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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 134617 matches for " Paul O. Mireji "
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Odorant and Gustatory Receptors in the Tsetse Fly Glossina morsitans morsitans
George F. O. Obiero,Paul O. Mireji,Steven R. G. Nyanjom,Alan Christoffels,Hugh M. Robertson,Daniel K. Masiga
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002663
Abstract: Tsetse flies use olfactory and gustatory responses, through odorant and gustatory receptors (ORs and GRs), to interact with their environment. Glossina morsitans morsitans genome ORs and GRs were annotated using homologs of these genes in Drosophila melanogaster and an ab initio approach based on OR and GR specific motifs in G. m. morsitans gene models coupled to gene ontology (GO). Phylogenetic relationships among the ORs or GRs and the homologs were determined using Maximum Likelihood estimates. Relative expression levels among the G. m. morsitans ORs or GRs were established using RNA-seq data derived from adult female fly. Overall, 46 and 14 putative G. m. morsitans ORs and GRs respectively were recovered. These were reduced by 12 and 59 ORs and GRs respectively compared to D. melanogaster. Six of the ORs were homologous to a single D. melanogaster OR (DmOr67d) associated with mating deterrence in females. Sweet taste GRs, present in all the other Diptera, were not recovered in G. m. morsitans. The GRs associated with detection of CO2 were conserved in G. m. morsitans relative to D. melanogaster. RNA-sequence data analysis revealed expression of GmmOR15 locus represented over 90% of expression profiles for the ORs. The G. m. morsitans ORs or GRs were phylogenetically closer to those in D. melanogaster than to other insects assessed. We found the chemoreceptor repertoire in G. m. morsitans smaller than other Diptera, and we postulate that this may be related to the restricted diet of blood-meal for both sexes of tsetse flies. However, the clade of some specific receptors has been expanded, indicative of their potential importance in chemoreception in the tsetse.
Aquaporins Are Critical for Provision of Water during Lactation and Intrauterine Progeny Hydration to Maintain Tsetse Fly Reproductive Success
Joshua B. Benoit ,Immo A. Hansen,Geoffrey M. Attardo,Veronika Michalková,Paul O. Mireji,Joel L. Bargul,Lisa L. Drake,Daniel K. Masiga,Serap Aksoy
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002517
Abstract: Tsetse flies undergo drastic fluctuations in their water content throughout their adult life history due to events such as blood feeding, dehydration and lactation, an essential feature of the viviparous reproductive biology of tsetse. Aquaporins (AQPs) are transmembrane proteins that allow water and other solutes to permeate through cellular membranes. Here we identify tsetse aquaporin (AQP) genes, examine their expression patterns under different physiological conditions (blood feeding, lactation and stress response) and perform functional analysis of three specific genes utilizing RNA interference (RNAi) gene silencing. Ten putative aquaporins were identified in the Glossina morsitans morsitans (Gmm) genome, two more than has been previously documented in any other insect. All organs, tissues, and body parts examined had distinct AQP expression patterns. Two AQP genes, gmmdripa and gmmdripb ( = gmmaqp1a and gmmaqp1b) are highly expressed in the milk gland/fat body tissues. The whole-body transcript levels of these two genes vary over the course of pregnancy. A set of three AQPs (gmmaqp5, gmmaqp2a, and gmmaqp4b) are expressed highly in the Malpighian tubules. Knockdown of gmmdripa and gmmdripb reduced the efficiency of water loss following a blood meal, increased dehydration tolerance and reduced heat tolerance of adult females. Knockdown of gmmdripa extended pregnancy length, and gmmdripb knockdown resulted in extended pregnancy duration and reduced progeny production. We found that knockdown of AQPs increased tsetse milk osmolality and reduced the water content in developing larva. Combined knockdown of gmmdripa, gmmdripb and gmmaqp5 extended pregnancy by 4–6 d, reduced pupal production by nearly 50%, increased milk osmolality by 20–25% and led to dehydration of feeding larvae. Based on these results, we conclude that gmmDripA and gmmDripB are critical for diuresis, stress tolerance and intrauterine lactation through the regulation of water and/or other uncharged solutes.
