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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 480970 matches for " Paul A. McAuley "
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The Obesity Paradox and Cardiorespiratory Fitness
Paul A. McAuley,Nancy S. Smith,Brian T. Emerson,Jonathan N. Myers
Journal of Obesity , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/951582
Abstract: Cardiorespiratory fitness as an explanation for the obesity paradox warrants further examination. We evaluated independent and joint associations of cardiorespiratory fitness and adiposity with all-cause mortality in 811 middle-aged (age, 53.3±7.2 years) male never smokers without documented cardiopulmonary disease or diabetes from the Veterans Exercise Testing Study (VETS). Cardiorespiratory fitness was quantified in metabolic equivalents (METs) using final treadmill speed and grade achieved on a maximal exercise test. Subjects were grouped for analysis by METs: unfit (lowest third) and fit (upper two-thirds); and by body mass index (kg/m2): nonobese (18.5−29.9) and obese (≥30.0). Associations of baseline fitness and adiposity measures with all-cause mortality were determined by Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for age, ethnicity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, family history of coronary artery disease, and cardiovascular medication use. In multivariate analysis, mortality risk for obese/fit men did not differ significantly from the nonobese/fit reference group. However, compared to the reference group, nonobese and obese unfit men were 2.2 (=0.01) and 1.9 (=0.03) times more likely to die, respectively. Cardiorespiratory fitness altered the obesity paradox such that mortality risk was lower for both obese and nonobese men who were fit.
Small field dose delivery evaluations using cone beam optical computed tomography-based polymer gel dosimetry
Olding Timothy,Holmes Oliver,DeJean Paul,McAuley Kim
Journal of Medical Physics , 2011,
Abstract: This paper explores the combination of cone beam optical computed tomography with an N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM)-based polymer gel dosimeter for three-dimensional dose imaging of small field deliveries. Initial investigations indicate that cone beam optical imaging of polymer gels is complicated by scattered stray light perturbation. This can lead to significant dosimetry failures in comparison to dose readout by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For example, only 60% of the voxels from an optical CT dose readout of a 1 l dosimeter passed a two-dimensional Low′s gamma test (at a 3%, 3 mm criteria, relative to a treatment plan for a well-characterized pencil beam delivery). When the same dosimeter was probed by MRI, a 93% pass rate was observed. The optical dose measurement was improved after modifications to the dosimeter preparation, matching its performance with the imaging capabilities of the scanner. With the new dosimeter preparation, 99.7% of the optical CT voxels passed a Low′s gamma test at the 3%, 3 mm criteria and 92.7% at a 2%, 2 mm criteria. The fitted interjar dose responses of a small sample set of modified dosimeters prepared (a) from the same gel batch and (b) from different gel batches prepared on the same day were found to be in agreement to within 3.6% and 3.8%, respectively, over the full dose range. Without drawing any statistical conclusions, this experiment gives a preliminary indication that intrabatch or interbatch NIPAM dosimeters prepared on the same day should be suitable for dose sensitivity calibration.
Assessing the quantity of pulmonary edema in critically ill children
Daniel F McAuley, Lisa M Brown, Michael A Matthay
Critical Care , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/cc9199
Abstract: In the previous issue of Critical Care, Lemson and colleagues used the single-indicator transpulmonary thermodilution method to determine the correlation between extravascular lung water (EVLW) measurement and the degree of pulmonary edema on the chest radiograph in 27 critically ill children < 10 years old [1]. All of the children required invasive hemodynamic monitoring and mechanical ventilation. The authors report that EVLW did not correlate with the chest radiograph score of pulmonary edema or oxygenation. The authors also report, however, that EVLW is an age-dependent variable. This is an important initial step in the investigation of EVLW measurements in critically ill children.The accumulation of fluid in the interstitium and alveolar space can be measured by quantifying EVLW. This can be measured using the single-indicator trans-pulmonary thermodilution method. This method has been validated against both the gold standard gravimetric method in animal models [2] and the technically more difficult and more time consuming in vivo double-indicator technique, in which EVLW is directly measured via injection of a freely diffusible cold indicator and a plasma-bound indicator [3,4]. The principles underlying thermodilution have been reviewed recently [5,6].Using the transpulmonary thermodilution method, EVLW can be measured in adults at the bedside. Early measurement of EVLW is an independent predictor for death in adult patients with acute lung injury (ALI) irrespective of etiology [7-9]. Furthermore, EVLW can be pharmacologically manipulated in both animal models [10] and in adult patients with ALI/acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) [11], suggesting that EVLW may be an important measurement in patients with ALI/ ARDS. Whether EVLW is a useful measure in critically ill children, however, is unknown.Several methodological issues in this current study should be considered. First, it is possible that measurement of EVLW in small children (age < 10) is inaccur
Interpreting the visual image: An analysis of design students’ analogical interpretations of a textual message
Mike McAuley
PRism Online PR Journal , 2006,
Abstract: This article forms part of an ongoing education inquiry into design learning. The main study looks at novice student approaches to expository text comprehension and interpretation through analogy. The particular focus of this article is a discussion of my analysis and interpretation of design work carried out during a 4-week studio project. My dual role as educator and researcher has encouraged me to move beyond intuition and design expertise (sufficient skills for the educator to determine levels of attainment in class) towards developing robust methods for the analysis of images. It should be noted that in the context of this project, analysis of images is only a means to an end. The underlying purpose is to analyse and better understand the process by which an expository passage can be illustrated through an analogical approach. The end result in the studio is an illustration that creates a visual image from a conceptual analogy.
