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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 23662 matches for " Paul Garside "
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Emma Richardson,Paul Garside
E-Preservation Science , 2009,
Abstract: As a prestigious and expensive textile, silk is found in manyhistoric artefacts of cultural importance. However, as silkages it becomes increasingly fragile and thus prone to damagethrough handling, display or even conservation treatment;these problems are exacerbated by some of the processingmethods traditionally applied to such materials.Therefore, in order to minimise the danger to these objects,it is vital to have a good understanding of the physical stateof the silk component. It is shown that near infrared spectroscopy,in combination with multivariate analysis, providesa method of assessing the stresses within a silk artefact,thereby highlighting areas at particular risk and allowinginformed decisions to be made as to the potential dangersof intervention. As near infrared spectroscopy mayreadily be used with a fibre optic probe, these analyses canbe performed in situ, rapidly and in a non-invasive manner,thus allowing assessment to be carried out in collectionsand displays without requiring samples to be taken, limitingthe disturbance to artefacts. Therefore, the technique providesa valuable tool to gain a practical understanding ofthe condition of silk artefacts, and a means of informingconservation, display and storage strategies.
A Systematic Approach to Selecting Inexpensive Conservation Storage Solutions
Paul Garside,Lesley Hanson
Journal of Conservation and Museum Studies , 2011, DOI: 10.5334/jcms.91102
Abstract: The appropriate storage of heritage artefacts is vital to their long-term survival, but selecting suitable storage solutions is not always easy due to the number of potentially conflicting factors that must be considered: the method of housing should be compatible with both the objects themselves and with the local environment; it must offer adequate support and protection; it should ideally be inexpensive, readily available and easy to use. Following the discovery of objects in the British Library’s collection which were showing initial signs of damage due to inappropriate storage, a systematic approach to selecting and assessing potential housing solutions was devised, as reported herein. A particular aim was to use containers, materials and testing regimes that could be sourced easily and affordably, thus permitting the rapid rehousing of all of the items identified as being at risk. This emphasis also places such test protocols and storage solutions within the reach of smaller collections with limited budgets and resources.
Assessing the Risks of Radiographing Culturally Significant Textiles
Paul Garside,Sonia O'Connor
E-Preservation Science , 2007,
Abstract: X-Radiography is widely used in the investigation of works of art and other culturally significant artefacts to reveal and record details of their construction, modification and state of preservation. Radiography is considered to be a non-destructive technique but its increasing use in the study of historic textiles has prompted the testing of this assumption as X-rays and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, such as light and micro-waves, cause changes in materials which may be detrimental to their physical stability. An experiment was undertaken to test the safety ofradiography for the imaging of silk fabrics as these are particularly susceptible to photodegradation. The results from a series of radiographic exposures of modern and historic fabrics show that excessive exposure to low energy X-rays produced no detectable changes in their mechanical integrity. This indicates that the customary levels of radiographic exposure used in imaging will not be detrimental to textiles.
Paul Garside,Paul Wyeth,Xiaomei Zhang
E-Preservation Science , 2010,
Abstract: Silk is found in many textiles of cultural and historic significance,but these fibres may deteriorate rapidly underadverse conditions, so are of particular concern to conservatorsand curators. Measurement of pH is common practicewhen assessing condition, as enhanced acidity is oftenascribed to previous processing and treatment, adsorbedpollutants and oxidative deterioration, but recent researchhas demonstrated that the increased acidity of silk is anexpected consequence of ageing, irrespective of the causeof deterioration. The study presented here builds on thisearlier work to assess the role that common silk processingmethods (bleaching and metal salt weighting) have onthis phenomenon. Tensile strength was used as a marker ofdeterioration, independent of mechanism, and was comparedwith pH values of saline extracts of various silk samples.These samples included surrogates, prepared usinghistorically accurate methods and subject to acceleratedageing, as well as a range of historic materials. It was seenthat most samples followed the same correlation betweenpH and strength as seen in the previous work. However,silks weighted with tin salts appeared to be buffered (in therange pH 6.75-7.05), irrespective of their mechanicalintegrity.
Use of Near IR Spectroscopy and Chemometrics to Assess the Tensile Strength of Historic Silk
Paul Garside,Paul Wyeth,Xiaomei Zhang
E-Preservation Science , 2011,
Abstract: Silk is a culturally important textile, found in many artefacts of historic significance including clothing, upholstery, banners and decorations. However, it is a fragile material and is prone to deterioration via a variety of mechanisms, particularly after certain historically common processing methods such as bleaching and weighting. Therefore it is important to be able to accurately characterise the material in order to inform the most appropriate strategies for conservation, display and storage. NIR spectroscopy allows the non-invasive, in situ investigation of these textiles, and when combined with chemometric (multivariate) analysis to draw correlations with data obtained by other methods, can provide a wide range of valuable information. Using these techniques, we have demonstrated that it is possible to gain information about the physical state and integrity of silk; although this is complicated by the range of degradative reactions which silk can undergo, it is possible to draw correlations between NIR spectra and mechanical properties derived from tensile testing. This will enable potential conservation treatments to be directed at those objects and areas in greatest need of intervention, and may also highlight aspects which may warrant additional investigation via other methods.
