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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 23905 matches for " Paul Reiter "
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Global warming and malaria: knowing the horse before hitching the cart
Reiter Paul
Malaria Journal , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1475-2875-7-s1-s3
Abstract: Speculations on the potential impact of climate change on human health frequently focus on malaria. Predictions are common that in the coming decades, tens – even hundreds – of millions more cases will occur in regions where the disease is already present, and that transmission will extend to higher latitudes and altitudes. Such predictions, sometimes supported by simple models, are persuasive because they are intuitive, but they sidestep factors that are key to the transmission and epidemiology of the disease: the ecology and behaviour of both humans and vectors, and the immunity of the human population. A holistic view of the natural history of the disease, in the context of these factors and in the precise setting where it is transmitted, is the only valid starting point for assessing the likely significance of future changes in climate.
Sarbanes-Oxley and the Accounting Profession: Public Interest Implications  [PDF]
Sara Ann Reiter, Paul F. Williams
Open Journal of Accounting (OJAcct) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojacct.2013.21003
Abstract: The USaccounting profession was caught up in, and some say responsible for, the whirlwind of accounting and business scandals that rocked the US markets in 2002. To restore investor confidence in financial information, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act created a new Public Company Accounting Oversight Board with the authority to set standards for auditors of publicly traded companies, thus ending a century of professional regulation of auditing. In this analysis we employ sociological theories of professionalism [1-4] to help understand the implications of the Sarbanes-Oxley legislation for the accounting profession and for the public interest. We explain why professional self-regulation is important for retaining valuable economic franchises. We also explain why the public interest orientation of the profession is important and how government take-over of auditing standards potentially erodes the public accounting profession’s commitment to the public interest. Self-control over professional work, a key characteristic of professional status, is pre-empted by the newly created government oversight body PCAOB. With government takeover of oversight of auditing practice, claims to professional status are weakened and professional commitment to and involvement with vital work standards may suffer. In addition, the profession may no longer have incentives to promote the public interest or to innovate and change in response to changing conditions. We also trace events leading up to Sarbanes-Oxley legislation and conclude that underlying problems arising from internal work differentiation as consulting work became more profitable and glamorous and development of a commercially oriented work culture may continue to threaten the profession in the future. Finally, we speculate that the greatest costs may be opportunity costs as the profession no longer has the incentives or ability to innovate and embrace new forms of accountability.
Genetic factors associated with small for gestational age birth and the use of human growth hormone in treating the disorder
Paul Saenger, Edward Reiter
International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1687-9856-2012-12
Meaningful Learning in Special Education Teaching and Learning Based on the Cycle of Internalized Learning: A Review  [PDF]
Shunit Reiter
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.39016

Meaningful Learning implies the active involvement of the learners/students in whatever is being taught. It is based on a holistic approach to the learners, calling for their cognitive, emotional and behavioral attention. It is also holistic in the sense that it takes into account the ecological status of the learners, their family ties; the neighborhood where they live; their formal milieu, be it a school, a social club, place of work, etc.; and their ethnic and national backgrounds. In holistic teaching the learner is perceived as a person—a subject who is undergoing development, rather than an object that is called upon to learn by rote, so that retention of information can be assessed by tests and scores. The Cycle of Internalized Learning—CIL model (Reiter, 2008) was established on the premise that individuals with disabilities were highly influenced by their environment, in the sense that there was an inseparable connection between the disability and the environment. The model addresses three levels of social behavior: the operative—what, the cultural normative—when and the moral—why. The CIL, founded on the humanistic philosophy, is relevant and applicable to people in general, and specifically to people with disabilities. Its premise states that individuals possess cognitive and rational abilities, are capable of introspection based on their understanding of their surroundings, and are capable of gaining an insight into their own motives. Thus, they are responsible for their behavior and can regulate it, by critically evaluating the outcome of their behavior and making changes, if necessary. The CIL focuses on personal progression and development. The article describes in some detail evidence-based research studies that are performed in order to further validate the CIL’s contribution to student development.

Development of a SYBR green I based RT-PCR assay for yellow fever virus: application in assessment of YFV infection in Aedes aegypti
Paban Dash, Alain Boutonnier, Eric Prina, Shashi Sharma, Paul Reiter
Virology Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1743-422x-9-27
Abstract: We developed a one-step SYBR Green I-based real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assay targeting the 5'NTR and capsid-gene junction--for rapid detection and quantification of YFV. The detection limit was 1 PFU/mL, 10-fold more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR, and there was no cross-reactivity with closely related flaviviruses or with alphaviruses. Viral load in samples was determined by standard curve plotted from cycle threshold (Ct) values and virus concentration. The efficacy of the assay in mosquitoes was assessed with spiked samples. The utility of the assay for screening of pooled mosquitoes was also confirmed. Replication of a Cameroon isolate of YFV in Ae. aegypti revealed a marked variation in susceptibility among different colonies at different days post infection (pi).The SYBR Green-1 based qRT-PCR assay is a faster, simpler, more sensitive and less expensive procedure for detection and quantification of YFV than other currently used methods.Yellow fever (YF) is one of the most important arboviruses affecting humans in many tropical areas of sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas. According to the World Health Organization, there is a global annual incidence of 200,000 cases, including 30,000 deaths [1]. In the past decade, widespread recrudescence of YF has been attributed to deforestation, urbanization, declining herd immunity and climatic change [2]. In addition, imported cases of YF have been reported in travellers returning to United States and European countries from endemic countries [3,4].The Yellow fever virus (YFV) is the prototype member of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. The genome of YFV is a linear, non segmented, positive-sense strand of RNA of approximately 11 kb. It encodes a single polyprotein that yields three structural (capsid, premembrane and envelope) and seven nonstructural (NS1, NS2A, NS2B, NS3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5) proteins [5].The principal human-to-human vector of YFV is Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti. The majority
Absence of impact of aerial malathion treatment on Aedes aegypti during a dengue outbreak in Kingston, Jamaica
Castle,Trevor; Amador,Manuel; Rawlins,Samuel; Figueroa,J. Peter; Reiter,Paul;
Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública , 1999, DOI: 10.1590/S1020-49891999000200005
Abstract: during an outbreak of dengue fever in jamaica from october to december 1995, a study was carried out to determine the impact of aerial ultra-low volume malathion treatment on adult aedes aegypti. this was done by monitoring oviposition rates of the vector in three urban communities in kingston and by exposing caged mosquitoes both directly and indirectly to the aerial malathion treatment. the insecticide was delivered at a rate of 219 ml/ha between 7:10 a.m. and 8:45 a.m. the results of the study clearly showed that the insecticide application was ineffective in interfering with aedes aegypti oviposition, and adult mosquitoes held in cages inside dwellings were largely unaffected. consequently, this type of intervention seemed to have little significant impact in arresting or abating dengue transmission.
