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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 24375 matches for " Paul Dawson "
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A Review of Weapon Choice in Violent and Sexual Crime  [PDF]
Paul Dawson, Alasdair M. Goodwill
Beijing Law Review (BLR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/blr.2013.41003
Abstract:

The concept that weapon choice and use may play a valuable role in differentiating between offenders is one that has not been well explored in current criminological or psychological thinking. The key aim of the current paper is to discuss the role of weapon choice and use in the application of offender profiling. Relevant research is identified though a literature review: initially considering a broad range of offences and then narrowing the focus on the specific case of violent and sexual offences. The review highlights several key findings which are then conceptualised through the offender profiling literature. In the discussion, the paper argues that there is considerable merit in the consideration of weapons within profiling violent and sexual offenders and concludes with proposed dimensions (planning and emotional use of the weapon) that illustrate the range of motivations that may aid in discriminating offenders.

Antioxidant Activity Assessment and Color Analysis of Skin from Different Peach Varieties Grown in South Carolina  [PDF]
Yueyuan Zhang, Inyee Han, Paul Dawson
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.61003
Abstract: Peach skin is a byproduct from the further processing of fresh peaches with the potential to be recovered and utilized as a natural antioxidant. Color analysis, phenolic content and antioxidant activity of peach skin from 13 varieties of peaches grown in South Carolina were determined. Color analysis indicated that Norman, Cary Mac, Ruby Prince and Flame Prince differed from other varieties of peaches. Antioxidant activity of peach skin extracts were evaluated by the total phenolics (TP), DPPH free radical scavenging (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) assays. The range of total phenolics content was 8.38 - 18.81 (gallic acid equivalent mg/g dry weight). The total phenolic content was highly correlated to DPPH and FRAP activity in peaches ranging from 8 - 23 AE/mg and 5 - 12 AE/mg, respectively. Three peach varieties with skins having the greatest antioxidant capacity were Red Globe, Scarlet Prince, and O’Henry.
Culinary Method Affects the Antioxidant Activity of Collard Greens (Brassica oleracea)
Alexander Clifford,Paul Dawson
Journal of Food Research (JFR) , 2012, DOI: 10.5539/jfr.v1n4p66
Abstract: The antioxidant activity of collard greens was determined after exposed to eight different thermal treatments: 1) untreated raw group, 2) short simmer 3short simmer water 4) short simmer + saute’, 5) saute’ 6) long simmer 7) long simmer water 8) long simmer + saute’. After treatment, total phenolic content (TPC) expressed in gallic acid equivalents/sample concentration (GAE/conc.), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferrous ion chelating (FIC) antioxidant assays were determined. The sauté treated group showed the highest TPC (8.2858 GAE/conc.) followed by the raw group (8.0361) and the short simmer + sauté group (7.6227). The raw group showed the highest DPPH activity (7.7952% inhibition/conc.) followed by the sauté group (7.5877) and the short simmer + sauté group (7.4753). In both of these assays the addition of a sauté treatment to either short or long simmered treatment increased the antioxidant activity of samples compared to just the short or long simmer treatment alone. Additionally both TPC and DPPH assays showed greater antioxidant activity in the cooking water reserved from a long simmer treatment compared to the reserved cooking water of a short simmer treatment suggesting significant (p<0.05) leeching of antioxidants from collard greens into the water related to the duration of aquathermal treatment. Similar trends were not found in the results of the FIC chelating assay where both long and short simmer treatment groups showed the highest chelating abilities and the reserved cooking water from both treatments showed the lowest chelating abilities. This suggests that chelators contained in collard greens were not relatively water soluble and therefore not negatively affected byaquathermal treatments.
