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Spatial and Social Dimensions of Post Conflict Urban Reconstruction Programme in South Western Nigeria. Example from Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Oluseyi O. FABIYI,Olufunmilayo E. THONTTEH,Paul BORISADE
Journal of Settlements and Spatial Planning , 2012,
Abstract: Ife and Modakeke are contiguous, but linguistically homogenous communities in the South-Western part of Nigeria but were immersed in recurrent communal conflict since 1845. The age-long communal conflict was interjected by seven major wars including; 1845-1849, 1882-1909, 1946-1949, 1981, 1983, 1997 and 1998-2004. The study examined the nature and challenges of post conflict social and urban reconstructions in the two communities and advanced approaches for peace building in typical post war urban areas. It was observed that most of the physical reconstructions were carried out by the informal private sectors and neighbourhood cooperatives. Naturally cities grow at the peripheries, but the post war expansion in the two communities was more in the core and the transition zone as people move away from perceived volatile areas. Though the immediate cause of the war was addressed, there were no direct initiatives for social reconstruction or peace building in the two communities. The paper suggests that definite social reconstructions must follow communal conflict resolution.
A Model for the Quantization of the Hall Resistance in the Quantum Hall Effect  [PDF]
Paul Bracken
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2010.13023
Abstract: Some aspects of anyon physics are reviewed with the intention of establishing a model for the quantization of the Hall conductance. A single particle Schrödinger model is introduced and coupled with a constraint equation formulated from the anyon picture. The Schrödinger equation-constraint system can be converted to a single nonlinear differential equation and solutions for the model can be produced.
Exposure to Oil during Meiosis Results in Alterations in Meiotic Chromosomes that are Similar to Age-Related Changes in the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans  [PDF]
Paul Goldstein
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2010.13027
Abstract: Exposure of young C. elegans nematodes to three different concentrations of oil resulted in changes in the meiotic chromosomes, nucleus, nucleolus, and nuclear envelope associations. Such alterations decreased the viability and fertility of this organism which was used as a biological model. The morphological changes in the “young” group were similar to nematodes that were senescent and post-reproductive. Comparison of meiotic chromosomes at the pachytene stage of meiosis from young, old, and oil-exposed wild-type hermaphrodites were made following three-dimensional electron microscopy reconstruction of serial ultrathin sections. Age-related and oil-exposure related changes included: 1) Induced condensation of chromatin with increased variance in length of chromosomes; 2) Changes in nuclear and nucleolar volume; 3) Increased density of the nucleoplasm; and 4) Absence of Disjunction Regulator Regions, resulting in the loss of control of the segregation of the X-chromosome into gametes during meiosis. Abnormal clustering of the telomeric ends of the chromosomes was present on the nuclear envelope affecting the segregation of the chromosomes during meiosis.
The Processing of Pictures and Written Words: A Perceptual and Conceptual Perspective  [PDF]
Paul Miller
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.27109
Abstract: The present study examines similarities and differences in the processing of drawings and their corresponding names. For this purpose, students were asked to determine as fast as possible the identicalness of two pictures as opposed to the identicalness of their written Hebrew names. Twenty-eight Hebrew native speakers from the fifth grade participated in the experiment. Findings suggest that the human information processing system optimizes the processing of information (words, drawings, etc.) according to specific task requirements or task constraints. Stimulus type per se does not seem to determine the depth of its processing, nor does it seem to directly trigger particular modalities of encoding (perceptual, linguistic, semantic). Finally, the findings warrant the conclusion that superiority effects related to the processing of written words and pictorial stimuli reflect artifacts of task requirements rather than inherent characteristics of stimuli.
Are Sunspots Stabilizing?  [PDF]
Paul Shea
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2011.13023
Abstract: The reduced form solutions of indeterminate rational expectations models often include extraneous expectational errors or “sunspots”. Sunspots are usually modeled as independent of the model’s fundamentals, and are often presumed to result in excess volatility. An alternate approach, however, is to assume that sunspots include both an overreaction or underreaction to fundamentals, as well as genuine extraneous noise. This paper uses a simple linear model to formally show how the relationship between sunspots and fundamentals affects aggregate volatility. Sunspots reduce volatility if 1) they include an undereaction to fundamentals, 2) the variance of genuine extraneous noise is sufficiently small, and 3) the root that causes indeterminacy is sufficiently far from one.
Why the Speed of Light Is Not a Constant  [PDF]
Paul Smeulders
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2012.34047
Abstract: A variable Speed of Light is supported by the fact that all direct measurements of that speed are basically flawed, because the “meter per second” is proportional to the Speed of Light. Since it is impossible to measure the Speed of Light directly, any variations of it can only be obtained in an indirect way. It will be shown that the recent Supernovae data are in very good agreement with a universe that is slowly expanding exponentially with a Speed of Light that falls over time, inversely proportionally to the expansion of the universe. It will be shown that the definition of the angular and standard impulse momentum has to be modified to get a consistent expansion of the universe. And that all clocks run inversely proportionally to the red-shift z + 1. General Relativity remains valid even with a varying Speed of Light and also Quantum Mechanics is unaffected.
Representations of Each Number Type That Differ by Scale Factors  [PDF]
Paul Benioff
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.34057
Abstract: For each type of number, structures that differ by arbitrary scaling factors and are isomorphic to one another are described. The scaling of number values in one structure, relative to the values in another structure, must be compensated for by scaling of the basic operations and relations (if any) in the structure. The scaling must be such that one structure satisfies the relevant number type axioms if and only if the other structure does.
Six Categories of Illnesses  [PDF]
Paul Valent
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.47082
Abstract:

