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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 139937 matches for " Paul T. Akuhwa "
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Decision Theory and Analysis: An Optima Value Creation Precursor for Organizations  [PDF]
Cephas A. Gbande, Paul T. Akuhwa
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2015.57036
Abstract: Organizations make many informed decisions such as increasing production capacity, improving human capital, entering a new market etc. This paper shows that executives take either of the two major types of decisions: programmed (structured) and nonprogrammed (unstructured) decisions. While the programmed decisions are for perfectly stable situations, the nonprogrammed decisions are for the real world situation surrounded by uncertainties, risks and ambiguities. For an optima value creation, this paper is succinct that a robust decision theory and analysis serve as a precursor. The environment of decision-making keeps changing and it takes decision-making for organizations to change proportionately to these environmental changes if they must survive. The decision-maker uses probability values to convert uncertainties and risks into perfect knowledge poles so as to make informed decisions. Models are veritable decision making tools and are deterministic and probabilistic (or stochastic) for programmed and nonprogrammed decisions respectively. Real-world value optimization in this paper centres on decisions under pure uncertainty and risky situations generating model fits for an optima value creation. Finally, the optima value creation models under the uncertainty and risk are suggested and organizations advised to use professional decision theorists and analysts as the need arise.
Knowledge-Based Entrepreneurship and Globalization: Correlates for the Wealth of Nations and Perspectives from Nigeria  [PDF]
Paul T. Akuhwa, Cephas A. Gbande, Benedict S. Akorga, Zachariah S. Adye
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2015.58046
Abstract: Though Knowledge based entrepreneurship (KBE) is yet an evolving concept and globalization is without an acceptable concept globally, their tenets represent sound methods and strategies for socioeconomic development. Inextricably, KBE and globalization phenomena could be seen as mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive in exploiting socioeconomic development capital. In this paper, the authors investigated and found out that the defining role of both KBE and globalization was to relate as correlates for the wealth of nations, and also was in an invaluable relationship. KBE is defined as variables that engender innovation, creativity, entrepreneurial culture and orientation with science and technology to underpin optima value creation. These include measurable inputs such as micro, small and medium enterprises (MSME) performance and literacy rates at a given time period in the economy. Globalization on the other hand is a multifaceted, multidisciplinary and complex phenomenon that is proxy on economic, political and social globalization indexes, and internet penetration at a given time period in the same economy. This paper tested two hypotheses to prove the construct that KBE and globalization were correlates for wealth of nations with very significant results using secondary data. Research triangulation was also performed to pragmatically prove the results using primary data. Both meta-analyses were conducted using IBM SPSS 21 software on the main model, the multiple regression, a confirmatory model and the chi-square. Finally, the paper called for policy for improving training and education of science and technology content to the entrepreneurs, while taking a 360 degrees approach to promote and intensify globalization practices in Nigeria, and by extension, to other global economies.
The Relative Biologic Effectiveness versus Linear Energy Transfer Curve as a Cell Trait  [PDF]
Quoc T. Luu, Paul DuChateau
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/am.2013.411A3004

The magnitude of biological response varies with different radiation types. Using Linear Energy Transfer (LET) to differentiate types of incident radiation beam, the Relative Biologic Effectiveness (RBE) as a function of LET (RBE-LET) was found to have a characteristic shape with a peak around LET values 100 - 200 eV/nm. This general feature is believed to be a property of the incident beam. Our systems engineering model, however, suggests that the shape of the RBE-LET curve is a cell trait, a property of the cell. Like any other trait, phenotypic variations result from interactions of the genes and their context. State-space block diagram of the differential equation model suggests the genes are those in the DNA double strand break (dsb) repair pathway; and the context is cellular stress responsing to DNA damage by both external stimuli and internal redox state. At a deeper level, the block diagram suggests cell using mathematical calculations in its decision-making when facing a stress signal. The MRN protein complex, in particular, may perform addition to count the degree of DNA twisting for the homeostatic regulation of DNA supercoiling. The ATM protein may act as a feedback amplifier.