A Novel Highly Divergent Protein Family Identified from a Viviparous Insect by RNA-seq Analysis: A Potential Target for Tsetse Fly-Specific Abortifacients
Joshua B. Benoit ,Geoffrey M. Attardo,Veronika Michalkova,Tyler B. Krause,Jana Bohova,Qirui Zhang,Aaron A. Baumann,Paul O. Mireji,Peter Taká?,David L. Denlinger,Jose M. Ribeiro,Serap Aksoy
PLOS Genetics , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003874
Abstract: In tsetse flies, nutrients for intrauterine larval development are synthesized by the modified accessory gland (milk gland) and provided in mother's milk during lactation. Interference with at least two milk proteins has been shown to extend larval development and reduce fecundity. The goal of this study was to perform a comprehensive characterization of tsetse milk proteins using lactation-specific transcriptome/milk proteome analyses and to define functional role(s) for the milk proteins during lactation. Differential analysis of RNA-seq data from lactating and dry (non-lactating) females revealed enrichment of transcripts coding for protein synthesis machinery, lipid metabolism and secretory proteins during lactation. Among the genes induced during lactation were those encoding the previously identified milk proteins (milk gland proteins 1–3, transferrin and acid sphingomyelinase 1) and seven new genes (mgp4–10). The genes encoding mgp2–10 are organized on a 40 kb syntenic block in the tsetse genome, have similar exon-intron arrangements, and share regions of amino acid sequence similarity. Expression of mgp2–10 is female-specific and high during milk secretion. While knockdown of a single mgp failed to reduce fecundity, simultaneous knockdown of multiple variants reduced milk protein levels and lowered fecundity. The genomic localization, gene structure similarities, and functional redundancy of MGP2–10 suggest that they constitute a novel highly divergent protein family. Our data indicates that MGP2–10 function both as the primary amino acid resource for the developing larva and in the maintenance of milk homeostasis, similar to the function of the mammalian casein family of milk proteins. This study underscores the dynamic nature of the lactation cycle and identifies a novel family of lactation-specific proteins, unique to Glossina sp., that are essential to larval development. The specificity of MGP2–10 to tsetse and their critical role during lactation suggests that these proteins may be an excellent target for tsetse-specific population control approaches.
The Limnology of Ohana Lake, a Potential Manmade Aquaculture System in Nigeria  [PDF]
Paul O. Ajah
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2013.32031
Abstract:


The concentrations of heavy metals (Fe > Zn > Cu > Pb > Ag) in bottom sediments and fish gills in Ohana Lake, were found to be significantly high and far exceeded FEPA and WHO environmental standards for water quality by 1.5 to 18 times, respectively. Six classes of each of phytoplankton and zooplankton with a total of 35 phytoplankton taxa comprising 46 species i.e. 35(46) and 22(28) faunal were observed. The class Chlorophyceae dominated the phytoplankton community with 18(22) followed by Cyanobacteria 6(10). The aquatic fauna was dominated by the Rotifera 8(11), followed by the Copepoda 6(9). The benthic flora community consisted of five classes of phytoplankton made up of 28(36). The class Bacillariophyceae 11(15) dominated the group followed by Chlorophyceae 10(11). Benthic fauna were made up of seven classes of 13(13). The dominant class Nemata 4(4) was followed closely by Protozoa 2(3). Ohana Lake is fast turning to a eutrophic ecosystem with accompanied algal bloom due to very high nutrient contents. The equitability or evenness indices (J) for both phytoplankton and zooplankton were lowly indicating generally low species diversities as well as predominantly unstable ecosystem. The aquacultural implications of these parameters are discussed.


Hepatitis B Vaccination Rate among Medical Students at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (Upth)  [PDF]
Ni Paul, O. Peterside
World Journal of Vaccines (WJV) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjv.2015.51001
Abstract: Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Occupational exposure of health care workers and medical students increases their risk of acquiring HBV infection, and many authorities recommend vaccination. However, significant proportions of health care workers do not receive HBV immunization, and remain at increased risk to HBV infection. Objective: To determine the hepatitis B vaccination rate among Medical students at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH) and to determine their knowledge of HBV infection. Result: Three hundred and sixteen medical students at UPTH completed self-administered questionnaires which included questions about demographic characteristics, HBV vaccination status, knowledge of hepatitis B vaccine and reasons for not receiving the vaccine. All (100%) of the respondents had heard of hepatitis B vaccine. Two hundred and twenty two (70.2%) of them thought they were at risk of acquiring hepatitis. Two hundred and seventy (85.4%) had received at least one dose of hepatitis B vaccine while 46 (14.6%) had never received the vaccine. One hundred and ten of the respondents had received 3 doses of hepatitis B vaccine, giving a vaccination rate of 34.8%. One hundred and sixteen (36.7%) had received 2 doses, while 44 (13.9%) had received one dose. There was a statistical significant relationship among marital status (p = 0.01), clinical level (p = 0.02) and hepatitis B vaccine uptake. Conclusion: The hepatitis B vaccination rate among medical students at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital is low. National and institutional legislation for adult vaccination against Hepatitis B should be promulgated for those at higher risk.
