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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 144935 matches for " Paul T. Williams "
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Non-Exchangeability of Running vs. Other Exercise in Their Association with Adiposity, and Its Implications for Public Health Recommendations
Paul T. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036360
Abstract: Purpose Current physical activity recommendations assume that different activities can be exchanged to produce the same weight-control benefits so long as total energy expended remains the same (exchangeability premise). To this end, they recommend calculating energy expenditure as the product of the time spent performing each activity and the activity's metabolic equivalents (MET), which may be summed to achieve target levels. The validity of the exchangeability premise was assessed using data from the National Runners' Health Study. Methods Physical activity dose was compared to body mass index (BMI) and body circumferences in 33,374 runners who reported usual distance run and pace, and usual times spent running and other exercises per week. MET hours per day (METhr/d) from running was computed from: a) time and intensity, and b) reported distance run (1.02 MET?hours per km). Results When computed from time and intensity, the declines (slope±SE) per METhr/d were significantly greater (P<10?15) for running than non-running exercise for BMI (slopes±SE, male: ?0.12±0.00 vs. 0.00±0.00; female: ?0.12±0.00 vs. ?0.01±0.01 kg/m2 per METhr/d) and waist circumference (male: ?0.28±0.01 vs. ?0.07±0.01; female: ?0. 31±0.01 vs. ?0.05±0.01 cm per METhr/d). Reported METhr/d of running was 38% to 43% greater when calculated from time and intensity than distance. Moreover, the declines per METhr/d run were significantly greater when estimated from reported distance for BMI (males: ?0.29±0.01; females: ?0.27±0.01 kg/m2 per METhr/d) and waist circumference (males: ?0.67±0.02; females: ?0.69±0.02 cm per METhr/d) than when computed from time and intensity (cited above). Conclusion The exchangeability premise was not supported for running vs. non-running exercise. Moreover, distance-based running prescriptions may provide better weight control than time-based prescriptions for running or other activities. Additional longitudinal studies and randomized clinical trials are required to verify these results prospectively.
Distance Walked and Run as Improved Metrics over Time-Based Energy Estimation in Epidemiological Studies and Prevention; Evidence from Medication Use
Paul T. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041906
Abstract: Purpose The guideline physical activity levels are prescribed in terms of time, frequency, and intensity (e.g., 30 minutes brisk walking, five days a week or its energy equivalence) and assume that different activities may be combined to meet targeted goals (exchangeability premise). Habitual runners and walkers may quantify exercise in terms of distance (km/day), and for them, the relationship between activity dose and health benefits may be better assessed in terms of distance rather than time. Analyses were therefore performed to test: 1) whether time-based or distance-based estimates of energy expenditure provide the best metric for relating running and walking to hypertensive, high cholesterol, and diabetes medication use (conditions known to be diminished by exercise), and 2) the exchangeability premise. Methods Logistic regression analyses of medication use (dependent variable) vs. metabolic equivalent hours per day (METhr/d) of running, walking and other exercise (independent variables) using cross-sectional data from the National Runners' (17,201 male, 16,173 female) and Walkers' Health Studies (3,434 male, 12,384 female). Results Estimated METhr/d of running and walking activity were 38% and 31% greater, respectively, when calculated from self-reported time than distance in men, and 43% and 37% greater in women, respectively. Percent reductions in the odds for hypertension and high cholesterol medication use per METhr/d run or per METhr/d walked were ≥2-fold greater when estimated from reported distance (km/wk) than from time (hr/wk). The per METhr/d odds reduction was significantly greater for the distance- than the time-based estimate for hypertension (runners: P<10?5 for males and P = 0.003 for females; walkers: P = 0.03 for males and P<10?4 for females), high cholesterol medication use in runners (P<10?4 for males and P = 0.02 for females) and male walkers (P = 0.01 for males and P = 0.08 for females) and for diabetes medication use in male runners (P<10?3). Conclusions Although causality between greater exercise and lower prevalence of hypertension, high cholesterol and diabetes cannot be inferred from these cross-sectional data, the results do suggest that distance-based estimates of METhr/d run or walked provide superior metrics for epidemiological analyses to their traditional time-based estimates.