M. McAuley
Akroterion , 2012, DOI: 10.7445/55-0-16
Abstract: Statius’ incomplete Latin epic, the Achilleid, tells the story of the young Achilles’ sojourn on Scyros dressed as a girl, before he goes to Troy. The poem was discounted until recently as a curiosity in the Roman epic tradition, a genre which was theorised to be essentially about martial masculinity (Horace AP 73), despite the fact that women and sexual love feature prominently in actual epics. This paper argues that the Achilleid’s complex post-Ovidian representation of gender also bears implications for our understanding of Roman epic as a genre. As Achilles struggles towards his literary destiny as the ultimate Homeric warrior, the poem’s allusive exploration of gender ultimately reorients the tense relationship of the epic hero to women and amor, and of the epic genre to its own institutionalised masculinity.
Motor control or graded activity exercises for chronic low back pain? A randomised controlled trial
Luciana G Macedo, Jane Latimer, Chris G Maher, Paul W Hodges, Michael Nicholas, Lois Tonkin, James H McAuley, Ryan Stafford
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-9-65
Abstract: This paper describes the protocol of a randomised clinical trial comparing the effects of motor control exercises with a graded activity program in the treatment of chronic non specific low back pain. Further analysis will identify clinical features that may predict a patient's response to each treatment. One hundred and seventy two participants will be randomly allocated to receive either a program of motor control exercises or graded activity. Measures of outcome will be obtained at 2, 6 and 12 months after randomisation. The primary outcomes are: pain (average pain intensity over the last week) and function (patient-specific functional scale) at 2 and 6 months. Potential treatment effect modifiers will be measured at baseline.This trial will not only evaluate which exercise approach is more effective in general for patients will chronic low back pain, but will also determine which exercise approach is best for an individual patient.ACTRN12607000432415Low back pain is extremely costly causing great economic burden for Australia's health system, and considerable suffering for the individual [1]. Around 60–80% of the population will at some time exhibit low back pain [2-5] and of these 70 to 80% will have at least one recurrence [6]. Despite the enormous amount of resources directed to the treatment of chronic low back pain world wide, treatment for this health condition continues to have a low success rate [7-9]. The search for more effective ways to manage chronic low back pain is critical if we are to improve the health and quality of life for many Australians.In Australia the most frequently used treatment for chronic low back pain is exercise [9]. Exercise, however, is not a single treatment. The types of exercise programs for chronic low back pain vary widely e.g. land-based exercise versus exercise in water, individual exercise versus group exercise, isolated trunk exercise versus whole body exercise. Unfortunately there is little or no evidence to help clini
Comparative Pathogenesis of Alkhumra Hemorrhagic Fever and Kyasanur Forest Disease Viruses in a Mouse Model
Bevan Sawatsky,Alexander J. McAuley,Michael R. Holbrook,Dennis A. Bente
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002934
Abstract: Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) are genetically closely-related, tick-borne flaviviruses that cause severe, often fatal disease in humans. Flaviviruses in the tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) complex typically cause neurological disease in humans whereas patients infected with KFDV and AHFV predominately present with hemorrhagic fever. A small animal model for KFDV and AHFV to study the pathogenesis and evaluate countermeasures has been lacking mostly due to the need of a high biocontainment laboratory to work with the viruses. To evaluate the utility of an existing mouse model for tick-borne flavivirus pathogenesis, we performed serial sacrifice studies in BALB/c mice infected with either KFDV strain P9605 or AHFV strain Zaki-1. Strikingly, infection with KFDV was completely lethal in mice, while AHFV caused no clinical signs of disease and no animals succumbed to infection. KFDV and high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were detected in the brain at later time points, but no virus was found in visceral organs; conversely, AHFV Zaki-1 and elevated levels of cytokines were found in the visceral organs at earlier time points, but were not detected in the brain. While infection with either virus caused a generalized leukopenia, only AHFV Zaki-1 induced hematologic abnormalities in infected animals. Our data suggest that KFDV P9605 may have lost its ability to cause hemorrhagic disease as the result of multiple passages in suckling mouse brains. However, likely by virtue of fewer mouse passages, AHFV Zaki-1 has retained the ability to replicate in visceral organs, cause hematologic abnormalities, and induce pro-inflammatory cytokines without causing overt disease. Given these striking differences, the use of inbred mice and the virus passage history need to be carefully considered in the interpretation of animal studies using these viruses.