Measurements of electroweak couplings of the tau lepton at L3
T. Paul
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We review the current knowledge of the couplings of the tau lepton to the electroweak gauge bosons, the W, Z and photon, obtained from the full L3 data sample at center-of-mass energies near the Z mass. Measurements of the the effective vector and axial-vector weak neutral couplings of the $\tau$, the Lorentz structure of the weak charged current, and anomalous couplings of the electroweak gauge bosons to the tau are presented.
An Assessment of Public-Private-Partnerships in Land Servicing and Housing Delivery: The Case Study of Gaborone, Botswana  [PDF]
Faustin T. Kalabamu, Paul K. Lyamuya
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2017.54029
Botswana, like most countries in the developing world, has been daunted by an ever increasing demand for serviced land and housing in all its towns and cities. The pressure on municipal and central governments to allocate adequate attention and finance to house urban populations, especially the poor has also been rising. As a result, some countries (including Botswana) have developed public-private partnerships seeking to reduce public investments and risks associated with land servicing and provision of housing to the poor. This paper is an attempt to assess the performance of public-private partnerships in land servicing and housing delivery in Botswana taking Gaborone Municipal area as a case study. Data and information presented in this paper are drawn from secondary sources and in-depth interviews with key informants in the private sector, Botswana Housing Corporation, Gaborone City Council and the former Ministry of Lands and Housing. It notes that, contrary to common practices, Botswana has been able to involve private sector firms in land servicing and delivery of projects without explicit contracts. It has instead split delivery processes into phases whereby the government undertakes initial stages and transfers land to private sector firms to complete the process including erection of houses for sale and/or renting. Although the strategy may have relieved land and housing pressure on state resources, it appears to have excluded vulnerable and low income groups that are often target beneficiaries of state sponsored housing programmes. The paper ends with recommendations on how public-private partnerships in Botswana may be improved to achieve better efficiency and inclusiveness.
Non-Exchangeability of Running vs. Other Exercise in Their Association with Adiposity, and Its Implications for Public Health Recommendations
Paul T. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036360
Abstract: Purpose Current physical activity recommendations assume that different activities can be exchanged to produce the same weight-control benefits so long as total energy expended remains the same (exchangeability premise). To this end, they recommend calculating energy expenditure as the product of the time spent performing each activity and the activity's metabolic equivalents (MET), which may be summed to achieve target levels. The validity of the exchangeability premise was assessed using data from the National Runners' Health Study. Methods Physical activity dose was compared to body mass index (BMI) and body circumferences in 33,374 runners who reported usual distance run and pace, and usual times spent running and other exercises per week. MET hours per day (METhr/d) from running was computed from: a) time and intensity, and b) reported distance run (1.02 MET?hours per km). Results When computed from time and intensity, the declines (slope±SE) per METhr/d were significantly greater (P<10?15) for running than non-running exercise for BMI (slopes±SE, male: ?0.12±0.00 vs. 0.00±0.00; female: ?0.12±0.00 vs. ?0.01±0.01 kg/m2 per METhr/d) and waist circumference (male: ?0.28±0.01 vs. ?0.07±0.01; female: ?0. 31±0.01 vs. ?0.05±0.01 cm per METhr/d). Reported METhr/d of running was 38% to 43% greater when calculated from time and intensity than distance. Moreover, the declines per METhr/d run were significantly greater when estimated from reported distance for BMI (males: ?0.29±0.01; females: ?0.27±0.01 kg/m2 per METhr/d) and waist circumference (males: ?0.67±0.02; females: ?0.69±0.02 cm per METhr/d) than when computed from time and intensity (cited above). Conclusion The exchangeability premise was not supported for running vs. non-running exercise. Moreover, distance-based running prescriptions may provide better weight control than time-based prescriptions for running or other activities. Additional longitudinal studies and randomized clinical trials are required to verify these results prospectively.
