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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 25735 matches for " Paul Mitchell "
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Bricks in the central part of Austria-Hungary. Key artefacts in historical archaeology
Paul Mitchell
Historische Arch?ologie , 2009,
Abstract: The article discusses the "brick region" (common format and technology), which existed in the central part of the Austro-Hungarian area from the Late Middle Ages until 1918 and describes the development of brick formats.
Parsing Reflective Grammars
Paul Stansifer,Mitchell Wand
Computer Science , 2011,
Abstract: Existing technology can parse arbitrary context-free grammars, but only a single, static grammar per input. In order to support more powerful syntax-extension systems, we propose reflective grammars, which can modify their own syntax during parsing. We demonstrate and prove the correctness of an algorithm for parsing reflective grammars. The algorithm is based on Earley's algorithm, and we prove that it performs asymptotically no worse than Earley's algorithm on ordinary context-free grammars.
Radiofrequency Neurotomy for Sacroiliac Joint Pain: A Prospective Study  [PDF]
Bruce Mitchell, Tomas MacPhail, David Vivian, Paul Verrills, Adele Barnard
Surgical Science (SS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2015.67040
Abstract: Background: The sacroiliac joint (SIJ) is an important cause of chronic low back pain, implicated in 15% - 30% of all cases. While radiofrequency neurotomy (RFN) is the interventional treatment of choice for spinal pain originating from the facet joints, fewer studies have investigated its potential for treating SIJ pain, and its long-term efficacy is unknown. Objectives: To obtain a real-world view of RFN treatment outcomes for SIJ pain by conducting an observational study within a community pain practice, among a heterogeneous patient group receiving standard-of-care diagnostic workup and treatment. Study Design: A prospective, observational study, with data collection over five years, was conducted at the authors' private practice. Patients & Methods: A cohort of 215 patients underwent fluoroscopically guided SIJ RFN of the dorsal and lateral branches of S1-S3 and the descending branch of L5. All patients had previously had their diagnosis of SIJ pain confirmed by controlled comparative analgesic blocks of relevant nerves, and recorded pre-procedure pain levels on the 11-point Numerical Rating Scale (NRS). Outcome measures included pain, and a Likert scale to measure alterations to analgesic use, changes to paid employment status and patient satisfaction. Results: We demonstrate an average pain reduction of 2.3 ± 2.1 NRS points following RFN (baseline pain score of 6.9 ± 1.7 to a follow-up average of 4.6 ± 2.7 NRS points; p 0.01). At a mean follow-up period of 14.9 ± 10.9 months (range 6 - 49 months), an overall 42.2% of patients reduced their analgesic use. Of the patients for whom employment capacity was applicable (82 patients), 21 patients reported an improvement. Overall, 67% of patients were satisfied with their outcome of post-RFN treatment. No complications occurred. Limitations: This observational study had no independent control group and only included a single study site. Conclusions: RFN is a safe and effective treatment for pain confirmed to originate from the sacroiliac joint.
Diagnostic Sacroiliac Joint Injections: Is a Control Block Necessary?  [PDF]
Bruce Mitchell, Tomas MacPhail, David Vivian, Paul Verrills, Adele Barnard
Surgical Science (SS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2015.67041
Abstract: Background: Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) pain presents as a deep and somatic pain, predominantly affecting the lower back and buttock and referring down the leg, sometimes as far as the foot. Given that the features of SIJ pain are non-specific and that this referred pain is similar to lumbar facet joint and lumbar disc pain, diagnostic local anesthetic injections (diagnostic blocks) into the SIJ are used to identify the source of pain. Despite wide use, little is known about the false positive rate of a single diagnostic sacroiliac (SI) block and the requirement for a control block. Objective: To determine whether a control SI block is necessary and to monitor the false positive rate for a single injection. Study Design: A prospective and observational study was conducted as part of a practice audit, with data collected over 3.5 years at the authors’ private practice. Patients & Methods: Under fluoroscopic guidance, 1408 consecutive patients presenting with prominent deep somatic pain over the SIJ region were sterilely injected with anesthetic into the SIJ and/or the deep interosseous ligament (DIL). Pain was measured on the 11-point Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) prior to injection and incrementally over the following 1- 2 weeks. Fully completed and unequivocal data sets were available for 1060 patients. Decreases in pain scores (of >80%) at >2 hours of post-injection were indicative of SIJ pain and recorded as a positive SIJ block. Results: Of 1060 patients receiving a first SIJ diagnostic block, 680 (64.1%) recorded a positive result. Subsequently, 271 positive patients and 22 who were negative for SIJ pain opted to receive a second control block. SIJ pain diagnosis was confirmed in 237/271 (87.5%) of those with an initial positive response, while 18/22 patients (81%) had their initial negative result confirmed. The false positive rate of a single block is therefore calculated at 12.5%, and on a contingency table analysis, a single anesthetic SIJ injection has diagnostic accuracy of 87.03%, with high sensitivity (98.3%), when compared
Comparison of age-specific cataract prevalence in two population-based surveys 6 years apart
Ava Tan, Jie Wang, Elena Rochtchina, Paul Mitchell
BMC Ophthalmology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-6-17
