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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 24154 matches for " Paul BARBER "
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Forest Pathology: The Threat of Disease to Plantation Forests in Indonesia
Paul Anthony Barber
Plant Pathology Journal , 2004,
Abstract: There has been a significant increase in the establishment of forestry plantation species in Indonesia over the last decade and it appears that this is likely to continue as the native forest resource rapidly dwindles. The future success of these monocultures will be dependent upon future breeding programs that not only select for yield and form, but more importantly a high level of resistance to a range of pests and diseases. A number of devastating diseases have been found in Indonesia and in other surrounding countries of South East Asia, with further discoveries highly similar. It is of utmost importance that the industry adopts a pro-active approach to combat these diseases by embracing breeding programs in the very near future. Forest pathologists will play a key role in the success of this breeding. It is therefore essential that both industry and government provide substantial support for forest pathology research in the future. This study discusses some of the potential diseases capable of causing significant losses to Eucalyptus plantations. The importance of selection of highly disease resistant genotypes and the essential role of taxonomists and forest pathologists to the future success of the industry are discussed.
The Perceptions of High School Honor Students on the Academic Skills Needed to Succeed in College Science Classes
Revista Romaneasca pentru Educatie Multidimensionala , 2011,
Abstract: High school honor graduates at a rural high school in the Southeastern United States of America have not been as prepared for college science classes. At the research site, which is located in one rural high school, honor graduates have been experiencing difficulties with their freshman college science classes although these students were honors students in their high school science classes. The purpose of this study was to understand the perceptions of high school honor students on the academic skills needed to succeed in college science classes. This qualitative case study was grounded in the brain-based theory of Caine and Caine. Twenty high school honor students participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews and one theme emerged from the interview transcripts. The findings revealed that the most important academic skills for success in college science classes were problem solving, critical thinking, and how to study effectively skills. The implications of these findings for high school honor students are that the focus of the high school curricula should on the development of critical thinking, problem solving, and study skills.
Choosing a Method to Reduce Selection Bias: A Tool for Researchers  [PDF]
Claire Keeble, Graham Richard Law, Stuart Barber, Paul D. Baxter
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2015.53020
Abstract: Selection bias is well known to affect surveys and epidemiological studies. There have been numerous methods proposed to reduce its effects, so many that researchers may be unclear which method is most suitable for their study; the wide choice may even deter some researchers, for fear of choosing a sub-optimal approach. We propose a straightforward tool to inform researchers of the most promising methods available to reduce selection bias and to assist the search for an appropriate method given their study design and details. We demonstrate the tool using three examples where selection bias may occur; the tool quickly eliminates inappropriate methods and guides the researcher towards those to consider implementing. If more studies consider selection bias and adopt methods to reduce it, valuable time and resources will be saved, and should lead to more focused research towards disease prevention or cure.
Comparative Phylogeography in Fijian Coral Reef Fishes: A Multi-Taxa Approach towards Marine Reserve Design
Joshua A. Drew,Paul H. Barber
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047710
Abstract: Delineating barriers to connectivity is important in marine reserve design as they describe the strength and number of connections among a reserve's constituent parts, and ultimately help characterize the resilience of the system to perturbations at each node. Here we demonstrate the utility of multi-taxa phylogeography in the design of a system of marine protected areas within Fiji. Gathering mtDNA control region data from five species of coral reef fish in five genera and two families, we find a range of population structure patterns, from those experiencing little (Chrysiptera talboti, Halichoeres hortulanus, and Pomacentrus maafu), to moderate (Amphiprion barberi, Φst = 0.14 and Amblyglyphidodon orbicularis Φst = 0.05) barriers to dispersal. Furthermore estimates of gene flow over ecological time scales suggest species-specific, asymmetric migration among the regions within Fiji. The diversity among species-specific results underscores the limitations of generalizing from single-taxon studies, including the inability to differentiate between a species-specific result and a replication of concordant phylogeographic patterns, and suggests that greater taxonomic coverage results in greater resolution of community dynamics within Fiji. Our results indicate that the Fijian reefs should not be managed as a single unit, and that closely related species can express dramatically different levels of population connectivity.
