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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 316484 matches for " Paul J. Wichgers Schreur "
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Lgt Processing Is an Essential Step in Streptococcus suis Lipoprotein Mediated Innate Immune Activation
Paul J. Wichgers Schreur, Johanna M. J. Rebel, Mari A. Smits, Jos P. M. van Putten, Hilde E. Smith
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022299
Abstract: Background Streptococcus suis causes invasive infections in pigs and occasionally in humans. The host innate immune system plays a major role in counteracting S. suis infections. The main components of S. suis able to activate the innate immune system likely include cell wall constituents that may be released during growth or after cell wall integrity loss, however characterization of these components is still limited. Methology/Principal Findings A concentrated very potent innate immunity activating supernatant of penicillin-treated S. suis was SDS-PAGE fractionated and tested for porcine peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) stimulating activity using cytokine gene transcript analysis. More than half of the 24 tested fractions increased IL-1β and IL-8 cytokine gene transcript levels in porcine PBMCs. Mass spectrometry of the active fractions indicated 24 proteins including 9 lipoproteins. Genetic inactivation of a putative prolipoprotein diacylglyceryl transferase (Lgt) gene resulted in deficient lipoprotein synthesis as evidenced by palmitate labeling. The Lgt mutant showed strongly reduced activation of porcine PBMCs, indicating that lipoproteins are dominant porcine PBMC activating molecules of S. suis. Conclusion/Significance This study for the first time identifies and characterizes lipoproteins of S. suis as major activators of the innate immune system of the pig. In addition, we provide evidence that Lgt processing of lipoproteins is required for lipoprotein mediated innate immune activation.
Lysozyme Resistance in Streptococcus suis Is Highly Variable and Multifactorial
Paul J. Wichgers Schreur, Christian van Weeghel, Johanna M. J. Rebel, Mari A. Smits, Jos P. M. van Putten, Hilde E. Smith
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036281
Abstract: Background Streptococcus suis is an important infectious agent for pigs and occasionally for humans. The host innate immune system plays a key role in preventing and eliminating S. suis infections. One important constituent of the innate immune system is the protein lysozyme, which is present in a variety of body fluids and immune cells. Lysozyme acts as a peptidoglycan degrading enzyme causing bacterial lysis. Several pathogens have developed mechanisms to evade lysozyme-mediated killing. In the present study we compared the lysozyme sensitivity of various S. suis isolates and investigated the molecular basis of lysozyme resistance for this pathogen. Results The lysozyme minimal inhibitory concentrations of a wide panel of S. suis isolates varied between 0.3 to 10 mg/ml. By inactivating the oatA gene in a serotype 2 and a serotype 9 strain, we showed that OatA-mediated peptidoglycan modification partly contributes to lysozyme resistance. Furthermore, inactivation of the murMN operon provided evidence that additional peptidoglycan crosslinking is not involved in lysozyme resistance in S. suis. Besides a targeted approach, we also used an unbiased approach for identifying factors involved in lysozyme resistance. Based on whole genome comparisons of a lysozyme sensitive strain and selected lysozyme resistant derivatives, we detected several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were correlated with the lysozyme resistance trait. Two SNPs caused defects in protein expression of an autolysin and a capsule sugar transferase. Analysis of specific isogenic mutants, confirmed the involvement of autolysin activity and capsule structures in lysozyme resistance of S. suis. Conclusions This study shows that lysozyme resistance levels are highly variable among S. suis isolates and serotypes. Furthermore, the results show that lysozyme resistance in S. suis can involve different mechanisms including OatA-mediated peptidolycan modification, autolysin activity and capsule production.
Adjustment of College Freshmen as Predicted by Both Perceived Parenting Style and the Five Factor Model of Personality—Personality and Adjustment  [PDF]
Jennifer Schnuck, Paul J. Handal
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.24044
Abstract: The adjustment that freshmen make to college is important, and is related to student retention. The present study explored the relationships among freshmen students’ personality traits, their perceptions of the parenting styles employed by their mothers and fathers, their positive and negative adjustment, and their adaptation to college. Freshmen participants (74 men, 116 women) were from a Midwestern, religiously affiliated university. Results revealed that the relationships between parenting styles and adjustment to college, although statistically significant, were quite weak. In contrast, analyses revealed that strong relationships exist between personality traits and the adjustment that freshmen students make to college. These relationships were found to be different with regard to gender. The results have important implications for the adjustment that freshmen students make to college.
A quantitative evaluation of the high resolution HARMONIE model for critical weather phenomena
E. V. van der Plas, B. Wichers Schreur,K. Kok
Advances in Science and Research (ASR) , 2012, DOI: 10.5194/asr-8-149-2012
Abstract: The high resolution non-hydrostatic Harmonie model (Seity et al., 2012) seems capable of delivering high quality precipitation forecasts. The quality with respect to the European radar composite is assessed using the Model Evaluation Tool, as distributed by the NCAR DTC (Developmental Testbed Center, 2012), and compared to that of the reference run of Hirlam (Unden et al., 2002), the current operational NWP model at KNMI. Both neighbourhood and object-based verification methods are compared for a week with several high intensity precipitation events in July 2010. It is found that Hirlam scores very well in most metrics, and that in spite of the higher resolution the added value of the Harmonie model is sometimes hard to quantify. However, higher precipitation intensities are better represented in the Harmonie model with its higher resolution. Object-based methods do not yet yield a sharp distinction between the different models, as it proves difficult to construct a meaningful and distinguishing metric with a solid physical basis for the many settings that can be varied.
