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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 34025 matches for " Paul Smith "
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Les chemins de fer atmosphériques. Deuxième partie
Paul Smith
In Situ : Revue de Patrimoines , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/insitu.4236
Abstract: En France, l’enthousiasme atmosphérique des années 1840 gagna le gouvernement qui, craignant d’être en retard sur une nouvelle révolution dans les chemins de fer, se décida à subventionner un essai officiel du système. Cet essai fut confié à la Compagnie du Paris-Saint-Germain, qui construisit une ligne atmosphérique entre Le Pecq et Saint-Germain-en-Laye. Cette deuxième partie de l’article raconte l’histoire de cette ligne qui fonctionna à partir de 1847 mais dont l’abandon en 1860 marqua la fin des chemins de fer atmosphériques en Europe. In France, the atmospheric enthusiasm on the 1840s encouraged the government to finance an official trial of the system, the Ministry of Public Works clearly concerned about keeping abreast of new railway technologies. The trial was carried out by the Paris-Saint-Germain Company, and this second part of the article examines the history of its line built from Le Pecq to Saint-Germain-en-Laye. It was operational from 1847 but its abandon, in 1860, marked the end of the atmospheric caper in Europe.
Les chemins de fer atmosphériques. Première partie
Paul Smith
In Situ : Revue de Patrimoines , 2009, DOI: 10.4000/insitu.4192
Abstract: Au cours des années 1840, au moment où se met en place le réseau ferré de France, rayonnant de la capitale, la traction par des locomotives à vapeur, pour différentes raisons d’économie et de sécurité, suscite encore réticences et critiques. Cet article veut remettre en lumière un système alternatif de propulsion par la pression de l’air, système qui fait na tre en France, en Angleterre et ailleurs de grands espoirs, partagés non seulement par d’éminents ingénieurs mais aussi par des autorités scientifiques et administratives, la presse et le public. Il propose un récit de son application sur quatre lignes exploitées commercialement, en se focalisant, dans la deuxième partie du texte, sur la version fran aise, l’extension de la ligne de Paris à Saint-Germain, où le système atmosphérique fonctionna de 1847 à 1860. Il cherche à restituer l’enthousiasme et les débats autour de ces chemins de fer atmosphériques à une époque où l’on ne savait pas encore qu’il s’agissait d’une impasse technologique. Chemin faisant, et comme cas d’étude, il essaie de suivre la circulation, essentiellement à travers la Manche, des idées techniques qui portaient les essais entrepris, puis leur abandon. During the 1840s, as the French national railway network, centred on Paris, gradually took form, steam locomotion, for reasons of economy and security, still inspired much hesitation and criticism. This article gives an account of an alternative form of propulsion by air pressure which, in France, in England and elsewhere, provoked considerable enthusiasm, not only amongst eminent engineers, but also in scientific and administrative circles, the press and the public. It gives a brief account of the four lines exploited commercially, concentrating, in the second part of the text, on the French one, the extension of the Paris - Saint-Germain railway, which was operated atmospherically from 1847 to 1860. It tries to suggest something of the high hopes and the debates which accompanied the new system before it turned out to be a technological dead-end. Along the way, it also looks at how technical information circulated at the time, essentially back and forth across the Channel, making the experimental lines possible, and then putting an end to them.
La place de l’automobile dans le développement des stations
Paul Smith
In Situ : Revue de Patrimoines , 2004, DOI: 10.4000/insitu.1999
Abstract: Dès le début du XXe siècle, les stations de la c te normande deviennent une destination privilégiée pour des automobilistes parisiens. L’article prend l’exemple de Deauville, capitale balnéaire de l’automobile relancée à la Belle époque par Eugène Cornuché, pour examiner l’impact du nouveau moyen de transport sur l’urbanisme et sur l’architecture de la station. Il s’attache également à cerner le r le joué à Deauville par les grands constructeurs de l’entre-deux-guerres, en particulier André Citro n. From the beginning of the twentieth century, the seaside resorts of the Normandy coast became a favourite destination for Parisian owners of motor cars. The article looks at the example of Deauville, described as the “seaside capital of the motor car”, and examines the impact of the new means of locomotion on the resort’s planning and architecture. It also draws attention to the part played by some of France’s major manufacturers — André Citro n in particular — in the development and reputation of Deauville between the two wars.
A Contractualist Moral Philosophy
Paul Smith
Analytic Teaching and Philosophical Praxis , 2006,
Abstract: These thirteen essays were first published between 1972 and 2001. Despite the subtitle, they contribute to moral (and legal), as well as political, philosophy. A brief introduction sketches the development of some of Scanlon’s views. (More on this would have been welcome.) The essays are impressive not only in their quality, characteristic of Scanlon, but also in their range. As well as highly influential classics such as ‘Preference and Urgency’ and ‘Contractualism and Utilitarianism’, there are essays on freedom of expression, rights, due process, human rights, content regulation, quality of life, tolerance, inequality, punishment, promises and contracts. What unites these diverse essays, Scanlon says, is concern with the standards by which social institutions should be assessed. Scanlon is particularly concerned with the tension between assessment of institutions by the degree to which they promote human wellbeing and by whether they respect the rights of individuals. By deepening our understanding of the concepts of rights, justice, liberty and equality, each of which may conflict with the goal of well-being,Scanlon aims to place these values within a common moral framework (p. 1). This is the contractualistmoral theory that Scanlon outlines and develops, according to which the rightness of actions, policies and institutions depends on their justifiability to individuals rather than on the value of their consequences (p.3).
