Abstract:
Suicidal individuals often communicate their intention to commit suicide, but not necessarily verbally. Psychiatric nurses play a central role in the care of patients exhibiting suicidal behaviour or thoughts. Thus, the aim of this study was to explore nurses’ experiences of the indirect messages about forthcoming suicide from patients’ everyday life before they committed suicide. A qualitative design was used with a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. Seven nurses working in specialist psychiatric care were interviewed about their experience of the phenomenon communication about suicide. Results show how the nurses noticed changes in patients just before they committed suicide. These changes included rapid improvement, disguise of real feelings, and unreceptiveness to further treatment or encouragements. The nurses also described patients becoming aware of painful life conditions of losing hope and confidence in the future and experiencing feelings of powerlessness or an inability to influence the situation. Their last moments were characterised by a greater preoccupation with thoughts about death and finding ways to express farewells. This manifested itself in practical preparations and expressing gratitude to people, which was understood by the nurses as a way of saying goodbye. This study shows that it is possible for skilled staff to develop an understanding of a suicidal patient’s internal state and to recognise the non-verbal messages of someone who later committed suicide. The knowledge of how patients prepare and act before suicide could be used to complement a structural suicide risk assessment.

Abstract:
Suppose that $G$ and $H$ are magmas and that $R$ is a strongly $G$-graded ring. We show that there is a bijection between the set of elementary (nonzero) $H$-gradings of $R$ and the set of (zero) magma homomorphisms from $G$ to $H$. Thereby we generalize a result by D\u{a}sc\u{a}lescu, N\u{a}st\u{a}sescu and Rios Montes from group gradings of matrix rings to strongly magma graded rings. We also show that there is an isomorphism between the preordered set of elementary (nonzero) $H$-filters on $R$ and the preordered set of (zero) submagmas of $G \times H$. These results are applied to category graded rings and, in particular, to the case when $G$ and $H$ are groupoids. In the latter case, we use this bijection to determine the cardinality of the set of elementary $H$-gradings on $R$.

Abstract:
We show a version of Hilbert 90 that is valid for a large class of algebras many of which are not commutative, distributive or associative. This class contains the nth iteration of the Conway-Smith doubling procedure. We use our version of Hilbert 90 to parametrize all solutions in ordered fields to the norm one equation for such algebras.

Abstract:
In order to simultaneously generalize matrix rings and group graded crossed products, we introduce category crossed products. For such algebras we describe the center and the commutant of the coefficient ring. We also investigate the connection between on the one hand maximal commutativity of the coefficient ring and on the other hand nonemptyness of intersections of the coefficient ring by nonzero twosided ideals.

Abstract:
We show that if a groupoid graded ring has a certain nonzero ideal property and the principal component of the ring is commutative, then the intersection of a nonzero twosided ideal of the ring with the commutant of the principal component of the ring is nonzero. Furthermore, we show that for a skew groupoid ring with commutative principal component, the principal component is maximal commutative if and only if it is intersected nontrivially by each nonzero ideal of the skew groupoid ring. We also determine the center of strongly groupoid graded rings in terms of an action on the ring induced by the grading. In the end of the article, we show that, given a finite groupoid $G$, which has a nonidentity morphism, there is a ring, strongly graded by $G$, which is not a crossed product over $G$.

Abstract:
We introduce partially defined dynamical systems defined on a topological space. To each such system we associate a functor $s$ from a category $G$ to $\Top^{\op}$ and show that it defines what we call a skew category algebra $A \rtimes^{\sigma} G$. We study the connection between topological freeness of $s$ and, on the one hand, ideal properties of $A \rtimes^{\sigma} G$ and, on the other hand, maximal commutativity of $A$ in $A \rtimes^{\sigma} G$. In particular, we show that if $G$ is a groupoid and for each $e \in \ob(G)$ the group of all morphisms $e \rightarrow e$ is countable and the topological space $s(e)$ is Tychonoff and Baire, then the following assertions are equivalent: (i) $s$ is topologically free; (ii) $A$ has the ideal intersection property, that is if $I$ is a nonzero ideal of $A \rtimes^{\sigma} G$, then $I \cap A \neq \{0\}$; (iii) the ring $A$ is a maximal abelian complex subalgebra of $A \rtimes^{\sigma} G$. Thereby, we generalize a result by Svensson, Silvestrov and de Jeu from the additive group of integers to a large class of groupoids.

Abstract:
In this article, we continue our study of category dynamical systems, that is functors $s$ from a category $G$ to $\Top^{\op}$, and their corresponding skew category algebras. Suppose that the spaces $s(e)$, for $e \in \ob(G)$, are compact Hausdorff. We show that if (i) the skew category algebra is simple, then (ii) $G$ is inverse connected, (iii) $s$ is minimal and (iv) $s$ is faithful. We also show that if $G$ is a locally abelian groupoid, then (i) is equivalent to (ii), (iii) and (iv). Thereby, we generalize results by \"{O}inert for skew group algebras to a large class of skew category algebras.

Abstract:
We determine the commutant of homogeneous subrings in strongly groupoid graded rings in terms of an action on the ring induced by the grading. Thereby we generalize a classical result of Miyashita from the group graded case to the groupoid graded situation. In the end of the article we exemplify this result. To this end, we show, by an explicit construction, that given a finite groupoid $G$, equipped with a nonidentity morphism $t : d(t) \to c(t)$, there is a strongly $G$-graded ring $R$ with the properties that each $R_s$, for $s \in G$, is nonzero and $R_t$ is a nonfree left $R_{c(t)}$-module.

Abstract:
We show that if a groupoid graded ring has a certain nonzero ideal property, then the commutant of the center of the principal component of the ring has the ideal intersection property, that is it intersects nontrivially every nonzero ideal of the ring. Furthermore, we show that for skew groupoid algebras with commutative principal component, the principal component is maximal commutative if and only if it has the ideal intersection property.

Abstract:
The manufacture of a diverse array of chemicals is now possible with biologically engineered strains, an approach that is greatly facilitated by the emergence of synthetic biology. This is principally achieved through pathway engineering in which enzyme activities are coordinated within a genetically amenable host to generate the product of interest. A great deal of attention is typically given to the quantitative levels of the enzymes with little regard to their overall qualitative states. This highly constrained approach fails to consider other factors that may be necessary for enzyme functionality. In particular, enzymes with physically bound cofactors, otherwise known as holoenzymes, require careful evaluation. Herein, we discuss the importance of cofactors for biocatalytic processes and show with empirical examples why the synthesis and integration of cofactors for the formation of holoenzymes warrant a great deal of attention within the context of pathway engineering.