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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 42697 matches for " Patrick van Rijn "
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Polymer Directed Protein Assemblies
Patrick van Rijn
Polymers , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/polym5020576
Abstract: Protein aggregation and protein self-assembly is an important occurrence in natural systems, and is in some form or other dictated by biopolymers. Very obvious influences of biopolymers on protein assemblies are, e.g., virus particles. Viruses are a multi-protein assembly of which the morphology is dictated by poly-nucleotides namely RNA or DNA. This “biopolymer” directs the proteins and imposes limitations on the structure like the length or diameter of the particle. Not only do these bionanoparticles use polymer-directed self-assembly, also processes like amyloid formation are in a way a result of directed protein assembly by partial unfolded/misfolded biopolymers namely, polypeptides. The combination of proteins and synthetic polymers, inspired by the natural processes, are therefore regarded as a highly promising area of research. Directed protein assembly is versatile with respect to the possible interactions which brings together the protein and polymer, e.g., electrostatic, v.d. Waals forces or covalent conjugation, and possible combinations are numerous due to the large amounts of different polymers and proteins available. The protein-polymer interacting behavior and overall morphology is envisioned to aid in clarifying protein-protein interactions and are thought to entail some interesting new functions and properties which will ultimately lead to novel bio-hybrid materials.
Surface Initiated Polymerizations via e-ATRP in Pure Water
Seyed Schwan Hosseiny,Patrick van Rijn
Polymers , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/polym5041229
Abstract: Here we describe the combined process of surface modification with electrochemical atom transfer radical polymerization ( e-ATRP) initiated from the surface of a modified gold-electrode in a pure aqueous solution without any additional supporting electrolyte. This approach allows for a very controlled growth of the polymer chains leading towards a steady increase in film thickness. Electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance displayed a highly regular increase in surface confined mass only after the addition of the pre-copper catalyst which is reduced in situ and transformed into the catalyst. Even after isolation and washing of the modified electrode surface, reinitiation was achieved with retention of the controlled electrochemical ATRP reaction. This reinitiation after isolation proves the livingness of the polymerization. This approach has interesting potential for smart thin film materials and offers also the possibility of post-modification via additional electrochemical induced reactions.
Interview with: Judge José Luis Jesus
Michela van Rijn
Merkourios : Utrecht Journal of International and European Law , 2011,
Abstract: Judge José Luis Jesus, born 20 September 1950, in Santo Ant o, Cape Verde, has been President of the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea (ITLOS) since October 2008. Merkourios inquired into the every-day functioning of this relatively novel institution. In what way does the Tribunal contribute to the body of sea law? And importantly, does another law of the sea tribunal add to the per- ceived 'fragmentation of international law'?
Gene Expression Patterns in Pancreatic Tumors, Cells and Tissues
Anson W. Lowe, Mari Olsen, Ying Hao, Sum P. Lee, Kyu Taek Lee, Xin Chen, Matt van de Rijn, Patrick O. Brown
PLOS ONE , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0000323
Abstract: Background Cancers of the pancreas originate from both the endocrine and exocrine elements of the organ, and represent a major cause of cancer-related death. This study provides a comprehensive assessment of gene expression for pancreatic tumors, the normal pancreas, and nonneoplastic pancreatic disease. Methods/Results DNA microarrays were used to assess the gene expression for surgically derived pancreatic adenocarcinomas, islet cell tumors, and mesenchymal tumors. The addition of normal pancreata, isolated islets, isolated pancreatic ducts, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines enhanced subsequent analysis by increasing the diversity in gene expression profiles obtained. Exocrine, endocrine, and mesenchymal tumors displayed unique gene expression profiles. Similarities in gene expression support the pancreatic duct as the origin of adenocarcinomas. In addition, genes highly expressed in other cancers and associated with specific signal transduction pathways were also found in pancreatic tumors. Conclusion The scope of the present work was enhanced by the inclusion of publicly available datasets that encompass a wide spectrum of human tissues and enabled the identification of candidate genes that may serve diagnostic and therapeutic goals.