Geometric renormalization below the ground state
Paul Smith
Mathematics , 2010, DOI: 10.1093/imrn/rnr169
Abstract: The caloric gauge was introduced by Tao with studying large data energy critical wave maps mapping from $\mathbf{R}^{2+1}$ to hyperbolic space $\mathbf{H}^m$ in view. In \cite{BIKT} Bejenaru, Ionescu, Kenig, and Tataru adapted the caloric gauge to the setting of Schr\"odinger maps from $\mathbf{R}^{d + 1}$ to the standard sphere $S^2 \hookrightarrow \mathbf{R}^3$ with initial data small in the critical Sobolev norm. Here we develop the caloric gauge in a bounded geometry setting with a construction valid up to the ground state energy.
Conditional global regularity of Schr?dinger maps: sub-threshold dispersed energy
Paul Smith
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: We consider the Schr\"odinger map initial value problem into the sphere in 2+1 dimensions with smooth, decaying, subthreshold initial data. Assuming an a priori $L^4$ boundedness condition on the solution, we prove that the Schr\"odinger map system admits a unique global smooth solution provided that the initial data is sufficiently energy-dispersed. Also shown are global-in-time bounds on certain Sobolev norms of the solution. Toward these ends we establish improved local smoothing and bilinear Strichartz estimates, adapting the Planchon-Vega approach to such estimates to the nonlinear setting of Schr\"odinger maps.
An unconstrained Lagrangian formulation and conservation laws for the Schr?dinger map system
Paul Smith
Mathematics , 2013,
Abstract: We consider energy-critical Schr\"odinger maps from R^2 into the sphere and hyperbolic plane. Viewing such maps with respect to orthonormal frames on the pullback bundle provides a gauge field formulation of the evolution. We show that this gauge field system is the set of Euler-Lagrange equations corresponding to an action that includes a Chern-Simons term. We also introduce the stress-energy tensor and derive conservation laws. In conclusion we offer comparisons between Schr\"odinger maps and the closely related Chern-Simons-Schr\"odinger system.
Global regularity of critical Schr?dinger maps: subthreshold dispersed energy
Paul Smith
Mathematics , 2011,
Abstract: We consider the energy-critical Schroedinger map initial value problem with smooth initial data from R^2 into the sphere S^2. Given sufficiently energy-dispersed data with subthreshold energy, we prove that the system admits a unique global smooth solution. This improves earlier analogous conditional results. The key behind this improvement lies in exploiting estimates on the commutator of the Schroedinger map and harmonic map heat flows.
New approaches in the management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients: role of cannabinoids
Paul F Smith
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2010, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S5974
Abstract: pproaches in the management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients: role of cannabinoids Review (4688) Total Article Views Authors: Paul F Smith Published Date February 2010 Volume 2010:6 Pages 59 - 63 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S5974 Paul F Smith Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand Abstract: Cannabinoids such as Cannabis-based medicinal extracts (CBMEs) are increasingly being used in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). They have been shown to have a beneficial effect on spasticity; however, this evidence is largely based on subjective rating scales. Objective measurements using the Ashworth scale have tended to show no significant effect; however, the validity of this scale has been questioned. The available clinical trial data suggest that the adverse side effects associated with using CBMEs are generally mild, such as dry mouth, dizziness, somnolence, nausea and intoxication. However, most of these trials were run over a period of months and it is possible that other adverse side effects could develop with long-term use. There may be reason to be concerned about the use of therapeutic cannabinoids by adolescents, people predisposed to psychosis and pregnant women.
New approaches in the management of spasticity in multiple sclerosis patients: role of cannabinoids
Paul F Smith
Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management , 2010,
Abstract: Paul F SmithDepartment of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Otago, Dunedin, New ZealandAbstract: Cannabinoids such as Cannabis-based medicinal extracts (CBMEs) are increasingly being used in the treatment of spasticity associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). They have been shown to have a beneficial effect on spasticity; however, this evidence is largely based on subjective rating scales. Objective measurements using the Ashworth scale have tended to show no significant effect; however, the validity of this scale has been questioned. The available clinical trial data suggest that the adverse side effects associated with using CBMEs are generally mild, such as dry mouth, dizziness, somnolence, nausea and intoxication. However, most of these trials were run over a period of months and it is possible that other adverse side effects could develop with long-term use. There may be reason to be concerned about the use of therapeutic cannabinoids by adolescents, people predisposed to psychosis and pregnant women.Keywords: multiple sclerosis, spasticity, cannabinoids, Cannabis
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