Suppression of adaptive immunity to heterologous antigens during Plasmodium infection through hemozoin-induced failure of dendritic cell function
Millington Owain R,Di Lorenzo Caterina,Phillips R,Garside Paul
Journal of Biology , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/jbiol34
Abstract: Background Dendritic cells (DCs) are central to the initiation and regulation of the adaptive immune response during infection. Modulation of DC function may therefore allow evasion of the immune system by pathogens. Significant depression of the host's systemic immune response to both concurrent infections and heterologous vaccines has been observed during malaria infection, but the mechanisms underlying this immune hyporesponsiveness are controversial. Results Here, we demonstrate that the blood stages of malaria infection induce a failure of DC function in vitro and in vivo, causing suboptimal activation of T cells involved in heterologous immune responses. This effect on T-cell activation can be transferred to uninfected recipients by DCs isolated from infected mice. Significantly, T cells activated by these DCs subsequently lack effector function, as demonstrated by a failure to migrate to lymphoid-organ follicles, resulting in an absence of B-cell responses to heterologous antigens. Fractionation studies show that hemozoin, rather than infected erythrocyte (red blood cell) membranes, reproduces the effect of intact infected red blood cells on DCs. Furthermore, hemozoin-containing DCs could be identified in T-cell areas of the spleen in vivo. Conclusion Plasmodium infection inhibits the induction of adaptive immunity to heterologous antigens by modulating DC function, providing a potential explanation for epidemiological studies linking endemic malaria with secondary infections and reduced vaccine efficacy.
Malaria Impairs T Cell Clustering and Immune Priming despite Normal Signal 1 from Dendritic Cells
Owain R Millington,Vivienne B Gibson,Catherine M Rush,Bernd H Zinselmeyer,R. Stephen Phillips,Paul Garside,James M Brewer
PLOS Pathogens , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.0030143
Abstract: Interactions between antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) and T cells are essential for the induction of an immune response. However, during malaria infection, DC function is compromised and immune responses against parasite and heterologous antigens are reduced. Here, we demonstrate that malaria infection or the parasite pigment hemozoin inhibits T cell and DC interactions both in vitro and in vivo, while signal 1 intensity remains unaltered. This altered cellular behaviour is associated with the suppression of DC costimulatory activity and functional T cell responses, potentially explaining why immunity is reduced during malaria infection.
Th17 Effector Cells Support B Cell Responses Outside of Germinal Centres
Agapitos Patakas, Robert A. Benson, David R. Withers, Paola Conigliaro, Iain B. McInnes, James M. Brewer, Paul Garside
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0049715
Abstract: Th17 cells are pro-inflammatory CD4+T cells, which are important in immune responses against fungal pathogens and extracellular bacteria and have also been implicated in various autoimmune syndromes. However, their role in supporting B cell responses in these scenarios remains unclear, representing a significant lapse in our understanding of the role Th17 play in vaccine responses and the regulation of autoimmunity. We employed T cell and B cell receptor transgenic mice specific for model antigens, and adoptive transfer approaches that allowed the tracking of cognate B and T cells in situ and ex vivo using immunological methods. We have found that T cells activated under Th17 polarising conditions have a greater capacity to provide cognate B cell help compared with Th1 polarised populations, supporting higher expansion of antigen specific B cells and enhanced antibody titres. This advantage is associated with the increased persistence of Th17 polarised cells in areas of the lymph nodes where they can provide help (i.e. the B cell follicles). Also the Th17 cells are characterised by their higher expression of ICOS, a costimulatory molecule important for B cell help. Surprisingly, contrary to published reports, Th17 cells were not detected inside germinal centres, although they were found in close proximity to cognate B cells in the follicle early in the genesis of the humoral immune response. These data indicate that, Th17 cells have a more significant role earlier in the initiation/development of the germinal centre response and/or germinal centre-independent events, consistent with their early effector status.
Annisa Kesy Garside
Jurnal Teknik Industri , 2008,
Abstract: The necessity to cut costs and inventory along supply chain makes a more integrated decision between production and distribution functions becomes very important. The purpose of this research is to develop a simultaneous and decoupled optimization model to solve integrated production-inventory-distribution-inventory problem. The model is formulated as Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) with objective function minimizing total cost which covers fixed and variable production cost, plant and Distribution Center (DC) inventory cost, regular and overtime delivery cost. As the conclusion of the two models used to solve integrated production-inventory-distribution-inventory problem, the total cost of simultan model is smaller than the decoupled one. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Tuntutan untuk mengurangi biaya-biaya dan persediaan sepanjang supply chain, menyebabkan pengambilan keputusan yang lebih terintegrasi diantara fungsi produksi dan distribusi menjadi sangat penting. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengembangkan model simultan dan decoupled untuk menyelesaikan problem integrasi produksi-persediaan-distribusi-persediaan. Model simultan dan decoupled diformulasikan sebagai Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) dengan fungsi tujuan meminimalkan total biaya yang meliputi biaya produksi tetap dan variabel, biaya persediaan di pabrik dan Distribution Center (DC) serta biaya pengiriman secara reguler dan overtime. Dengan menggunakan kedua model untuk menyelesaikan problem integrasi produksi-persediaan-distribusi-persediaan, diperoleh total biaya model simultan lebih kecil dibanding model decoupled. Kata kunci: koordinasi supply chain, integrasi produksi-persediaan-distribusi-persediaan, mixed integer programming, pengiriman langsung, pendekatan decoupled.
Secure Military Social Networking and Rapid Sensemaking in Domain Specific Concept Systems: Research Issues and Future Solutions
Debbie Garside,Arjun Ponnusamy,Steve Chan,Richard Picking
Future Internet , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/fi4010253
Abstract: This paper identifies the need for a secure military social networking site and the underlying research issues linked to the successful development of such sites. The paper further proposes a solution to the most basic issues by identifying and tackling known potential security threats to military personnel and their families. The paper further defines the base platform for this development to facilitate rapid sensemaking to inform critical communications and rapid decision making processes during abrupt governance and eco-system change, and how the plethora of information (termed as Big Data) on social networking sites can be analysed and harnessed. Underlying architectural issues, efficiency and complexity are explored and their future development is considered.
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