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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 171505 matches for " Paul H Lysaker "
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Social function in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: Associations with personality, symptoms and neurocognition
Paul H Lysaker, Louanne W Davis
Health and Quality of Life Outcomes , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-2-15
Abstract: A self-report measure of the five factor model of personality was gathered along with ratings of social function, symptoms and assessments of neurocognition for 65 participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.Univariate correlations and stepwise multiple regression indicated that frequency of social interaction was predicted by higher levels of the trait of Agreeableness, fewer negative symptoms, better verbal memory and at the trend level, lesser Neuroticism (R2 = .42, p < .0001). In contrast, capacity for intimacy was predicted by fewer negative symptoms, higher levels of Agreeableness, Openness, and Conscientiousness and at the trend level, fewer positive symptoms (R2 = .67, p < .0001).Taken together, the findings of this study suggest that person-centered variables such as personality, may account for some of the broad differences seen in outcome in schizophrenia spectrum disorders, including social outcomes. One interpretation of the results of this study is that differences in personality combine with symptoms and neurocognitive deficits to affect how persons with schizophrenia are able to form and sustain social connections with others.Interest has increasingly grown in understanding how differences in personality may affect outcome in schizophrenia [1,2]. Just as in a wide range of other severe and debilitating medical conditions [3-7], the manner in which people interpret and respond to a life touched by schizophrenia may deeply impact upon the recovery process [8-11].To date, one model of personality that has shown some promise in helping to systematically document the types of individual differences that help or hinder outcome in schizophrenia, is the "Five factor" model [12]. This model posits five endogenous traits [13] along which all persons vary, regardless of their socioeconomic status or culture and which exert an enduring impact on behavior, affect and cognition across the lifespan [14]. These five dimensions are Neuroticism, or vul
Quality of sleep in patients with schizophrenia is associated with quality of life and coping
John R Hofstetter, Paul H Lysaker, Aimee R Mayeda
BMC Psychiatry , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-244x-5-13
Abstract: We simultaneously assessed sleep quality, symptoms, and coping in 29 persons with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder in a post acute phase of illness. Assessment instruments included the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; the Positive and Negative Symptom Scale; the Heinrichs Quality of Life Scale; and the Ways of Coping Scale. Multiple regressions were performed predicting quality of life and coping from sleep quality controlling for age and symptom severity. On a subset of seven subjects non-dominant wrist actigraphy was used as an objective check of their self-reported poor sleep.Analyses revealed that poor sleep quality predicted low quality of life (r = -0.493; p = .022) and reduced preference for employing positive reappraisal when facing a stressor (r = -0.0594; p = 0.0012). Actigraphy confirmed poor sleep quality in a subset of subjects. They had shorter sleep duration (p < .0005), shorter average sleep episodes (p < .005) and more episodes of long awakening (p < 0.05) than community norms.The results are consistent with the hypotheses that poor sleep may play a unique role in sustaining poor quality of life and impaired coping in patients with schizophrenia. These associations may hold for community controls as well.Many persons with schizophrenia report chronically disturbed sleep [1,2]. Independent of the phase of illness, sleep disturbance documented by polysomnography include: difficulties falling asleep, awakening too early and being unable to go back to sleep, a preference for being awake during the evening, reduced deep or slow-wave sleep (the most restorative stage of sleep), and short REM latencies [3-6]. In addition to being a source of distress, various forms of sleep disturbance have also been linked to heightened levels of thought disorder [7] and symptoms of excitement [8] and may portend relapse [9].While sleep disturbance appears widespread in schizophrenia and is related to clinical features, less clear is whether it is also related to
Autobiographical memory and mentalizing impairment in personality disorders and schizophrenia: clinical and research implications
Giancarlo Dimaggio,Giampaolo Salvatore,Raffaele Popolo,Paul H. Lysaker
Frontiers in Psychology , 2012, DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2012.00529
Abstract:
Metacognition in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Methods of assessment and associations with neurocognition and function
Paul H. Lysaker,M.A. Molly Erickson,Kelly D. Buck,Michelle Procacci
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2010,
Abstract: Background and Objectives: Research has confirmed that many with schizophrenia experience deficits in metacognitive capacity defined as impairments in the ability to think about thinking, both with regards to their own thinking and the thinking of others. These difficulties are related to, but not reducible to symptoms. One question posed here regards how these deficits are linked to other forms of cognitive deficits, including deficits in neurocognition, and how they and other forms of cognitive deficits are related to the ability to function. As neurocognition is degraded in schizophrenia, does the ability to think about one′s own thinking diminish? Do deficits in metacognition affect function in a manner semi-independent of deficits in neurocognition? Methods: To explore these possibilities, this paper reviews recent studies of metacognition as assessed within personal narratives of self and illness spontaneously generated by adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Results: Studies are reviewed which suggest that impairments in verbal memory and executive function may interfere with the ability to form and sustain representation of one′s own internal state as well as the internal states of others. Additionally, results are detailed which suggest that metacognitive deficits directly affect function prospectively and may mediate the impact of neurocognitive deficits on functioning. Conclusions: Results are consistent with the possibility that a certain level of neurocognition is needed to think about thinking in a complex manner and that the ability to think about thinking is intimately related to the ability to work and relate to others among persons with schizophrenia.