Self-evaluated health of married people in Jamaica  [PDF]
Paul A. Bourne
Health (Health) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/health.2009.14055
Abstract: Background: In the Caribbean in particular Ja-maica, no study has been done to examine married respondents in order to understand reasons for their greater health status. The ob-jectives of the current study are: 1) examine the sociodemographic characteristics of married people in Jamaica; 2) evaluate self-rated health status of married people in Jamaica; 3) deter-mine factors that account for good health status of married people and 4) provide public health practitioners with empirical studies that can be used to formulate policies for men in particular non-married men in Jamaica. Materials and me- thods: Stratified random sampling technique was used to select 6,783 respondents. It was a nationally representative sample. Logistic re-gression analysis was used to ascertain the correlates of health status. Results: The mean age for women in marriage in Jamaica was 6 years lower than that of men. The correlates of good health status (including moderate health) of respondents in descending order were self- reported illness (OR = 0.12, 95%CI = 0.01- 0.17); age (OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.93-0.96); income (OR = 1.32, 95%CI = 1.05-1.66) and sex of respon-dents (Or = 1.14-2.32)—χ2(df = 4) = 383.2, P < 0.05. The four variables accounted for 44.4% of the explanatory power of the model; with self-reported illness accounting for 32.5% of the explanatory power. Conclusion: Marriage pro-vides greater access to more socioeconomic resources for its participants as well as increase men’s unwillingness to visit medical care prac-titioners.
Births, economic growth, mortality and murder in a developing country  [PDF]
Paul A. Bourne
Health (Health) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/health.2012.42009
Abstract: Background: In 1960, total fertility rate in Jamaica was 5.6 children per woman which declined by 57.5% in 2008. The reduction in fertility is primarily attributable to contraceptive measures; but murder and other selected macroeconomic variables have never been included in the literature. Objectives: This study examines murder, mortality, and selected macroeconomic variables are factors of births, using data for Jamaica from 1989-2009. Methods: The study is a secondary data analysis of statistics on Jamaica from 1989 - 2009 but also includes data on births from 1900s. Find- ings: In the decade of the 1950s, births increased by 79.9% over the decade of 1900s, grew by 22.4% in the 1960s over the previous decade and declined by 17.6% in 2000s compared with the 1990s. Four emerged as statistically significant predictors of lnbirth—inflation, GDP per capita growth, mortality and murder, with an explanatory power of 90.6%—F = 19.291, P < 0.0001. With there being a strong statistical correlation between annual exchange rate and murder (rs = 0.962), when murder was excluded and replaced by annual exchange rate, the factors influencing lnbirth was exchange rate, inflation, unemployment, GDP per capita growth and mortality—all factors account for 92.2% of the variability in lnbirth—F = 30.572, P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Murder is more that a crime it is a cause of birth decline, suggesting that public health practitioners as well as epidemiologists must take this factor into account as it is a birth determinant.
The Dragon vs. the Eagle & Serpent: The Economic Impact of China in Mexico  [PDF]
Paul A. Escajadillo
Open Journal of Political Science (OJPS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojps.2014.44024
Abstract: Although China has become, over the past three decades, an unprecedented case of economic growth accompanied by a voracious appetite for natural resources, China has been increasingly engaging with Latin America. However, as Sino-Latin American relationships have improved Latin American countries’ economies through their supply of primary products and through the region’s growing importance to China as a market, Mexico has not benefited from this increased engagement. This paper will show that as the balance of trade of selected Latin American countries has grown with China and benefited their economies, it has not been the case with Mexico in particular.
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