to grant leeway to their surrogates, and this willingness was either sustained or increased after democratic deliberation, suggesting that the attitude toward leeway is a reliable opinion. Eliciting a person’s current preferences about future research participation should also involve eliciting his or her leeway preferences.
Neurocritical Care Training for the Neurosurgery Resident  [PDF]
Paul EKaloostian, Jennifer Kim, Howard Yonas
Open Journal of Modern Neurosurgery (OJMN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojmn.2013.32003
Abstract:

Introduction: Recent data has associated favorable outcomes in patients who were treated in a “semi-closed” intensive care unit and attended to by a devoted team of neurointensivists as opposed to the neurosurgeons. This has led many to question the need for dedicated critical care education in the neurosurgical residency training program. Our aim was to determine what current neurosurgery residents and program directors/chairman thoughts were on NCC education in neurosurgical resident training, and to discuss possible methods to allow for collaboration between the NCC team and the neurosurgeons. Methods: Surveys were sent out electronically to all residency programs. Thirty-nine responses from junior residents, 36 responses from senior/chief residents, and eight responses from program directors/chairman were obtained. Results: No statistical difference between the majority responses of the different level residents, and between program directors/chairman and combined resident responses. Conclusions: Clearly, neurosurgery residents of all levels and program directors/chairman value NCC education and see a valuable role for this knowledge in their future. Most residents however do not want to spend an additional year of fellowship training to become certified neurointensivists. We discuss the role of NCC education in residency training and possible solutions to allow collaboration between the NCC team and the neurosurgical team.

Aversion to Risk and Downside Risk in the Large and in the Small under Non-Expected Utility: A Quantile Approach  [PDF]
Jean-Paul Chavas, Kwansoo Kim
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.56090
Abstract: This paper proposes a decomposition of the cost of risk (as measured by a risk premium) across intervals/quantiles of the payoff distribution. The analysis is based on general smooth risk preferences. While this includes the expected utility model as a special case, the investigation is done under a broad class of non-expected utility models. We decompose the risk premium into additive components across quantiles. Defining downside risk as the risk associated with a lower quantile, this provides a basis to evaluate the cost of exposure to downside risk. We derive a local measure of the cost of risk associated with each quantile. It establishes linkages between the cost of risk, risk preferences and the distribution of risky prospects across quantiles (as measured by quantile variance and skewness). The analysis gives new and useful information on how risk aversion, exposure to downside risk and departures from the expected utility model interact as they affect the risk premium.
Vaccine Polioviruses in Stool Samples of AFP Cases
Paul Y
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2006,
Abstract:
SSPE and measles vaccine
Paul Y
Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology , 2002,
Abstract:
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