Metacognition in schizophrenia spectrum disorders: Methods of assessment and associations with neurocognition and function
Lysaker,Paul H.; Molly Erickson,M.A.; Buck,Kelly D.; Procacci,Michelle; Nicolò,Guiseppe; Dimaggio,Giancarlo;
The European Journal of Psychiatry , 2010, DOI: 10.4321/S0213-61632010000400004
Abstract: background and objectives: research has confirmed that many with schizophrenia experience deficits in metacognitive capacity defined as impairments in the ability to think about thinking, both with regards to their own thinking and the thinking of others. these difficulties are related to, but not reducible to symptoms. one question posed here regards how these deficits are linked to other forms of cognitive deficits, including deficits in neurocognition, and how they and other forms of cognitive deficits are related to the ability to function. as neurocognition is degraded in schizophrenia, does the ability to think about one′s own thinking diminish? do deficits in metacognition affect function in a manner semi-independent of deficits in neurocognition? methods: to explore these possibilities, this paper reviews recent studies of metacognition as assessed within personal narratives of self and illness spontaneously generated by adults with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. results: studies are reviewed which suggest that impairments in verbal memory and executive function may interfere with the ability to form and sustain representation of one′s own internal state as well as the internal states of others. additionally, results are detailed which suggest that metacognitive deficits directly affect function prospectively and may mediate the impact of neurocognitive deficits on functioning. conclusions: results are consistent with the possibility that a certain level of neurocognition is needed to think about thinking in a complex manner and that the ability to think about thinking is intimately related to the ability to work and relate to others among persons with schizophrenia.
Insight, Neurocognition, and Schizophrenia: Predictive Value of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test
John Stratton,Philip T. Yanos,Paul Lysaker
Schizophrenia Research and Treatment , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/696125
Abstract: Lack of insight in schizophrenia is a key feature of the illness and is associated with both positive and negative clinical outcomes. Previous research supports that neurocognitive dysfunction is related to lack of insight, but studies have not examined how neurocognition relates to change in insight over time. Therefore, the current study sought to understand how performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) differed between participants with varying degrees of change in insight over a 6-month period. Fifty-two patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder were administered the WCST and Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) at baseline, and the PANSS was again administered at a 6-month follow-up assessment. Results indicated that while neurocognition was related to insight at baseline, it was not related to subsequent change in insight. The implications of findings for conceptualization and assessment of insight are discussed. 1. Introduction Lack of insight into one’s illness has been cited as common among people with psychotic disorders and in particular schizophrenia. Lack of insight can be manifested in the denial or lack of awareness of the presence or impact of symptoms or the need for treatment [1]. Those with schizophrenia have been found to have higher levels of impaired insight in comparison to other psychotic disorders [2–6], with some studies citing this as the most common clinical phenomenon linked with schizophrenia [7, 8]. From a broader perspective, lack of insight reflects not so much the absence of a single piece of knowledge but a failure to construct an adaptive narrative account of the challenges posed by having a psychiatric illness [9, 10]. Although not a diagnostic criterion, lack of insight has become an important topic in the schizophrenia literature due to its utility as a prognosis indicator [11, 12] and potential marker of a subtype of the illness [13]. A better understanding of the etiological correlates of insight could enhance treatment modalities [11], improve prevention, and elucidate the relationship between insight and other clinical symptoms [14]. A number of such associations have already been found, including correlations between poor insight and severity of psychopathology [4, 15, 16], increased number of hospitalizations [4, 15], violent behavior [17, 18], lower treatment adherence [4, 19, 20], and poor premorbid or present adjustment [21]. Despite recognition as an important concept within behavioral science, reaching consensus as to what constitutes insight has proved challenging.
