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Bacterial contamination of the hands of doctors: A study in the medicine and dermatology wards
Paul Rudrajit,Das Nilay,Dutta Rina,Bandyopadhyay Ramtanu
Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology , 2011,
Abstract: Background: Doctors′ hands are a common source of bacterial contamination. Often, these organisms are found to be virulent species with multidrug-resistance patterns. These are the sources of nosocomial infections in many patients. Aims: The present study was undertaken to find out the prevalence of bacterial contamination in the hands of doctors in the Medicine and Dermatology wards of a tertiary care hospital. Methods: The hands of 44 doctors were swabbed and cultured at entry to ward and at exit. Then, tap water and alcohol swab wash techniques were used and further swabs were done at each step. Thus, each doctor was sampled four-times for the study. The antibiotic-sensitivity pattern of the organisms was determined by the disc-diffusion method. Results: There was a significant contamination of the doctors′ hands at entry (59.1%) and at exit (90.9%). Overall, Staphylococcus was the predominant organism (59% at entry and 85% at exit); coagulase-negative ones were more prevalent at entry (32%) and coagulase-positive ones were more prevalent at exit (54%). There was no difference in the hand contamination rates of junior and senior doctors. Also, the contamination rates were similar in the Medicine and Dermatology wards. Among the Gram negative organisms, Escherichia coli (4.5%), Pseudomonas (4.5%), Enterococci (13.6%) and Klebsiella (9%) were the main ones isolated. Gram negative organisms were significantly more prevalent at exit (P = 0.009) compared with their numbers at entry. Hand washing techniques reduced the contamination rates significantly, 76% with tap water wash and further 16.5% with alcohol swab. The removal rate for both groups of organisms was similar. Also, coagulase-positive and -negative Staphylococci showed equal rates of removal with hand washing (P = 0.9793). The organisms were found to be resistant to most of the commonly used antibiotics; the beta-lactam group was especially largely resistant both for Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Both cheaper ones like cloxacillin (50-100%) and very costly ones like cefepime (100%) were equally vulnerable to resistance. Even newer antibiotics like linezolid and vancomycin showed a significant resistance to Staphylococcus. In Gram negative organisms, drugs like ceftazidime and gentamicin showed 100% resistance. Conclusion: This study shows the high level of contamination of doctors′ hands. It emphasizes the need for proper hygienic measures in day to day practice in hospitals to reduce the level of nosocomial infections. Also, it shows that most of the commonly used antibiotics will b
STUDY ON ENDOCRINOLOGICAL PROFILE OF HIV INFECTED MALE PATIENTS FROM EASTERN INDIA
Mandal Sanjay K,Paul Rudrajit,Bandyopadhyay Dipanjan,Basu Asish K
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2013, DOI: 10.7897/2230-8407.04347
Abstract: Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infectionis associated with a variety of endocrine problems. Hypoadrenalism, hypothyroidism and hypogonadism are commonly found singly or in combination. Especially, male hypogonadism is very common in this population and may lead to weight loss, lethargy and other co morbidities. We undertook this cross sectional observational study to evaluate endocrine profile in HIV infected males in a sample Eastern Indian population. We also studied for any correlation of the endocrine dysfunctions with their immune status. We studied the blood hormone profiles along with blood CD4 counts. The bloods were drawn in fasting state and analysed using suitable high sensitivity assays. Standard statistical methods were used. We had 48 patients in our study. Among them, 33% had hypogonadism, 20% had hypothyroidism and 15 patients had diabetes. The hypogonadism was mainly hypogonadotropic. In other studies across the globe also, hypogonadism in HIV positive males is found to be significant. Our diabetic patients were not on protease inhibitors. We found some patients who had multiple endocrine dysfunctions. HIV infection is often associated with endocrine abnormalities. This aspect of the disease must be addressed during routine care of these patients. Hormone replacement must be individualized and may be needed for prolonged periods.
Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease from eastern India
Singhania Pankaj,Paul Rudrajit,Maitra S,Banerjee A
Journal of Global Infectious Diseases , 2010,
Abstract: Kikuchi′s disease, a rare disorder which usually presents with fever painful lymphadenopathy, rash and arthritis, all of which are close mimickers of infective and immunological disorders. It is essentially a histopathological diagnosis and tests to rule out other connective tissue disorders or infective etiology must be undertaken. We present a series of two cases of kikuchi-fujimoto′s disease presenting primarily with lymphadenopathy and fever in all cases. The first is a case of generalized lymphadenopathy and the second case of kikuchi′s disease with SLE, a rare association. Lymph node excision biopsy and histopathology documented Kikuchi Fujimoto disease in above cases. All the cases improved on follow up and had no residual stigmata.