Attenuating Effect of Vigorous Physical Activity on the Risk for Inherited Obesity: A Study of 47,691 Runners
Paul T. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031436
Abstract: Objective Physical activity has been shown to attenuate the effect of the FTO polymorphism on body weight, and the heritability of body weight in twin and in family studies. The dose-response relationship between activity and the risk for inherited obesity is not well known, particularly for higher doses of vigorous exercise. Such information is needed to best prescribe an exercise dose for obesity prevention in those at risk due to their family history. Design We therefore analyzed self-reported usual running distance, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and mother's and father's adiposity (1 = lean, 2 = normal, 3 = overweight, and 4 = very overweight) from survey data collected on 33,480 male and 14,211 female runners. Age-, education-, and alcohol-adjusted regression analyses were used to estimate the contribution of parental adiposities to the BMI and waist circumferences in runners who ran an average of <3, 3–6, 6–9, ≥9 km/day. Results BMI and waist circumferences of runners who ran <3 km/day were significantly related to their parents adiposity (P<10?15 and P<10?11, respectively). These relationships (i.e., kg/m2 or cm per increment in parental adiposity) diminished significantly with increasing running distance for both BMI (inheritance×exercise interaction, males: P<10?10; females: P<10?5) and waist circumference (inheritance×exercise interaction, males: P<10?9; females: P = 0.004). Compared to <3 km/day, the parental contribution to runners who averaged ≥9 km/day was diminished by 48% for male BMI, 58% for female BMI, 55% for male waist circumference, and 58% for female waist circumference. These results could not be attributed to self-selection. Conclusions Exceeding the minimum exercise dose currently recommended for general health benefits (energy equivalent to running 2–3 km/day) may substantially diminish the risk for inherited obesity. The results are consistent with other research suggesting the physical activity dose required to prevent unhealthy weight gain is greater than that recommended for other health benefits.
Evidence That Obesity Risk Factor Potencies Are Weight Dependent, a Phenomenon That May Explain Accelerated Weight Gain in Western Societies
Paul T. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027657
Abstract: Background We have shown that individuals at the highest percentiles of the body mass index (BMI) distribution (i.e., most overweight) experience greater increases in body weight from sedentary lifestyle than those from the lowest percentiles. The purpose of the current analyses was to assess whether recent, accelerated increases in obesity could potentially be due to increased vulnerability to obesity risk factors as the population has become more overweight. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantile regression was used to compare BMI population percentiles to obesity risk factors (lower education, diets characterized by high-meat/low-fruit content, parental adiposity) in two independent samples of men (N1 = 3,513, N2 = 11,365) and women (N1 = 15,809, N2 = 10,159). The samples were subsets of the National Walkers' (Study 1) and Runners' (Study 2) Health Studies whose physical activities fell short of nationally recommended activity levels. The data were adjusted for age, race, and any residual effects of physical activity. The regression slopes for BMI vs. education, diet, and family history became progressively stronger from the lowest (e.g., 5th, 6th…) to the highest (e.g., …, 94th, 95th) BMI percentiles. Compared to the 10th BMI percentile, their effects on the 90th BMI percentile were: 1) 2.7- to 8.6-fold greater in women and 2.0- to 2.4-fold greater in men for education; 2) 3.6- to 4.8-fold greater in women and 1.7- to 2.7-fold greater in men for diet; and 3) 2.0- to 2.6-fold greater in women and 1.7-fold greater in men for family history. Conclusions/Significance Thus we propose risk factors that produce little weight gain in lean individuals may become more potent with increasing adiposity. This leads us to hypothesize that an individual's obesity is itself a major component of their obesogenic environment, and that, the cycle of weight gain and increased sensitivity to obesity risk factors may partly explain recent increases in obesity in western societies.