Non-Smoking Male Adolescents' Reactions to Cigarette Warnings
Jessica K. Pepper, Linda D. Cameron, Paul L. Reiter, Annie-Laurie McRee, Noel T. Brewer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065533
Abstract: Background The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is working to introduce new graphic warning labels for cigarette packages, the first change in cigarette warnings in more than 25 years. We sought to examine whether warnings discouraged participants from wanting to smoke and altered perceived likelihood of harms among adolescent males and whether these warning effects varied by age. Methods A national sample of 386 non-smoking American males ages 11–17 participated in an online experiment during fall 2010. We randomly assigned participants to view warnings using a 2×2 between-subjects design. The warnings described a harm of smoking (addiction or lung cancer) using text only or text plus an image used on European cigarette package warnings. Analyses tested whether age moderated the warnings' impact on risk perceptions and smoking motivations. Results The warnings discouraged most adolescents from wanting to smoke, but lung cancer warnings discouraged them more than addiction warnings did (60% vs. 34% were “very much” discouraged, p<.001). Including an image had no effect on discouragement. The warnings affected several beliefs about the harms from smoking, and age moderated these effects. Adolescents said addiction was easier to imagine and more likely to happen to them than lung cancer. They also believed that their true likelihood of experiencing any harm was lower than what an expert would say. Conclusions Our findings suggest that warnings focusing on lung cancer, rather than addiction, are more likely to discourage wanting to smoke among adolescent males and enhance their ability to imagine the harmful consequences of smoking. Including images on warnings had little effect on non-smoking male adolescents' discouragement or beliefs, though additional research on the effects of pictorial warnings for this at-risk population is needed as the FDA moves forward with developing new graphic labels.
Education reform, race, and politics in Bahia, Brazil
Reiter, Bernd;
Ensaio: Avalia??o e Políticas Públicas em Educa??o , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0104-40362008000100009
Abstract: this article discusses the main findings and conclusions from my field research evaluating education reform in the state of bahia, brazil. data collection was done during two exploratory research trips to salvador, the state capital, in 2001 and in 2005. the bahian education reform, initiated by the state government in 1999 and funded to a great extent by the world bank, has achieved some very significant goals, most importantly the expansion of high school education and the broadening of access to primary education in areas where access was far from universal. my research nevertheless points to some sever shortcomings, namely with regard to the situation of afro-brazilians. structural racism provides one of the strongest explanations for this shortcoming. structural racism in bahia lowers teachers' and principals' expectations about the potential for academic achievement of poor afro-brazilians; structural racism widens the gap between students and principals, contributing to a mutual alienation of this two groups and jeopardizing the creation of strategic alliances and synergies inside schools; and it alienates schools from neighborhoods, impeding meaningful community and parental involvement in school management. finally, the low recognition that public teachers receive from society as a whole, reflected by low salaries, and a general lack of institutional incentive structures that reward outstanding performance and sanction under-average performance have transformed bahian public education into a desperado system, where the motivations of teachers and students are systematically grinded and their hopes frustrated.
Barriers to effective treatment of vaginal atrophy with local estrogen therapy
Reiter S
International Journal of General Medicine , 2013, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S43192
Abstract: arriers to effective treatment of vaginal atrophy with local estrogen therapy Review (171) Total Article Views Authors: Reiter S Published Date March 2013 Volume 2013:6 Pages 153 - 158 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/IJGM.S43192 Received: 24 January 2013 Accepted: 19 February 2013 Published: 15 March 2013 Suzanne Reiter Mid-County Health Center, Largo, FL, USA Abstract: Vaginal atrophy is a common condition among postmenopausal women, among whom many exhibit both vulvovaginal symptoms (eg, dryness, irritation, itching, and pain with intercourse) and urinary symptoms (eg, increased frequency, urgency, incontinence, urinary tract infections, and dysuria). Unfortunately, few women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy report seeking treatment from a health care provider. The goal of this article is to examine reasons why patients and health care providers do not engage in discourse regarding this important topic. It is important to initiate conversations with postmenopausal women and counsel them on both why the changes occur and potential treatment options.
Motiva, MyHeart and HeartCycle: approaches to investigate and offer evidence-based solutions
Harald Reiter
International Journal of Integrated Care , 2011,
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