Reducing Participation Bias in Case-Control Studies: Type 1 Diabetes in Children and Stroke in Adults  [PDF]
Claire Keeble, Stuart Barber, Paul David Baxter, Roger Charles Parslow, Graham Richard Law
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.43018

Background: Case-control studies have been used extensively in determining the aetiology of rare diseases. However, case-control studies often suffer from participation bias in the control group, resulting in biased odds ratios that cause problems with interpretation. Participation bias can be hard to detect and is often ignored. Methods: Population data can be used in place of the possibly biased control group, to investigate whether participation bias may have affected the results in previous studies, or in place of controls in future studies. We demonstrate this approach by reanalysing and comparing the results of two case-control studies: Type 1 diabetes in Yorkshire children and stroke in Indian adults. Findings: Using population data to represent the control groups reduced the width of the confidence intervals given in the original studies and confirmed the findings for the two diabetes risk factors used; caesarean birth (odds ratio (OR) = 2.12 (1.53, 2.95) compared with 1.84 (1.09, 3.10)) and amniocentesis (OR = 3.38 (2.09, 5.47) compared with 3.85 (1.34, 11.04)). The three stroke risk factors investigated were found to have increased odds ratios when using population data; hypertension (OR = 5.645 (5.639, 5.650) compared with 3.807 (2.114, 6.856)), diabetes (OR = 12.212 (12.200, 12.224) compared with 3.473 (1.757, 6.866)) and smoking (OR = 5.701 (5.696, 5.707) compared with 2.242 (1.255, 4.005)). Interpretation: Participation bias can greatly affect the results of a study and cause some potential risk factors to be over-or underestimated. This approach allows previous studies to be investigated for participation bias and presents an alternative to a control group in future studies, while improving precision.

Quality of medication use in primary care - mapping the problem, working to a solution: a systematic review of the literature
Sara Garfield, Nick Barber, Paul Walley, Alan Willson, Lina Eliasson
BMC Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-7-50
Abstract: We mapped out the medicines management system in primary care in the UK. We conducted a systematic literature review in order to refine our map of the system and to establish the quality of the research and reliability of the system.The map demonstrated that the proportion of errors in the management system for medicines in primary care is very high. Several stages of the process had error rates of 50% or more: repeat prescribing reviews, interface prescribing and communication and patient adherence. When including the efficacy of the medicine in the system, the available evidence suggested that only between 4% and 21% of patients achieved the optimum benefit from their medication. Whilst there were some limitations in the evidence base, including the error rate measurement and the sampling strategies employed, there was sufficient information to indicate the ways in which the system could be improved, using management approaches. The first step to improving the overall quality would be routine monitoring of adherence, clinical effectiveness and hospital admissions.By adopting the whole system approach from a management perspective we have found where failures in quality occur in medication use in primary care in the UK, and where weaknesses occur in the associated evidence base. Quality management approaches have allowed us to develop a coherent change and research agenda in order to tackle these, so far, fairly intractable problems.The UK, USA and the World Health Organization [1-4] have identified that priority should be given to improved patient safety in healthcare. Medication error has been shown to be one of the most frequent forms of medical error and it is associated with significant medical harm. For example, in the UK, 4.5% - 5% of admissions to secondary care have resulted from preventable drug-related morbidity: preventable harm from medicines could cost more than £750 million pounds per year in England [5].It is generally accepted that errors are the r
The four Zn fingers of MBNL1 provide a flexible platform for recognition of its RNA binding elements
Danielle Cass, Rachel Hotchko, Paul Barber, Kimberly Jones, Devika P Gates, J Andrew Berglund
BMC Molecular Biology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-12-20
Abstract: We performed a systematic analysis of MBNL1 binding to single-stranded RNAs. These studies revealed that a single GC dinucleotide in poly-uridine is sufficient for MBNL1 binding and that a second GC dinucleotide confers higher affinity MBNL1 binding. However additional GC dinucleotides do not enhance RNA binding. We also showed that the RNA sequences adjacent to the GC dinucleotides play an important role in MBNL1 binding with the following preference: uridines >cytidines >adenosines >guanosines. For high affinity binding by MBNL1, the distance between the two GC dinucleotides can vary from 1 to 17 nucleotides.These results suggest that MBNL1 is highly flexible and able to adopt different conformations to recognize RNAs with varying sequence configurations. Although MBNL1 contains four ZnFs, only two ZnF - GC dinucleotide interactions are necessary for high affinity binding.Alternative pre-mRNA splicing significantly increases genome diversity with recent measurements suggesting that greater than 90% of genes undergo alternative splicing [1-3]. The different protein isoforms generated through alternative splicing can alter function or cellular localization, or it may provide a mechanism to regulate the levels of the protein by leading to non-productive splicing and RNA turnover (reviewed in [4,5]). Regulated alternative splicing is dependent upon the alternative splicing factors present in specific cell types or at different developmental stages. Many of these alternative splicing factors appear to regulate hundreds of exons and they function by recognizing specific RNA sequence elements within or near the regulated exons (reviewed in [6]).Muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1) is an alternative splicing factor that is associated with the disease myotonic dystrophy (DM). Patients with DM have a CTG or CCTG repeat expansion in an untranslated region of their genome. For DM type 1 (DM1), the CTG repeats are found in the 3' UTR of the DMPK gene, and for DM type 2 (DM2), the CCTG r
