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Standarization and optimization of micromeretic properties of nimesulide for processing into a tablet dosage form by crystalo-co-agglomeration technology
Bhattacharyya Subhra,Bhattacharyya Indrani,Patro Niranjan
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The present study was undertaken to prepare direct compressible tablets of nimesulide by altering its physical properties with the help of the method crystallo-co-agglomeration technology. Nimesulide is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs type of drug and is very useful in the treatment of arthritis. Because of its poor flowability character, tablets of nimesulide cannot be prepared by direct compression. An attempt has been taken to improve the tableting property by altering the micromeretic properties, like flow rate, Carr index, Hausner ratio and angle of repose. Conformation of improvement of compressibility and other processing problems was studied by Heckel analysis and Kawakita constant using a hydraulic press under a pressure of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 tonnes for 10 s. The tablets were prepared by direct compression of nimesulide agglomerates using two different types of polymers, polyethelene glycol (PEG6000) and ethyl cellulose (EC) in different ratios (50, 100 and 200 mg). The drug release shows different patterns for the various percentages of PEG and EC.
IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACALYPHA INDICA LEAVES EXTRACTS
Garai Ranju,Sutar Niranjan,Patro Saroj Kumar,Pal Vishesh Kumar
International Journal of Research in Ayurveda and Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Ethanol extract from the Acalypha indica leaves of investigated for their anthelmintic activity against Pheretima posthuma. Three concentrations (1%, 2.5% and 5%) of extract were studied in activity, which involved the determination of time of paralysis and death of the worm. Both the extracts exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at highest concentration of 100 mg/ml. Piperazine citrate in same concentration as that of extract was included as standard reference and distilled water as control. The anthelmintic activity of ethanol extract of Acalypha indica leaf therefore been demonstrated for the first time.
A review of preventive and social medicine - By Chandrakant Lahariya, India
Patro Binod
Indian Journal of Community Medicine , 2009,
Abstract:
Classification with binary gene expressions  [PDF]
Salih Tuna, Mahesan Niranjan
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2009.26056
Abstract: Microarray gene expression measurements are reported, used and archived usually to high numerical precision. However, properties of mRNA molecules, such as their low stability and availability in small copy numbers, and the fact that measurements correspond to a population of cells, rather than a single cell, makes high precision meaningless. Recent work shows that reducing measurement precision leads to very little loss of information, right down to binary levels. In this paper we show how properties of binary spaces can be useful in making inferences from microarray data. In particular, we use the Tanimoto similarity metric for binary vectors, which has been used effectively in the Chemoinformatics literature for retrieving chemical compounds with certain functional properties. This measure, when incorporated in a kernel framework, helps recover any information lost by quantization. By implementing a spectral clustering framework, we further show that a second reason for high performance from the Tanimoto metric can be traced back to a hitherto unnoticed systematic variability in array data: Probe level uncertainties are systematically lower for arrays with large numbers of expressed genes. While we offer no molecular level explanation for this systematic variability, that it could be exploited in a suitable similarity metric is a useful observation in itself. We further show preliminary results that working with binary data considerably reduces variability in the results across choice of algorithms in the preprocessing stages of microarray analysis.
Experimentally induced diabetes causes glial activation, glutamate toxicity and cellular damage leading to changes in motor function
Aarti Nagayach,Nisha Patro,Ishan Patro
Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience , 2014, DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2014.00355
Abstract: Behavioral impairments are the most empirical consequence of diabetes mellitus documented in both humans and animal models, but the underlying causes are still poorly understood. As the cerebellum plays a major role in coordination and execution of the motor functions, we investigated the possible involvement of glial activation, cellular degeneration and glutamate transportation in the cerebellum of rats, rendered diabetic by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 45 mg/kg body weight; intraperitoneally). Motor function alterations were studied using Rotarod test (motor coordination) and grip strength (muscle activity) at 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, 10th, and 12th week post-diabetic confirmation. Scenario of glial (astroglia and microglia) activation, cell death and glutamate transportation was gaged using immunohistochemistry, histological study and image analysis. Cellular degeneration was clearly demarcated in the diabetic cerebellum. Glial cells were showing sequential and marked activation following diabetes in terms of both morphology and cell number. Bergmann glial cells were hypertrophied and distorted. Active caspase-3 positive apoptotic cells were profoundly present in all three cerebellar layers. Reduced co-labeling of GLT-1 and GFAP revealed the altered glutamate transportation in cerebellum following diabetes. These results, exclusively derived from histology, immunohistochemistry and cellular quantification, provide first insight over the associative reciprocity between the glial activation, cellular degeneration and reduced glutamate transportation, which presumably lead to the behavioral alterations following STZ-induced diabetes.
Undergraduate orthopedic education: Is it adequate?
Menon Jagdish,Patro Dilip
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics , 2009,
Abstract: Background : Basic musculoskeletal knowledge is essential to the practice of medicine. The purpose of this study was to assess the adequacy of musculoskeletal knowledge of medical students. Materials and Methods : The validated basic competency examination in musculoskeletal medicine devised by Freidman and Bernstein was administered to final year medical students just prior to their final professional examination. Participants were also required to assess their confidence at making a musculoskeletal physical examination and diagnosis as well as comment on the adequacy of time in the curriculum devoted to Orthopedics. Results : The response rate was 83% (40/48). The average cognitive examination score was 48.3%. Two participants (5%) obtained a score of ≥ 73.1%, the recommended mean passing score. Seventeen students (42.5%) felt orthopedic clinical cases were the most difficult to perform a physical examination and diagnose. Thirteen students (32.5%) felt that the time devoted to orthopedics in the medical curriculum was inadequate. Conclusions : Ninety-five percent of the students failed to show basic musculoskeletal competency. A change in medical curriculum and teaching methods is required to address this problem.