Quantile-Specific Penetrance of Genes Affecting Lipoproteins, Adiposity and Height
Paul T. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028764
Abstract: Quantile-dependent penetrance is proposed to occur when the phenotypic expression of a SNP depends upon the population percentile of the phenotype. To illustrate the phenomenon, quantiles of height, body mass index (BMI), and plasma lipids and lipoproteins were compared to genetic risk scores (GRS) derived from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)s having established genome-wide significance: 180 SNPs for height, 32 for BMI, 37 for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, 47 for high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, 52 for total cholesterol, and 31 for triglycerides in 1930 subjects. Both phenotypes and GRSs were adjusted for sex, age, study, and smoking status. Quantile regression showed that the slope of the genotype-phenotype relationships increased with the percentile of BMI (P = 0.002), LDL-cholesterol (P = 3×10?8), HDL-cholesterol (P = 5×10?6), total cholesterol (P = 2.5×10?6), and triglyceride distribution (P = 7.5×10?6), but not height (P = 0.09). Compared to a GRS's phenotypic effect at the 10th population percentile, its effect at the 90th percentile was 4.2-fold greater for BMI, 4.9-fold greater for LDL-cholesterol, 1.9-fold greater for HDL-cholesterol, 3.1-fold greater for total cholesterol, and 3.3-fold greater for triglycerides. Moreover, the effect of the rs1558902 (FTO) risk allele was 6.7-fold greater at the 90th than the 10th percentile of the BMI distribution, and that of the rs3764261 (CETP) risk allele was 2.4-fold greater at the 90th than the 10th percentile of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Conceptually, it maybe useful to distinguish environmental effects on the phenotype that in turn alters a gene's phenotypic expression (quantile-dependent penetrance) from environmental effects affecting the gene's phenotypic expression directly (gene-environment interaction).
Inadequate Exercise as a Risk Factor for Sepsis Mortality
Paul T. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0079344
Abstract: Objective Test whether inadequate exercise is related to sepsis mortality. Research Design and Methods Mortality surveillance of an epidemiological cohort of 155,484 National Walkers' and Runners' Health Study participants residing in the United States. Deaths were monitored for an average of 11.6-years using the National Death index through December 31, 2008. Cox proportional hazard analyses were used to compare sepsis mortality (ICD-10 A40-41) to inadequate exercise (<1.07 METh/d run or walked) as measured on their baseline questionnaires. Deaths occurring within one year of the baseline survey were excluded. Results Sepsis was the underlying cause in 54 deaths (sepsisunderlying) and a contributing cause in 184 deaths (sepsiscontributing), or 238 total sepsis-related deaths (sepsistotal). Inadequate exercise was associated with 2.24-fold increased risk for sepsisunderlying (95%CI: 1.21 to 4.07-fold, P = 0.01), 2.11-fold increased risk for sepsiscontributing (95%CI: 1.51- to 2.92-fold, P<10?4), and 2.13-fold increased risk for sepsistotal (95%CI: 1.59- to 2.84-fold, P<10?6) when adjusted for age, sex, race, and cohort. The risk increase did not differ significantly between runners and walkers, by sex, or by age. Sepsistotal risk was greater in diabetics (P = 10?5), cancer survivors (P = 0.0001), and heart attack survivors (P = 0.003) and increased with waist circumference (P = 0.0004). The sepsistotal risk associated with inadequate exercise persisted when further adjusted for diabetes, prior cancer, prior heart attack and waist circumference, and when excluding deaths with cancer, or cardiovascular, respiratory, or genitourinary disease as the underlying cause. Inadequate exercise also increased sepsistotal risk in 2163 baseline diabetics (4.78-fold, 95%CI: 2.1- to 13.8-fold, P = 0.0001) when adjusted, which was significantly greater (P = 0.03) than the adjusted risk increase in non-diabetics (1.80-fold, 95%CI: 1.30- to 2.46-fold, P = 0.0006). Conclusion Inadequate exercise is a risk factor for sepsis mortality, particular in diabetics.