Strong genetic structure among coral populations within a conservation priority region, the Bird's Head Seascape (Papua and West Papua, Indonesia)
Craig J Starger,Paul H Barber,Mark V Erdmann,Abdul H. A. Toha,Andrew C Baker
PeerJ , 2015, DOI: 10.7287/peerj.preprints.25v1
Abstract: Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) are widely considered to be one of the best strategies available for protecting species diversity and ecosystem processes in marine environments, particularly in developing, tropical nations. While data on connectivity and genetic structure of marine populations are critical to designing appropriately sized and spaced networks of MPAs, such data are rarely available. Here we present an assessment of genetic structure in reef-building corals from Papua and West Papua, Indonesia, among the most biologically diverse and least disturbed coral reef regions in the world, and the focus of the multi-institutional Bird's Head Seascape initiative to design and implement a functional network of MPAs. Microsatellite variation was assessed within and among populations of Pocillopora damicornis (Linnaeus , 1758) and Seriatopora hystrix (Dana 1846) (family: Pocilloporidae) from three regions, each currently under a different conservation regime: Teluk Cenderawasih, Raja Ampat, and southwest Papua. Analyses of molecular variance, assignment tests, and genetical bandwidth mapping revealed significant local-scale structure in both species, and a lack of regional filters to gene flow. Overall, P. damicornis populations were less structured (FST = 0.139, p < 0.00001) than those of S. hystrix (FST = 0.357, p < 0.00001). In order to maintain connectivity within and among regions, coral reef conservation on the local scale is needed. These data have been directly applied to the design of a MPA network in the Bird’s Head Seascape.
Design and performance of a multi-centre randomised controlled trial and economic evaluation of joint tele-consultations [ISRCTN54264250]
Paul Wallace, Andrew Haines, Robert Harrison, Julie A Barber, Simon Thompson, Jennifer Roberts, Paul B Jacklin, Leo Lewis, Paul Wainwright, the Virtual Outreach Project Group
BMC Family Practice , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-3-1
Abstract: Joint tele-consultation services were established in both the Royal Free Hampstead NHS Trust in inner London, and the Royal Shrewsbury Hospitals Trust, in Shropshire. All the patients who gave consent to participate were randomised either to joint tele-consultation or to a routine outpatients appointment. The principal outcome measures included the frequency of decision by the specialist to offer a follow-up outpatient appointment, patient satisfaction (Ware Specific Questionnaire), wellbeing (SF12) and enablement (PEI), numbers of tests, investigations, procedures and treatments.A total of 134 general practitioners operating from 29 practices participated in the trial, referring a total of 3170 patients to 20 specialists in ENT medicine, general medicine (including endocrinology, and rheumatology), gastroenterology, orthopaedics, neurology and urology. Of these, 2094 patients consented to participate in the study and were correctly randomised. There was a 91% response rate to the initial assessment questionnaires, and analysis showed equivalence for all key characteristics between the treatment and control groups.We have designed and performed a major multi-centre trial of teleconsultations in two contrasting centres. Many problems were overcome to enable the trial to be carried out, with a considerable development and learning phase. A lengthier development phase might have enabled us to improve the patient selection criteria, but there is a window of opportunity for these developments, and we believe that our approach was appropriate, allowing the evaluation of the technology before its widespread implementation.Between 6% and 10% of patient episodes in primary care result in a referral for specialist opinion [1], accounting for most of the patients seen for the first time in hospital outpatients. This process requires effective communication between all parties involved, with deficiencies leading to a range of problems [2-5]. The current model of referral often
Towards a full understanding of water splitting in photosynthesis
James Barber
International Journal of Photoenergy , 2004, DOI: 10.1155/s1110662x04000078
Abstract: The capture and conversion of solar radiation by photosynthetic organisms directly or indirectly provides energy for almost all life on our planet. About 2.5 billion years ago a remarkable biological “machine” evolved known as photosystem two (PSII). This machine can use the energy of visible light (actually red quanta of ∼ 1.8 eV) to split water into dioxygen and “hydrogen”. The latter is made available as reducing equivalents, ultimately destined to convert carbon dioxide to organic molecules. In PSII, the “hydrogen” reduces plastoquinone (PQ) to plastoquinol (PQH2). The water splitting process takes place at a catalytic centre composed of 4 Mn atoms and the reactions involved are chemically and thermodynamically challenging. The process is driven by a photooxidised chlorophyll molecule (P680•
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