Abstract: The Blue Mountains Eye Study examined 3654 participants (82.4% of those eligible) in cross-section I (1992–4) and 3509 participants (75.1% of survivors and 85.2% of newly eligible) in cross-section II (1997–2000, 66.5% overlap with cross-section I). Cataract was assessed from lens photographs following the Wisconsin Cataract Grading System. Cortical cataract was defined if cortical opacity comprised ≥ 5% of lens area. Nuclear cataract was defined if nuclear opacity ≥ Wisconsin standard 4. PSC was defined if any present. Any cataract was defined to include persons who had previous cataract surgery. Weighted kappa for inter-grader reliability was 0.82, 0.55 and 0.82 for cortical, nuclear and PSC cataract, respectively. We assessed age-specific prevalence using an interval of 5 years, so that participants within each age group were independent between the two surveys.Age and gender distributions were similar between the two populations. The age-specific prevalence of cortical (23.8% in 1st, 23.7% in 2nd) and PSC cataract (6.3%, 6.0%) was similar. The prevalence of nuclear cataract increased slightly from 18.7% to 23.9%. After age standardization, the similar prevalence of cortical (23.8%, 23.5%) and PSC cataract (6.3%, 5.9%), and the increased prevalence of nuclear cataract (18.7%, 24.2%) remained.In two surveys of two population-based samples with similar age and gender distributions, we found a relatively stable cortical and PSC cataract prevalence over a 6-year period. The increased prevalence of nuclear cataract deserves further study.Age-related cataract is the leading cause of reversible visual impairment in older persons [1-6]. In Australia, it is estimated that by the year 2021, the number of people affected by cataract will increase by 63%, due to population aging [7]. Surgical intervention is an effective treatment for cataract and normal vision (> 20/40) can usually be restored with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation.Cataract surgery with IOL implantation i
Cavity optomechanics in gallium phosphide microdisks
Matthew Mitchell,Aaron C. Hryciw,Paul E. Barclay
Physics , 2013, DOI: 10.1063/1.4870999
Abstract: We demonstrate gallium phosphide (GaP) microdisk optical cavities with intrinsic quality factors $ > 2.8\times10^{5}$ and mode volumes $< 10 (\lambda/n)^3$, and study their nonlinear and optomechanical properties. For optical intensities up to $8.0\times10^4$ intracavity photons, we observe optical loss in the microcavity to decrease with increasing intensity, indicating that saturable absorption sites are present in the GaP material, and that two-photon absorption is not significant. We observe optomechanical coupling between optical modes of the microdisk around 1.5 $\mu$m and several mechanical resonances, and measure an optical spring effect consistent with a theoretically predicted optomechanical coupling rate $g_0/2\pi \sim 30$ kHz for the fundamental mechanical radial breathing mode at 488 MHz.
Effective-range description of a Bose gas under strong one- or two-dimensional confinement
Pascal Naidon,Eite Tiesinga,William F. Mitchell,Paul S. Julienne
Physics , 2006, DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/9/1/019
Abstract: We point out that theories describing s-wave collisions of bosonic atoms confined in one- or two-dimensional geometries can be extended to much tighter confinements than previously thought. This is achieved by replacing the scattering length by an energy-dependent scattering length which was already introduced for the calculation of energy levels under 3D confinement. This replacement accurately predicts the position of confinement-induced resonances in strongly confined geometries.
Low-dissipation cavity optomechanics in single-crystal diamond
Matthew Mitchell,Behzad Khanaliloo,David P. Lake,Paul E. Barclay
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Single-crystal diamond cavity optomechanical devices are a promising example of a hybrid quantum system: by coupling mechanical resonances to both light and electron spins, they can enable new ways for photons to control solid state qubits. However, creating devices from high quality bulk diamond chips is challenging. Here we demonstrate single-crystal diamond cavity optomechanical devices that can enable photon-phonon-spin coupling. Cavity optomechanical coupling to $2\,\text{GHz}$ frequency ($f_\text{m}$) mechanical resonances is observed. In room temperature ambient conditions, the resonances have a record combination of low dissipation ($Q_\text{m} > 9000$) and high frequency, with $Q_\text{m}\cdot f_\text{m} \sim 1.9\times10^{13}$ sufficient for room temperature single phonon coherence. The system is nearly sideband resolved, and radiation pressure is used to excite $\sim 31\,\text{pm}$ amplitude mechanical self-oscillations that can drive diamond color centre electron spin transitions.
Online Courses and Online Teaching Strategies in Higher Education  [PDF]
Abigail Mitchell
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.523225
Abstract: Online faculty need to engage the student. Online course work is now an integral element of mainstream higher education. Online courses often lack face-to-face interaction, peer interaction, faculty feedback and the lack of community. Engagement of the learner is essential for learning and promoting student satisfaction. There are online teaching strategies that could enhance a student’s perception of engagement. This manuscript was completed by a literature review process.
Modeling Long-Term Trends in Russet Burbank Potato Growth and Development in Wisconsin
Nicholas J. Goeser,Paul D. Mitchell,Paul D. Esker,David Curwen,Gavin Weis,Alvin J. Bussan
Agronomy , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/agronomy2010014
Abstract: Improving understanding and prediction of the potato ( Solanum tuberosum) tuber size over the growing season is important due to its effects on crop price and marketing. Several models have been proposed to describe potato growth and development, but are based on short-term data and have little use for predicting yields or in-season management decisions. This analysis uses long-term data collected from 1979 to 1993 in central Wisconsin to describe growth and development of the Russet Burbank potato variety. This paper describes average number of potato tubers per plant and tuber length as influenced by thermal time and stem number per plant over 14 years. For each plant variable, data analysis uses multivariate techniques to fit a hierarchical logistic model with parameters potentially depending on stem number per plant. Analysis finds that the average number of potato tubers and average tuber length were affected by thermal time and stem number per plant. Estimated models are biologically relevant, provide an understanding of seasonal thermal variability and stem number per plant effects on average tuber set and growth, and can be used to describe yearly variation in average potato growth and development. Increased understanding of potato growth in response to thermal time and stem number per plant can improve management recommendations and predictions of crop economic value.
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