Bioavailability of Soy Protein and Corn Zein Films  [PDF]
Laura B. Matthews, M. Elizabeth Kunkel, James C. Acton, Amod A. Ogale, Paul L. Dawson
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2011.210148
Abstract: The in vivo bioavailability of soy protein isolates and corn zein film material before and after film formation by heat/ pressure was determined. The In vitro digestibility of corn zein before and after film formation was also measured. Films were produced from anhydrous protein with 30% glycerol added using a heat-press method with no use of casting solvents or cross-linking agents. Corn zein raw and film material were ground under liquid nitrogen then digested in two enzyme-acid cocktails with free amino acid analysis before and after digestion. The protein efficiency ratio and net protein ratio were determined for both zein and soy protein using a weanling Sprague-Dawley descended rat feeding study. The In vitro digestibility study indicated that the non-heat pressed corn zein was more digestible than the heat pressed zein. However, the in vivo results indicated that corn and soy protein were equally bioavailable whether they were derived from film mixture prior to or after film formation. Both corn zein and soy protein material had lower protein efficiency ratio than the control diet. Furthermore, soy protein films materials had a higher protein efficiency ratio than corn zein.
The tip-sample water bridge and light emission from scanning tunnelling microscopy
Michael G Boyle,J Mitra,Paul Dawson
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0957-4484/20/33/335202
Abstract: Light emission spectrum from a scanning tunnelling microscope (LESTM) is investigated as a function of relative humidity and shown to be a novel and sensitive means for probing the growth and properties of a water meniscus in the nm-scale. An empirical model of the light emission process is formulated and applied successfully to replicate the decay in light intensity and spectral changes observed with increasing relative humidity. The modelling indicates a progressive water filling of the tip-sample junction with increasing humidity or, more pertinently, of the volume of the localized surface plasmons responsible for light emission; it also accounts for the effect of asymmetry in structuring of the water molecules with respect to polarity of the applied bias. This is juxtaposed with the case of a non-polar liquid in the tip-sample nano cavity where no polarity dependence of the light emission is observed. In contrast to the discrete detection of the presence/absence of water bridge in other scanning probe experiments by measurement of the feedback parameter for instrument control LESTM offers a means of continuously monitoring the development of the water bridge with sub-nm sensitivity. The results are relevant to applications such as dip-pen nanolithography and electrochemical scanning probe microscopy.
FEpX -- Finite Element Polycrystals: Theory, Finite Element Formulation, Numerical Implementation and Illustrative Examples
Paul R. Dawson,Donald E. Boyce
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: FEpX is a modeling framework for computing the elastoplastic deformations of polycrystalline solids. Using the framework, one can simulate the mechanical behavior of aggregates of crystals, referred to as virtual polycrystals, over large strain deformation paths. This article presents the theory, the finite element formulation, and important features of the numerical implementation that collectively define the modeling framework. The article also provides several examples of simulating the elastoplastic behavior of polycrystalline solids to illustrate possible applications of the framework. There is an associated finite element code, also referred to as FEpX, that is based on the framework presented here and was used to perform the simulations presented in the examples. The article serves as a citable reference for the modeling framework for users of that code. Specific information about the formats of the input and output data, the code architecture, and the code archive are contained in other documents.
A Methodology to Determine Tooling Interface Temperature and Traction Conditions from Measured Force and Torque in Materials Processing Simulations Based on Multimesh Error Estimation
Paul R. Dawson,Donald E. Boyce
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: A methodology is presented for estimating average values for the temperature and the frictional traction over a tool-workpiece interface using measured values of force and torque applied to the tool. The approach was developed specifically for friction stir welding and friction stir processing applications, but is sufficiently general to be of use in a variety of other processes that involve sliding contact and heating at a tool-workpiece interface. The methodology works with a finite element framework that is intended to predict the evolution of the microstructural state of the workpiece material as it undergoes a complex thermomechanical history imposed by the process tooling. We employ a three-dimensional, Eulerian, finite element formulation; it includes coupling among the solutions for velocity, temperature and material state evolution. A critical element of the methodology is a procedure to estimate the tool interface traction and temperature from typical, measured values of force and torque. The procedure leads naturally to an intuitive basis for estimating error that is used in conjunction with multiple meshes to assure convergence. The methodology is demonstrate for a suite of three experiments that had been previously published as part of a study on the effect of weld speed on friction stir welding. The probe interface temperatures and torques are estimated for all three weld speeds and the multi-mesh error estimation methodology is employed to quantify the rate of convergence. Finally, comparison of computed and measured power usage is used as a further validation. Using the converged results, trends in the material flow, temperature, stress, deformation rate and material state with changing weld conditions are examined.