Management of unstable spinal fractures with segmental spinal instrumentation (VSP System) : Results at 5 year follow up
Sen Dipankar,Patro D
Indian Journal of Orthopaedics , 2005,
Abstract: Background: Pedicle screw instrumentation has been widely used for spinal stabilisation following spinal injury with variable results. The controversial points associated with spinal injury are effects of canal compromise and decompression on neurological status. Methods: Thirty four patients of unstable thoraco-lumbar fracture with or without neuro-deficit were treated by decompression and stabilisation with VSP system and followed up for 22 - 39 months (mean 29 months). The results were evaluated by neurological recovery (ASIA score), pain relief, loss of surgical correction and functional rehabilitation (FIM score). Results: We achieved a mean post-operative correction of the kyphotic deformity by 14 degrees and an average gain of 30.2% in the canal diameter by decompression. However no correlation was established between degree of canal compromise before or after the surgery with the final neurological outcome. Conclusion: Although the infrastructure for spinal injury management in developing countries is inadequate in many aspects, we find that it is still possible to achieve results, which are comparable with standard literature by adequate decompression and stabilisation followed by appropriate rehabilitation according to the social and cultural demands of the patients.
Exploring the Herding Behaviour in Indian Mutual Fund Industry
Archana Patro,A. Kanagaraj
Asian Journal of Finance & Accounting , 2012, DOI: 10.5296/ajfa.v4i1.1478
Abstract: The present study analyzes the trading activity of Indian mutual funds and investigates whether Indian mutual fund managers are engaged in herding behaviour. Results are compared with previous studies in mature as well as developing markets to determine the level of maturity of the Indian capital market. Measure of herding developed by Lakonishok et al. (1992) has been used. The study found strong evidence of herding in the overall sample. Managers herd primarily when they trade in large capitalization stocks or stocks that belong to the most famous indices. The herding effect seems to affect both purchases and sales of stocks. The level of herding is more in Indian stock market as compared to developed markets. Furthermore, the Indian mutual funds tend to herd more often when purchasing than when selling a stock, and when trading large stocks. The study will contribute to the discussion regarding market efficiency and traditional asset pricing models validity. Evidence on herding by institutional investors, could explain whether there are different types of investors having different trading pattern. Investigating herding on Indian mutual funds would help researchers, investors, traders and regulators.
Cancer care in the rural areas of India: A firsthand experience of a clinical oncologist and review of literatures
Das S,Patro K
Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics , 2010,
Abstract: Over 8,00,000 new cases are diagnosed and 5,50,000 deaths occur annually due to cancer in India. The dramatic increase in morbidity and mortality due to cancer is a matter of concern for the society. Though the burden of cancer involves the entire nation, but the rural and underprivileged population represents majority of patients. Despite an already overwhelming burden of health problems, it is high time we must address the cancer pandemic and its alarming share of morbidity and mortality. Many large scale and innovative initiatives have been launched to counter the deadly disease. This includes efforts to expand the resources for health education and increase awareness of cancer prevention to the people and health care providers. These initiatives call for an unprecedented level of cooperation among international agencies, government and nongovernmental organizations, international foundations, healthcare system and local institutions. This review signifies the need for special attention to cancer prevention and early diagnosis with emphasis to rural and remote places of India.
Bench-to-bedside review: Humanism in pediatric critical care medicine – a leadership challenge
Niranjan Kissoon
Critical Care , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/cc3510
Abstract: The practice of critical care medicine involves complex interactions with many individuals (family and health team members) in a sometimes stressful technology-rich environment. It is crucial to maintain good working relationships, particularly when caring for the critically ill child whose clinical condition may change from minute to minute and whose outcome may depend on intimate and continuous collaboration between many disciplines. It is a challenge to provide humanistic leadership and foster morale in this environment. How we treat our colleagues and those entrusted to our care is intricately linked to the morale of the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and ultimately to the well being of staff and patients. How do we as leaders foster morale and humanism in the PICU?The word 'humanism' has a number of meanings. In its broadest sense humanism is 'a system of thought that defines a socio-political doctrine whose bonds exceed those of locally developed cultures, to include all of humanity and all issues common to human beings' [1]. However, humanism also has several meanings, each of which constitutes a different variety of humanism. Cultural humanism is the rational and empirical tradition that now constitutes a basic part of the Western approach to science, political theory, ethics and law. Modern humanism (ethical humanism) is a naturalistic philosophy that rejects all supernaturalism and relies primarily on reason and science, democracy and human compassion. It has a dual origin, both secular and religious, which constitute its subcategories. Religious (spiritual) and secular humanism both share the same world view and the same basic principles. It is only in the definition of religion and in the practice of philosophy that they disagree [2].This review attempts to outline the attributes and roles of a humanistic leader in critical care. Although reference is made to the PICU environment, the attributes and roles of humanistic leadership are equally appli
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