Distance Walked and Run as Improved Metrics over Time-Based Energy Estimation in Epidemiological Studies and Prevention; Evidence from Medication Use
Paul T. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0041906
Abstract: Purpose The guideline physical activity levels are prescribed in terms of time, frequency, and intensity (e.g., 30 minutes brisk walking, five days a week or its energy equivalence) and assume that different activities may be combined to meet targeted goals (exchangeability premise). Habitual runners and walkers may quantify exercise in terms of distance (km/day), and for them, the relationship between activity dose and health benefits may be better assessed in terms of distance rather than time. Analyses were therefore performed to test: 1) whether time-based or distance-based estimates of energy expenditure provide the best metric for relating running and walking to hypertensive, high cholesterol, and diabetes medication use (conditions known to be diminished by exercise), and 2) the exchangeability premise. Methods Logistic regression analyses of medication use (dependent variable) vs. metabolic equivalent hours per day (METhr/d) of running, walking and other exercise (independent variables) using cross-sectional data from the National Runners' (17,201 male, 16,173 female) and Walkers' Health Studies (3,434 male, 12,384 female). Results Estimated METhr/d of running and walking activity were 38% and 31% greater, respectively, when calculated from self-reported time than distance in men, and 43% and 37% greater in women, respectively. Percent reductions in the odds for hypertension and high cholesterol medication use per METhr/d run or per METhr/d walked were ≥2-fold greater when estimated from reported distance (km/wk) than from time (hr/wk). The per METhr/d odds reduction was significantly greater for the distance- than the time-based estimate for hypertension (runners: P<10?5 for males and P = 0.003 for females; walkers: P = 0.03 for males and P<10?4 for females), high cholesterol medication use in runners (P<10?4 for males and P = 0.02 for females) and male walkers (P = 0.01 for males and P = 0.08 for females) and for diabetes medication use in male runners (P<10?3). Conclusions Although causality between greater exercise and lower prevalence of hypertension, high cholesterol and diabetes cannot be inferred from these cross-sectional data, the results do suggest that distance-based estimates of METhr/d run or walked provide superior metrics for epidemiological analyses to their traditional time-based estimates.
Attenuating Effect of Vigorous Physical Activity on the Risk for Inherited Obesity: A Study of 47,691 Runners
Paul T. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0031436
Abstract: Objective Physical activity has been shown to attenuate the effect of the FTO polymorphism on body weight, and the heritability of body weight in twin and in family studies. The dose-response relationship between activity and the risk for inherited obesity is not well known, particularly for higher doses of vigorous exercise. Such information is needed to best prescribe an exercise dose for obesity prevention in those at risk due to their family history. Design We therefore analyzed self-reported usual running distance, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and mother's and father's adiposity (1 = lean, 2 = normal, 3 = overweight, and 4 = very overweight) from survey data collected on 33,480 male and 14,211 female runners. Age-, education-, and alcohol-adjusted regression analyses were used to estimate the contribution of parental adiposities to the BMI and waist circumferences in runners who ran an average of <3, 3–6, 6–9, ≥9 km/day. Results BMI and waist circumferences of runners who ran <3 km/day were significantly related to their parents adiposity (P<10?15 and P<10?11, respectively). These relationships (i.e., kg/m2 or cm per increment in parental adiposity) diminished significantly with increasing running distance for both BMI (inheritance×exercise interaction, males: P<10?10; females: P<10?5) and waist circumference (inheritance×exercise interaction, males: P<10?9; females: P = 0.004). Compared to <3 km/day, the parental contribution to runners who averaged ≥9 km/day was diminished by 48% for male BMI, 58% for female BMI, 55% for male waist circumference, and 58% for female waist circumference. These results could not be attributed to self-selection. Conclusions Exceeding the minimum exercise dose currently recommended for general health benefits (energy equivalent to running 2–3 km/day) may substantially diminish the risk for inherited obesity. The results are consistent with other research suggesting the physical activity dose required to prevent unhealthy weight gain is greater than that recommended for other health benefits.
