Abstract:
I review some aspects of $K$ and $B$ physics both in the context of the standard model and in some cases in a scenario which is rather different from the standard model. I discuss, in particular, where we are likely to see deviations from the standard model in the near future before new colliders are built.

Abstract:
Hyperfine interactions in the light meson and baryon sectors are generalized to the charm and bottom systems. It is pointed out that an attempt to increase the value of the wave function at the origin to account for the unusual ratio of $\Lambda_{b}$ to the $B^0$ lifetimes could spoil the good agreement among the baryon and meson hyperfine mass-splitting. Including spin effects and taking phase space differences into account we predict that the decay rate of the $\Lambda_{b}$ can be increased relative to that of the $B^0$ meson by about 7%.

Abstract:
We review the present status of theoretical attempts to calculate the semileptonic charm and bottom decays and then present a calculation of these decays in the light--front frame at the kinematic point $q^2=0$. This allows us to evaluate the form factors at the same value of $q^2$, even though the allowed kinematic ranges for charm and bottom decays are very different. Also, at this kinematic point the decay is given in terms of only one form factor $A_{0}(0)$. For the ratio of the decay rates given by the E653 collaboration we show that the determination of the ratio of the Cabibbo--Kobayashi--Maskawa (CKM) matrix elements is consistent with that obtained from the unitarity constraint. At present, though, the unitarity method still has greater accuracy. Since comparisons of the semileptonic decays into $\rho$ and either electrons or muons will be available soon from the E791 Fermilab experiment, we also look at the massive muon case. We show that for a range of $q^2$ the $SU(3)_F$ symmetry breaking is small even though the contributions of the various helicity amplitudes becomes more complicated. For $B$ decays, the decay $B \rightarrow K^{*} \ell \bar{\ell}$ at $q^2=0$ involves an extra form factor coming from the photon contribution and so is not amenable to the same kind of analysis, leaving only the decay $B \rightarrow K^{*}\nu \bar{\nu}$ as a possibility. As the mass of the decaying particle increases we note that the $SU(3)$ symmetry becomes badly broken at $q^2=0$.

Abstract:
We use the relativistic light--front quark model to show that both strong and radiative $D^\ast$ decays are in good agreement with the 1992 CLEO II results. In particular the coupling for $D^{\ast}\ra D \pi$ is consistent with the experimental upper limit. The key point is the relativistic treatment of the quark spin.

Abstract:
We consider the three lepton decay modes of the proton within the proton decay interpretation of the atmospheric neutrino anomaly. We construct higher dimensional operators in the framework of the standard model. The operators which allow the particularly interesting decay mode are of dimension 10 involving $SU(2)_L$ non-singlet higgs. We show how these operators can be comparable to the dimension 9 operators. We then present a simple left-right symmetric model which can give rise to the desired proton decay modes of the right order of magnitude.

Abstract:
We study baryogenesis through lepton number violation in left-right symmetric models. In these models the lepton number and CP violating interactions of the triplet higgs scalars can give rise to lepton number asymmetry through non-equilibrium decays of the $SU(2)_L$ triplet higgs and the right handed neutrinos. This in turn generates baryon asymmetry during the electroweak anomalous processes.

Abstract:
We study the relation between the Majorana neutrino mass matrices and the neutrinoless double beta decay when CP is not conserved. We give an explicit form of the decay rate in terms of a rephasing invariant quantity and demonstrate that in the presence of CP violation it is impossible to have vanishing neutrinoless double beta decay in the case of two neutrino generations (or when the third generation leptons do not mix with other leptons and hence decouple).

Abstract:
The exclusive rare decay $B \ra K^\ast \gamma$ takes place in a region of maximum recoil, $q^{2}=0$, posing a problem for nonrelativistic quark models which are usually thought to be most reliable at zero recoil. The Bauer--Stech--Wirbel (BSW) model, formulated in the infinite--momentum--frame (IMF) formalism, is designed to work at $q^2=0$. We show in this model that the ratio relating the decay $B \ra K^\ast \gamma$ and the $q^2$--spectrum of the semileptonic decay $B\ra \rho e {\bar \nu}$, becomes independent of the wave function in the SU(3) flavor symmetry limit. We show that this feature is also true in relativistic quark models formulated in the IMF or light--cone formalism, if the $b$ quark is infinitely heavy. In fact, these relativistic models, which have a different spin structure from the BSW case, reduce to the BSW model in the heavy $b$--quark limit. A direct measurement of the $q^2$--spectrum of the semileptonic decay can therefore provide accurate information for the exclusive rare decay.

Abstract:
The observed pattern of neutrino mixing may be the result of a 2-3($ \mu- \tau$) symmetry in the leptonic sector. We consider a two Higgs doublet model with a 2-3 symmetry in the down type quark and the charged lepton sector. The breaking of the 2-3 symmetry by the strange quark mass and the muon mass leads to FCNC in the quark sector and the charged lepton sector that are suppressed by ${m_s \over m_b}$ and ${m_{\mu} \over m_{\tau}}$ in addition to the mass of the heavy Higgs boson of the second Higgs doublet. A Higgs boson mass of $ m_H \sim 600 - 900$ GeV can explain the deviation from standard model reported in several rare B decays. Predictions for other B decays are made and a new CP phase is predicted in $B_{s}-{\bar{B}_{s}}$ mixing. The lepton flavour violating decays $ \tau \to \mu \bar{l}(\bar{q}) l(q)$ are below the experimental limits. The breaking of 2-3 symmetry in the lepton sector can lead to deviations of the atmospheric neutrino mixing angle from the maximal value by $ \sim 2$ degrees.

Abstract:
We consider the nonleptonic B decays $ B \to D^{(*)} D_s(2317)$ and $ B \to D^{(*)} D_s(2460)$, involving the newly discovered $D_s(2317)$ and the $D_s(2460)$ states. We find that experiments indicate disagreement with model calculations of their properties and/or breakdown of the factorization assumption for these decays . We point out that decays involving $B_s$ mesons where the $D_s$ resonances can be produced via the weak decay of the $b$ quark can provide further information about the nature of these newly discovered states. We also propose a model to calculate the two body nonleptonic decays $ B \to D^{(*)} D_s(2317)(D_s(2460))$, if the $D_s(2317)$ and $D_s(2460)$ are interpreted as $DK$ and $D^*K$ molecules.