Practicing What We Preach: How Are Admissions Decisions Made for Clinical Psychology Graduate Programs, and What Do Students Need to Know?  [PDF]
Travis J. Pashak, Paul J. Handal, Megan Ubinger
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2012.31001
Abstract: As the application process to Clinical Psychology graduate programs becomes increasingly competitive, applicants and advisors have a need to know what to expect. The aim of this article is to provide a brief overview of the application process, an examination of characteristics of admission committees’ criteria and selection policies, and an analysis of differences among and between programs of different types. Programs offering doctoral degrees in clinical psychology (n = 59) were surveyed regarding their admissions procedures and criteria, and the results are discussed in light of what impacts applicants. Findings suggest that policies and procedures are mixed, that important differences exist between Ph.D. programs and Psy.D. programs, and that programs generally follow an assessment model in their selection decisions.
Early Onset Post-Radiation Cutaneous Angiosarcoma of the Breast with Features of Atypical-Vascular Lesion: A Diagnostic Pitfall and Its Biologic Significance  [PDF]
John B. Wojcik, Brian J. Czerniecki, Paul J. Zhang
Case Reports in Clinical Medicine (CRCM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/crcm.2015.46041
Vascular proliferations may arise in the breast following radiation treatment for a primary breast adenocarcinoma. A post-radiation vascular proliferation can usually be classified as angiosarcoma or as an atypical vascular lesion (AVL). Angiosarcomas with a “low-grade” morphology, behave aggressively but exhibit substantial histomorphologic overlap with AVLs, which have a generally benign clinical course. We present a case of a post-radiation angiosarcoma of the breast with histologic features that mimic an atypical vascular lesion and discuss this challenging differential diagnosis. In addition to histologic mimicry, the lesion exhibited only patchy amplification of the avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (MYC) gene by present fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), and patchy MYC overexpression by immunohistochemistry. These features further complicate the distinction between AVL and angiosarcoma, and would be particularly problematic on a small biopsy. We believe that the morphologic and immunohistochemical overlap between these entities is suggestive of a biologic spectrum, and thus that, at least in some instances, angiosarcoma may arise from a pre-existing AVL or AVL-like lesion.
System-on-Chip Test Data Compression Based on Split-Data Variable Length (SDV) Code  [PDF]
J. Robert Theivadas, V. Ranganathan, J. Raja Paul Perinbam
Circuits and Systems (CS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cs.2016.78105
Abstract: System-on-a-chips with intellectual property cores need a large volume of data for testing. The large volume of test data requires a large testing time and test data memory. Therefore new techniques are needed to optimize the test data volume, decrease the testing time, and conquer the ATE memory limitation for SOC designs. This paper presents a new compression method of testing for intellectual property core-based system-on-chip. The proposed method is based on new split- data variable length (SDV) codes that are designed using the split-options along with identification bits in a string of test data. This paper analyses the reduction of test data volume, testing time, run time, size of memory required in ATE and improvement of compression ratio. Experimental results for ISCAS 85 and ISCAS 89 Benchmark circuits show that SDV codes outperform other compression methods with the best compression ratio for test data compression. The decompression architecture for SDV codes is also presented for decoding the implementations of compressed bits. The proposed scheme shows that SDV codes are accessible to any of the variations in the input test data stream.
Crossing Borders: Security and Privacy Issues of the European e-Passport
Jaap-Henk Hoepman,Engelbert Hubbers,Bart Jacobs,Martijn Oostdijk,Ronny Wichers Schreur
Computer Science , 2008,
Abstract: The first generation of European e-passports will be issued in 2006. We discuss how borders are crossed regarding the security and privacy erosion of the proposed schemes, and show which borders need to be crossed to improve the security and the privacy protection of the next generation of e-passports. In particular we discuss attacks on Basic Access Control due to the low entropy of the data from which the access keys are derived, we sketch the European proposals for Extended Access Control and the weaknesses in that scheme, and show how fundamentally different design decisions can make e-passports more secure.
The TGF- 1/Upstream Stimulatory Factor-Regulated PAI-1 Gene: Potential Involvement and a Therapeutic Target in Alzheimer's Disease
Paul J. Higgins
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/jbb/2006/15792
Abstract: Amyloid peptide (Aβ) aggregates, derived from initial β-site proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), accumulate in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients. The plasmin-generating cascade appears to serve a protective role in the central nervous system since plasmin-mediated proteolysis of APP utilizes the α site, eventually generating nontoxic peptides, and plasmin also degrades Aβ. The conversion of plasminogen to plasmin by tissue-type plasminogen activator in the brain is negatively regulated by plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) resulting in attenuation of plasmin-dependent substrate degradation with resultant accumulation of Aβ. PAI-1 and its major physiological inducer TGF-β1, moreover, are increased in models of Alzheimer's disease and have been implicated in the etiology and progression of human neurodegenerative disorders. This review highlights the potential role of PAI-1 and TGF-β1 in this process. Current molecular events associated with TGF-β1-induced PAI-1 transcription are presented with particular relevance to potential targeting of PAI-1 gene expression as a molecular approach to the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases associated with increased PAI-1 expression such as Alzheimer's disease.
Adaptation to Impacts of Climate Change on Aeroallergens and Allergic Respiratory Diseases
Paul J. Beggs
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph7083006
Abstract: Climate change has the potential to have many significant impacts on aeroallergens such as pollen and mould spores, and therefore related diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. This paper critically reviews this topic, with a focus on the potential adaptation measures that have been identified to date. These are aeroallergen monitoring; aeroallergen forecasting; allergenic plant management; planting practices and policies; urban/settlement planning; building design and heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC); access to health care and medications; education; and research.
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