Evidence That Obesity Risk Factor Potencies Are Weight Dependent, a Phenomenon That May Explain Accelerated Weight Gain in Western Societies
Paul T. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027657
Abstract: Background We have shown that individuals at the highest percentiles of the body mass index (BMI) distribution (i.e., most overweight) experience greater increases in body weight from sedentary lifestyle than those from the lowest percentiles. The purpose of the current analyses was to assess whether recent, accelerated increases in obesity could potentially be due to increased vulnerability to obesity risk factors as the population has become more overweight. Methodology/Principal Findings Quantile regression was used to compare BMI population percentiles to obesity risk factors (lower education, diets characterized by high-meat/low-fruit content, parental adiposity) in two independent samples of men (N1 = 3,513, N2 = 11,365) and women (N1 = 15,809, N2 = 10,159). The samples were subsets of the National Walkers' (Study 1) and Runners' (Study 2) Health Studies whose physical activities fell short of nationally recommended activity levels. The data were adjusted for age, race, and any residual effects of physical activity. The regression slopes for BMI vs. education, diet, and family history became progressively stronger from the lowest (e.g., 5th, 6th…) to the highest (e.g., …, 94th, 95th) BMI percentiles. Compared to the 10th BMI percentile, their effects on the 90th BMI percentile were: 1) 2.7- to 8.6-fold greater in women and 2.0- to 2.4-fold greater in men for education; 2) 3.6- to 4.8-fold greater in women and 1.7- to 2.7-fold greater in men for diet; and 3) 2.0- to 2.6-fold greater in women and 1.7-fold greater in men for family history. Conclusions/Significance Thus we propose risk factors that produce little weight gain in lean individuals may become more potent with increasing adiposity. This leads us to hypothesize that an individual's obesity is itself a major component of their obesogenic environment, and that, the cycle of weight gain and increased sensitivity to obesity risk factors may partly explain recent increases in obesity in western societies.
Quantile-Specific Penetrance of Genes Affecting Lipoproteins, Adiposity and Height
Paul T. Williams
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0028764
Abstract: Quantile-dependent penetrance is proposed to occur when the phenotypic expression of a SNP depends upon the population percentile of the phenotype. To illustrate the phenomenon, quantiles of height, body mass index (BMI), and plasma lipids and lipoproteins were compared to genetic risk scores (GRS) derived from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP)s having established genome-wide significance: 180 SNPs for height, 32 for BMI, 37 for low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, 47 for high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, 52 for total cholesterol, and 31 for triglycerides in 1930 subjects. Both phenotypes and GRSs were adjusted for sex, age, study, and smoking status. Quantile regression showed that the slope of the genotype-phenotype relationships increased with the percentile of BMI (P = 0.002), LDL-cholesterol (P = 3×10?8), HDL-cholesterol (P = 5×10?6), total cholesterol (P = 2.5×10?6), and triglyceride distribution (P = 7.5×10?6), but not height (P = 0.09). Compared to a GRS's phenotypic effect at the 10th population percentile, its effect at the 90th percentile was 4.2-fold greater for BMI, 4.9-fold greater for LDL-cholesterol, 1.9-fold greater for HDL-cholesterol, 3.1-fold greater for total cholesterol, and 3.3-fold greater for triglycerides. Moreover, the effect of the rs1558902 (FTO) risk allele was 6.7-fold greater at the 90th than the 10th percentile of the BMI distribution, and that of the rs3764261 (CETP) risk allele was 2.4-fold greater at the 90th than the 10th percentile of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Conceptually, it maybe useful to distinguish environmental effects on the phenotype that in turn alters a gene's phenotypic expression (quantile-dependent penetrance) from environmental effects affecting the gene's phenotypic expression directly (gene-environment interaction).
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