Solving the Assignment Problem using Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing
Anshuman Sahu,Rudrajit Tapadar
IAENG International Journal of Applied Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract:
A Model for the Quantization of the Hall Resistance in the Quantum Hall Effect  [PDF]
Paul Bracken
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.13023
Abstract: Some aspects of anyon physics are reviewed with the intention of establishing a model for the quantization of the Hall conductance. A single particle Schrödinger model is introduced and coupled with a constraint equation formulated from the anyon picture. The Schrödinger equation-constraint system can be converted to a single nonlinear differential equation and solutions for the model can be produced.
Exposure to Oil during Meiosis Results in Alterations in Meiotic Chromosomes that are Similar to Age-Related Changes in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  [PDF]
Paul Goldstein
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.13027
Abstract: Exposure of young C. elegans nematodes to three different concentrations of oil resulted in changes in the meiotic chromosomes, nucleus, nucleolus, and nuclear envelope associations. Such alterations decreased the viability and fertility of this organism which was used as a biological model. The morphological changes in the “young” group were similar to nematodes that were senescent and post-reproductive. Comparison of meiotic chromosomes at the pachytene stage of meiosis from young, old, and oil-exposed wild-type hermaphrodites were made following three-dimensional electron microscopy reconstruction of serial ultrathin sections. Age-related and oil-exposure related changes included: 1) Induced condensation of chromatin with increased variance in length of chromosomes; 2) Changes in nuclear and nucleolar volume; 3) Increased density of the nucleoplasm; and 4) Absence of Disjunction Regulator Regions, resulting in the loss of control of the segregation of the X-chromosome into gametes during meiosis. Abnormal clustering of the telomeric ends of the chromosomes was present on the nuclear envelope affecting the segregation of the chromosomes during meiosis.
The Processing of Pictures and Written Words: A Perceptual and Conceptual Perspective  [PDF]
Paul Miller
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.27109
Abstract: The present study examines similarities and differences in the processing of drawings and their corresponding names. For this purpose, students were asked to determine as fast as possible the identicalness of two pictures as opposed to the identicalness of their written Hebrew names. Twenty-eight Hebrew native speakers from the fifth grade participated in the experiment. Findings suggest that the human information processing system optimizes the processing of information (words, drawings, etc.) according to specific task requirements or task constraints. Stimulus type per se does not seem to determine the depth of its processing, nor does it seem to directly trigger particular modalities of encoding (perceptual, linguistic, semantic). Finally, the findings warrant the conclusion that superiority effects related to the processing of written words and pictorial stimuli reflect artifacts of task requirements rather than inherent characteristics of stimuli.
Are Sunspots Stabilizing?  [PDF]
Paul Shea
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.13023
Abstract: The reduced form solutions of indeterminate rational expectations models often include extraneous expectational errors or “sunspots”. Sunspots are usually modeled as independent of the model’s fundamentals, and are often presumed to result in excess volatility. An alternate approach, however, is to assume that sunspots include both an overreaction or underreaction to fundamentals, as well as genuine extraneous noise. This paper uses a simple linear model to formally show how the relationship between sunspots and fundamentals affects aggregate volatility. Sunspots reduce volatility if 1) they include an undereaction to fundamentals, 2) the variance of genuine extraneous noise is sufficiently small, and 3) the root that causes indeterminacy is sufficiently far from one.
Why the Speed of Light Is Not a Constant  [PDF]
Paul Smeulders
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.34047
Abstract: A variable Speed of Light is supported by the fact that all direct measurements of that speed are basically flawed, because the “meter per second” is proportional to the Speed of Light. Since it is impossible to measure the Speed of Light directly, any variations of it can only be obtained in an indirect way. It will be shown that the recent Supernovae data are in very good agreement with a universe that is slowly expanding exponentially with a Speed of Light that falls over time, inversely proportionally to the expansion of the universe. It will be shown that the definition of the angular and standard impulse momentum has to be modified to get a consistent expansion of the universe. And that all clocks run inversely proportionally to the red-shift z + 1. General Relativity remains valid even with a varying Speed of Light and also Quantum Mechanics is unaffected.
Representations of Each Number Type That Differ by Scale Factors  [PDF]
Paul Benioff
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.34057
Abstract: For each type of number, structures that differ by arbitrary scaling factors and are isomorphic to one another are described. The scaling of number values in one structure, relative to the values in another structure, must be compensated for by scaling of the basic operations and relations (if any) in the structure. The scaling must be such that one structure satisfies the relevant number type axioms if and only if the other structure does.
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