Studies show that between 40% and 60% of patients attending emergency departments have medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) that are determined by psychosocial factors. However, there exists no clear categorization of these factors and the symptoms that they produce. This paper delineates six categories of illnesses that help to overcome this deficit. The categories of illnesses are 1) Typical physical illnesses; 2) Typical psychiatric illnesses; 3) Psychophysiological symptoms; 4) Symptoms associated with reliving traumas; 5) “Cherished” or hysterical symptoms; 6) Symptoms that identify with illnesses of others. Clinical examples of each category are provided.

Why the Expansion of the Universe Appears to Accelerate  [PDF]
Paul Smeulders
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.46107
Abstract:

A Speed of Light falling over time inversely proportional to the expansion of the Universe leads to an experimentally observed exponential changing of the Red Shift over time. It is necessary to re-define the Angular Impulse Momentum in order to get a consistent expansion of space on all levels. Conservation of Energy and this newly defined Angular Impulse Momentum then leads to the requirement that all clocks slow down in time inversely proportional to the Red Shift, independent of whether the Speed of Light is constant or not. From the Lorentz equation it then follows that Expansion occurs over space-time and not over space alone. A steady state expansion in true time is then transformed into an exponential expansion for an observer with a local clock. A finite lifetime of the Universe is transformed to an infinite lifetime for these observers including elementary particles.

A Slightly Modified Expression of the Polar Surface Area Applied to an Olfactory Study  [PDF]
Paul Laffort
Open Journal of Physical Chemistry (OJPC) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojpc.2013.34018
Abstract:

The polar surface area of a molecule is currently defined as the surface sum over all polar atoms, primarily oxygen and nitrogen, also including their attached hydrogens (named PSA1 in the present study). Some authors also include sulfur and phosphor (PSA3). The slight modification suggested here is based on the fact that it is difficult to consider, on a theoretical point of view, hexavalent S and pentavalents N and P as polar atoms. Indeed, in these cases, all their peripheral electrons are involved in bondings. We propose to define PSA2 using the initial definition extended to O, S, N, P, with the exception of hexavalent S and pentavalents N and P. In order to test this hypothesis, the three expressions PSA1, PSA2 and PSA3 have been applied in a QSAR to a physiological phenomenon called comfort olfactory perceived intensity, for the human responses to 186 odorants (QSAR stands for Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship). The PSA2 expression has been selected as the more suitable, associated with two other molecular properties (molar refraction and Van der Waals molecular volume).

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