Bacterial Transfer from Hands While Eating Popcorn  [PDF]
Kimberly A. Baker, Inyee Y. Han, J. Bailey, Lauren Johnson, Edward Jones, Amy Knight, Mollye MacNaughton, Peter Marvin, Katherine Nolan, Rose Martinez-Dawson, Paul L. Dawson
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.615139
Abstract: Popcorn is a very social food, often shared with others and offered at many major sporting events, concerts, movies, and fairs. However, sharing may not be safe since microorganisms found on hands may be transferred onto the shared popcorn. This study was conducted to determine if bacteria are transferred from hands to popcorn during handling. Over 30 samplings revealed that bacterial transfer to popcorn from hands was very low; however transfer did occur with large variation between subjects. Since hands and surfaces can carry bacteria in situations where food is being shared, transferring bacteria from one person to another person is always a risk.
Clinical EFT as an Evidence-Based Practice for the Treatment of Psychological and Physiological Conditions  [PDF]
Dawson Church
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.48092
Abstract:

Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) has moved in the past two decades from a fringe therapy to widespread professional acceptance. This paper defines Clinical EFT, the method validated in many research studies, and shows it to be an “evidence-based” practice. It describes standards by which therapies may be evaluated, such as those of the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 12 Task Force, and reviews the studies showing that Clinical EFT meets these criteria. Several research domains are discussed, summarizing studies of: 1) psychological conditions such as anxiety, depression, phobias, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD); 2) physiological problems such as pain and autoimmune conditions; 3) professional and sports performance; and 4) the physiological mechanisms of action of Clinical EFT. The paper lists the conclusions that may be drawn from this body of evidence, which includes 23 randomized controlled trials and 17 within-subjects studies. The three essential ingredients of Clinical EFT are described: exposure, cognitive shift, and acupressure. The latter is shown to be an essential ingredient in EFT’s efficacy, and not merely a placebo. New evidence from emerging fields such as epigenetics, neural plasticity, psychoneuroimmunology, and evolutionary biology confirms the central link between emotion and physiology, and points to somatic stimulation as the element common to emerging psychotherapeutic methods. The paper outlines the next steps in EFT research, such as smartphone-based data gathering, large-scale group therapy, and the use of biomarkers. It concludes that Clinical EFT is a stable and mature method with an extensive evidence base. These characteristics have led to growing acceptance in primary care settings as a safe, rapid, reliable, and effective treatment for both psychological and medical diagnoses.

Why Marx Was a Bad Driver: Alienation to Sensuality in the Anthropology of Automobility  [PDF]
Andrew Dawson
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2017.71001
Abstract: Contemporary automobilities research is characterised by a fundamental paradox-recognition of driving as a sensate experience alongside a tendency to emphasise the driver’s sensory disengagement from, rather than engagement with the bodily, social and environmental contexts with which s/he interacts. In this article, which builds on previous empirical work I have published, only now in a more theoretical and comparative directions, I undertake three tasks. I locate automobilities researches’ concern with the senses in its broader contexts of substantive enquiry-namely, the “Mobilities Paradigm” and the social scientific study of the “Senses”. I posit the theoretical basis of the representation of sensory disengagement in driving in automobilities research, specifically in post-war Marxian thought and its critique of Capitalist Modernity and concern with alienation. Lastly, I review three anthropological case studies that represent sensory engagement in driving, one from Palestine, one from Turkey and my own from Bosnia and Herzegovina. I go on to suggest that the approach they share, which is indicative of a growing trend towards the anthropological study of automobilities, is valuable in two ways. It is a corrective to the inappropriate representation of sensory disengagement that is a characteristic of most automobilities research. Also, through its ability to convey sensory engagement in driving, I argue that it provides important insights on the contemporary nature of enduring, but now increasingly mobile social phenomena such as, as in these particular cases sectarian enclosure, class segregation, and ethnic-national transition.
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