Breast Cancer Mortality vs. Exercise and Breast Size in Runners and Walkers
Paul T. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080616
Abstract: Purpose Identify predictors of breast cancer mortality in women who exercised below (<7.5 metabolic equivalent hours/week, MET-hours/wk), at (7.5 to 12.5 MET-hours/wk), or above (≥12.5 MET-hours/wk) recommended levels. Methods Cox proportional hazard analyses of baseline pre-diagnosis MET-hours/wk vs. breast cancer mortality adjusted for follow-up age, race, baseline menopause, and estrogen and oral contraceptive use in 79,124 women (32,872 walkers, 46,252 runners) from the National Walkers' and Runners' Health Studies. Results One-hundred eleven women (57 walkers, 54 runners) died from breast cancer during the 11-year follow-up. The decline in mortality in women who exercised ≥7.5 MET-hours/wk was not different for walking and running (P = 0.34), so running and walking energy expenditures were combined. The risk for breast cancer mortality was 41.5% lower for ≥7.5 vs. <7.5 MET-hours/wk (HR: 0.585, 95%CI: 0.382 to 0.924, P = 0.02), which persisted when adjusted for BMI (HR: 0.584, 95%CI: 0.368 to 0.956, P = 0.03). Other than age and menopause, baseline bra cup size was the strongest predictor of breast cancer mortality, i.e., 57.9% risk increase per cup size when adjusted for MET-hours/wk and the other covariates (HR: 1.579, 95%CI: 1.268 to 1.966, P<0.0001), and 70.4% greater when further adjusted for BMI (HR: 1.704, 95%CI: 1.344 to 2.156, P = 10?5). Breast cancer mortality was 4.0-fold greater (HR: 3.980, 95%CI: 1.894 to 9.412, P = 0.0001) for C-cup, and 4.7-fold greater (HR: 4.668, 95%CI: 1.963 to 11.980, P = 0.0004) for ≥D-cup vs. A-cup when adjusted for BMI and other covariates. Adjustment for cup size and BMI did not eliminate the association between breast cancer mortality and ≥7.5 MET-hour/wk walked or run (HR: 0.615, 95%CI: 0.389 to 1.004, P = 0.05). Conclusion Breast cancer mortality decreased in association with both meeting the exercise recommendations and smaller breast volume.
Dose-Response Relationship of Physical Activity to Premature and Total All-Cause and Cardiovascular Disease Mortality in Walkers
Paul T. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078777
Abstract: Purpose To assess the dose-response relationships between cause-specific mortality and exercise energy expenditure in a prospective epidemiological cohort of walkers. Methods The sample consisted of the 8,436 male and 33,586 female participants of the National Walkers' Health Study. Walking energy expenditure was calculated in metabolic equivalents (METs, 1 MET = 3.5 ml O2/kg/min), which were used to divide the cohort into four exercise categories: category 1 (≤1.07 MET-hours/d), category 2 (1.07 to 1.8 MET-hours/d), category 3 (1.8 to 3.6 MET-hours/d), and category 4 (≥3.6 MET-hours/d). Competing risk regression analyses were use to calculate the risk of mortality for categories 2, 3 and 4 relative to category 1. Results 22.9% of the subjects were in category 1, 16.1% in category 2, 33.3% in category 3, and 27.7% in category 4. There were 2,448 deaths during the 9.6 average years of follow-up. Total mortality was 11.2% lower in category 2 (P = 0.04), 32.4% lower in category 3 (P<10?12) and 32.9% lower in category 4 (P = 10?11) than in category 1. For underlying causes of death, the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 23.6% (P = 0.008), 35.2% (P<10?5), and 34.9% (P = 0.0001) for cardiovascular disease mortality; 27.8% (P = 0.18), 20.6% (P = 0.07), and 31.4% (P = 0.009) for ischemic heart disease mortality; and 39.4% (P = 0.18), 63.8% (P = 0.005), and 90.6% (P = 0.002) for diabetes mortality when compared to category 1. For all related mortality (i.e., underlying and contributing causes of death combined), the respective risk reductions for categories 2, 3 and 4 were 18.7% (P = 0.22), 42.5% (P = 0.001), and 57.5% (P = 0.0001) for heart failure; 9.4% (P = 0.56), 44.3% (P = 0.0004), and 33.5% (P = 0.02) for hypertensive diseases; 11.5% (P = 0.38), 41.0% (P<10?4), and 35.5% (P = 0.001) for dysrhythmias: and 23.2% (P = 0.13), 45.8% (P = 0.0002), and 41.1% (P = 0.005) for cerebrovascular diseases when compared to category 1. Conclusions There are substantial health benefits to exceeding the current exercise guidelines.