Structural Properties of the RNA Synthesized by Glutamate Dehydrogenase for the Degradation of Total RNA  [PDF]
Godson O. Osuji, Paul M. Johnson
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2018.63004
Abstract: Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-synthesized RNA, a nongenetic code-based RNA is suitable for unraveling the structural constraints imposed on the regulation (transcription, translation, siRNA etc.) of metabolism by genetic code. GDH-synthesized RNAs have been induced in whole plants to knock out target mRNA populations thereby producing plant phenotypes that are allergen-free; enriched in fatty acids, essential amino acids, shikimic acid, resveratrol etc. Methods applied hereunder for investigating the structural properties of GDH-synthesized RNA included purification of GDH isoenzymes, synthesis of RNA by the isoenzymes, reverse transcription of the RNA to cDNA, sequencing of the cDNA, computation of the G+C-contents, profiling the stability through PCR amplification compared with genetic code-based DNA; and biochemical characterization of the RNAs synthesized by individual hexameric isoenzymes of GDH. Single product bands resulted from the PCR amplification of the cDNAs of GDH-synthesized RNA, whereas several bands resulted from the amplification of genetic code-based DNA. The cDNAs have wide G+C-contents (35% to 59%), whereas genetic code-based DNA has narrower G+C-contents (50% to 60%). The GDH β6 homo-hexameric isoenzyme synthesized the A+U-rich RNAs, whereas the a6, and α6 homo-hexameric isoenzymes synthesized the G+C-rich RNAs. Therefore, the RNA synthesized by GDH is different from genetic code-based RNAs. In vitro chemical reactions revealed that GDH-synthesized RNA degraded total RNA to lower molecular weight products. Therefore, GDH-synthesized RNA is RNA enzyme. Dismantling of the structural constraints imposed on RNA by genetic code liberated RNA to become an enzyme with specificity to degrade unwanted transcripts. The RNA enzyme activity of GDH-synthesized RNA is ubiquitous in cells; it is readily induced by treatment of plants with mineral nutrients etc. and may simplify experimental approaches in plant enzymology and molecular biology research projects.
Natriuretic peptide determinations in critical care medicine: part of routine clinical practice or research test only?
Paul O Collinson
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7133
Abstract: Measurement of the B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and mesurement of the N-terminal portion of the prohormone, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP), are part of the routine assessment of patients presenting with acute dyspnoea. The measurement of BNP/NTproBNP is now included in the recommendations from professional societies.Coquet and colleagues [1] have studied NTproBNP measurement in the critical care population. They compared the diagnostic performance of NTproBNP using a final diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction based on a combination of clinical and echocardiographic criteria. Using this diagnosis as the dichotomous variable, the authors performed receiver operating characteristic curve analysis and showed that the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.76 (95% confidence interval, 0.69 to 0.83) for the ability of NTproBNP concentrations to detect cardiac dysfunction. In addition, using a composite model including NTproBNP, electrocardiographic changes and severity assessed by the organ system failure score, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for a final diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction improved to 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.77 to 0.90).The Breathing Not Properly study, a multicentre evaluation of BNP [2], the N-terminal pro-BNP Investigation of Dyspnoea in the Emergency Department study [3] and the International Collaborative NTproBNP study [4] for NTproBNP clearly demonstrated that measurement of BNP is diagnostically accurate when compared with a consensus final diagnosis of acute heart failure and defined diagnostic cut-off values. The study by Coquet and colleagues found that an NTproBNP value < 500 ng/l predicted the absence of cardiac dysfunction with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 43% [1]. Although age and renal function affect NTproBNP levels, which is reflected in reference ranges for this analyte, diagnostic performance was not significantly affected. This value of < 500 ng
The Ghost in the Machine: Revisiting an Old Model for the Dynamic Generation of Digital Editions
Daniel Paul O'Donnell
Human IT: Tidskrift f?r Studier av IT ur ett Humanvetenskapligt Perspektiv , 2005,
Abstract:
Bauman Pours Out Culture
Paul O'Connor
Cultural Studies Review , 2012,
Abstract: A review of Zygmunt Bauman, Culture in a Liquid Modern World (Polity, 2011).
Building a Link Between Retirement Planning in the Civil Service and Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria
Paul O. Udofot
Canadian Social Science , 2012, DOI: 10.3968/2724
Abstract: Retiree involvement in entrepreneurship is known to address their wellbeing challenges hence the interest to ascertain the determinants and level of their contribution among retirees of the Civil Service of Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Data were obtained through the use of structured Questionnaire which was administered during the annual verifi cation exercise of retirees. Multi regression analysis using four functional forms of linear, double log, semi log and exponential; Pearson Product Moment Correlation, chi square and T-test methods were used to test the hypotheses. The basis for the selection of the bestfit model and lead equation was the one with relatively highest R value, lowest number of significant, lower error of estimation and appropriateness of a prior signs. Double log provided the best option. The result showed that all the independent variables were signifi cant at 0.05 level of probability. These relative effects suggest that these factors if given adequate corresponding attention would lead to a healthy and increased post retirement involvement in entrepreneurship. It is recommended that measures be taken to invigorate pre-retirement training, hitherto ignored as an essential and integral part of the retirement planning process of the Civil Service of the State. Key words: Retirement planning; Civil service; Entrepreneurship development; Nigeria
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