Weather extremes from anthropogenic global warming  [PDF]
Paul H. Carr
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.51A020
Abstract:

Although sea levels are predicted to rise 1 to 2 meters by 2100, the more immediate effects of global warming are weather extremes. The number of natural disasters since 1996 costing $1 billion or more doubled compared with the previous 15-year period. Extreme summer heat anomalies now cover about 10% of land area, up from 0.2% in 1950-1980. The human influence on global warming is evident from climate data and physical modeling. Since the beginning of the industrial era, carbon dioxide (CO2) increases correlate with those of temperature. Carbon dating shows that the CO2 increase is from burning ancient fossil fuels. Increasing CO2 and other greenhouse gases blanket and warm the earth’s surface, allowing less heat to reach the stratosphere, which is cooling. This is consistent with satellite measurements showing that solar irradiance is not changing. The present CO2 rate increase of 2 ppm/year is 300 times higher than the rate at which the earth recovered from the ice age 18,000 years ago. Without the radiative forcing of noncondensing persistent CO2, the terrestrial greenhouse would collapse, plunging the global climate into an icebound earth state. Will new technologies lower our carbon emissions in time to prevent more weather extremes? Electric cars now get the equivalent of 100 miles per gallon. The cost of electricity from solar photovoltaic cells has reached grid parity.

The Myth of the High-Efficiency External-Combustion Stirling Engine  [PDF]
Paul H. Riley
Engineering (ENG) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2015.712068
Abstract: The reported discrepancy between theory and experiment for external combustion Stirling engines is explained by the addition of thermal resistance of the combustion gasses to the standard Carnot model. In these cases, the Stirling engine ideal efficiency is not as is normally reported equal to the Carnot cycle efficiency but is significantly lower. A new equation for ideal Stirling engine efficiency when the heat is obtained through external combustion without pre-heating the air, is presented and results for various fuels tabulated. The results show that petrol and diesel, internal combustion engines (Otto cycle) have a higher ideal efficiency than the Stirling engine. When comparing thermoacoustic engines heated by wood, efficiency should not be quoted as a percentage of the Carnot efficiency, but against a figure 48% lower than Carnot. The effect is not seen with electrically heated rigs, solar or nuclear fission heated engines.
Voorbeeld en voorganger. Robert Fruin en Godefroid Kurth als vaders van de geschiedwetenschap
H. Paul
BMGN : Low Countries Historical Review , 2011,
Abstract: Model and Predecessor: Robert Fruin and Godefroid Kurth as Fathers of Historical Scholarship This article explores not how historians study collective memories, but how they create and nourish (professional) memory cultures of their own. It examines how historians commemorate their predecessors and celebrate their historiographical achievements. The case studies chosen are Robert Fruin (1823-1899) and Godefroid Kurth (1847-1916), both of whom were hailed as ‘father of history’ by Dutch and Belgian admirers, respectively, in the late nineteenth century. Tracing the fortunes of Fruin’s and Kurth’s reputations throughout the twentieth century, the article shows that this ‘father of history’ metaphor acquired rather diverse meanings. These shifting meanings not only mirrored changing ideals of scholarly practice, but also reflected institutional concerns, religious or ideological partisanship, and growing concerns over the habit of conceiving of historical scholarship in national terms. Finally, the article recommends further research on the affective and emotional dimensions of fatherhood in nineteenth and twentieth-century historiography.
Anesthetic Management of a Delayed Carinal Resection Following Traumatic Disruption  [PDF]
Kevin A. Blackney, Paul H. Alfille
Open Journal of Anesthesiology (OJAnes) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojanes.2014.410034
Abstract: Resecting and reconstructing the carina is an anesthetic challenge in the best of circumstances. The surgery is meticulous and requires access to the trachea and bronchi, ruling out traditional lung isolation techniques. When resection of the carina is due to traumatic disruption, confounding thoracic injuries can make adequate ventilation and oxygenation difficult, especially when only one lung is available for ventilation. ECMO is an intervention that provides sufficient oxygenation and an unimpeded surgical field. ECMO also allows use of smaller airway management tools that can be used to ventilate the dependent lung, thus preventing atelectasis and producing better postoperative outcomes.
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