The Relationship of Walking Intensity to Total and Cause-Specific Mortality. Results from the National Walkers’ Health Study
Paul T. Williams, Paul D. Thompson
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081098
Abstract: Purpose Test whether: 1) walking intensity predicts mortality when adjusted for walking energy expenditure, and 2) slow walking pace (≥24-minute mile) identifies subjects at substantially elevated risk for mortality. Methods Hazard ratios from Cox proportional survival analyses of all-cause and cause-specific mortality vs. usual walking pace (min/mile) in 7,374 male and 31,607 female recreational walkers. Survival times were left censored for age at entry into the study. Other causes of death were treated as a competing risk for the analyses of cause-specific mortality. All analyses were adjusted for sex, education, baseline smoking, prior heart attack, aspirin use, diet, BMI, and walking energy expenditure. Deaths within one year of baseline were excluded. Results The National Death Index identified 1968 deaths during the average 9.4-year mortality surveillance. Each additional minute per mile in walking pace was associated with an increased risk of mortality due to all causes (1.8% increase, P=10-5), cardiovascular diseases (2.4% increase, P=0.001, 637 deaths), ischemic heart disease (2.8% increase, P=0.003, 336 deaths), heart failure (6.5% increase, P=0.001, 36 deaths), hypertensive heart disease (6.2% increase, P=0.01, 31 deaths), diabetes (6.3% increase, P=0.004, 32 deaths), and dementia (6.6% increase, P=0.0004, 44 deaths). Those reporting a pace slower than a 24-minute mile were at increased risk for mortality due to all-causes (44.3% increased risk, P=0.0001), cardiovascular diseases (43.9% increased risk, P=0.03), and dementia (5.0-fold increased risk, P=0.0002) even though they satisfied the current exercise recommendations by walking ≥7.5 metabolic equivalent (MET)-hours per week. Conclusions The risk for mortality: 1) decreases in association with walking intensity, and 2) increases substantially in association for walking pace ≥24 minute mile (equivalent to <400m during a six-minute walk test) even among subjects who exercise regularly.
Bismuth Toxicity: A Rare Cause of Neurologic Dysfunction  [PDF]
Paul T. Reynolds, Kathleen C. Abalos, Jennifer Hopp, Mark E. Williams
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2012.31010
Abstract: Bismuth subsalicylate (Pepto-Bismol?) and other bismuth-containing compounds have been used for many years to treat gastroenterological complaints. Although safe in the majority of patients, bismuth can cause a well-described toxic state marked by progressive neurological decline. Features of bismuth toxicity include confusion, postural instability, myoclonus, and problems with language. This presentation can masquerade as other causes of progressive neurologic dysfunction including Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (CJD), Hashimoto’s Encephalopathy, and others. In this case study, we present a patient who was using bismuth salicylate in toxic quantities to help control diarrhea. On initial presentation, several diagnoses were entertained before bismuth levels were obtained. This case study highlights the fact that bismuth toxicity, while rare, should be considered in a patient with progressive neurological decline. Also, we hope this case reminds physicians of a severe consequence of a common, readily available medication.
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