A DNA microarray survey of gene expression in normal human tissues
Radha Shyamsundar, Young H Kim, John P Higgins, Kelli Montgomery, Michelle Jorden, Anand Sethuraman, Matt van de Rijn, David Botstein, Patrick O Brown, Jonathan R Pollack
Genome Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2005-6-3-r22
Abstract: Here we describe a systematic survey of gene expression in 115 human tissue samples representing 35 different tissue types, using cDNA microarrays representing approximately 26,000 different human genes. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis of the gene-expression patterns in these tissues identified clusters of genes with related biological functions and grouped the tissue specimens in a pattern that reflected their anatomic locations, cellular compositions or physiologic functions. In unsupervised and supervised analyses, tissue-specific patterns of gene expression were readily discernable. By comparative hybridization to normal genomic DNA, we were also able to estimate transcript abundances for expressed genes.Our dataset provides a baseline for comparison to diseased tissues, and will aid in the identification of tissue-specific functions. In addition, our analysis identifies potential molecular markers for detection of injury to specific organs and tissues, and provides a foundation for selection of potential targets for selective anticancer therapy.DNA microarrays [1,2] have been used to profile gene expression in cancer and other diseases. In cancer, for example, microarray profiling has been applied to classify tumors according to their sites of origin [3-5], to discover previously unrecognized subtypes of cancer [6-11], to predict clinical outcome [12-14] and to suggest targets for therapy [15,16]. However, the identification of improved markers for diagnosis and molecular targets for therapy will depend on knowledge not only of the genes expressed in the diseased tissues of interest, but also on detailed information about the expression of the corresponding genes across the gamut of normal human tissues.At present there is relatively little data on gene expression across the diversity of normal human tissues [17-20]. Here we report a DNA microarray-based survey of gene expression in a diverse collection of normal human tissues and also present an emp
Correction: A DNA microarray survey of gene expression in normal human tissues
Radha Shyamsundar, Young H Kim, John P Higgins, Kelli Montgomery, Michelle Jorden, Anand Sethuraman, Matt van de Rijn, David Botstein, Patrick O Brown, Jonathan R Pollack
Genome Biology , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2005-6-9-404
Abstract: 1 contains a corrected list of the variably expressed genes.
The unconscious thought advantage: Further replication failures from a search for confirmatory evidence
Mark Nieuwenstein,Hedderik van Rijn
Judgment and Decision Making , 2012,
Abstract: According to the deliberation without attention (DWA) hypothesis, people facing a difficult choice will make a better decision after a period of distraction than after an equally long period of conscious deliberation, an effect referred to as the unconscious thought advantage (UTA). The status of the DWA hypothesis is controversial, as many studies have tried but failed to replicate the UTA. Here, we report a series of experiments that sought to identify the conditions under which the UTA can be replicated. Our starting point was a recent meta-analysis that identified the conditions under which the UTA was strongest in previous studies. Using a within-subjects design and a task that met each of these conditions, we failed to replicate the UTA. Based on closer inspection of previous methods and findings, we then examined some additional factors that could be important for replicating the UTA, including mental fatigue and choice complexity. This was to no avail, as the results revealed only a significant conscious thought advantage, when choice complexity was increased relative to the first experiment. We subsequently conducted exploratory analyses on the data across experiments and found that male subjects showed a significant conscious thought advantage while female subjects showed a trend towards an UTA. Taken together, our results suggest that replication of the UTA may depend more on characteristics of the sample than on the characteristics of the task, and they suggest that gender could be a source of variance in the outcomes of previous studies using a between-subjects design.
Interview with Theo Rosier
Theo Rosier,Michela Rijn, van
Merkourios : Utrecht Journal of International and European Law , 2011,
Abstract: On 21 January 2009, the Amsterdam Court of Appeal had ordered the Public Prosecution Service (OM) to subpoena Dutch politician Geert Wilders for, inter alia, spreading hatred and offending a group because of their religious convictions contrary to articles 137d and 137c of the Dutch Criminal Code. On Monday 24 May, the Amsterdam Court of First Instance rejected all preliminary objections formulated by Wilder's attorney Bram Moszkowicz. High time to scrutinise the precise merits of this prosecution and to re-examine an age old controversy: the perceived clash between the right to freedom of speech and (the right to freedom of) religion.
Gene Expression Programs of Human Smooth Muscle Cells: Tissue-Specific Differentiation and Prognostic Significance in Breast Cancers
Jen-Tsan Chi,Edwin H Rodriguez,Zhen Wang,Dimitry S. A Nuyten,Sayan Mukherjee,Matt van de Rijn,Marc J. van de Vijver,Trevor Hastie,Patrick O Brown
PLOS Genetics , 2007, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030164
Abstract: Smooth muscle is present in a wide variety of anatomical locations, such as blood vessels, various visceral organs, and hair follicles. Contraction of smooth muscle is central to functions as diverse as peristalsis, urination, respiration, and the maintenance of vascular tone. Despite the varied physiological roles of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), we possess only a limited knowledge of the heterogeneity underlying their functional and anatomic specializations. As a step toward understanding the intrinsic differences between SMCs from different anatomical locations, we used DNA microarrays to profile global gene expression patterns in 36 SMC samples from various tissues after propagation under defined conditions in cell culture. Significant variations were found between the cells isolated from blood vessels, bronchi, and visceral organs. Furthermore, pervasive differences were noted within the visceral organ subgroups that appear to reflect the distinct molecular pathways essential for organogenesis as well as those involved in organ-specific contractile and physiological properties. Finally, we sought to understand how this diversity may contribute to SMC-involving pathology. We found that a gene expression signature of the responses of vascular SMCs to serum exposure is associated with a significantly poorer prognosis in human cancers, potentially linking vascular injury response to tumor progression.
Gene Expression Signature of Fibroblast Serum Response Predicts Human Cancer Progression: Similarities between Tumors and Wounds
Howard Y. Chang,Julie B. Sneddon,Ash A. Alizadeh,Ruchira Sood,Rob B. West,Kelli Montgomery,Jen-Tsan Chi,Matt van de Rijn,David Botstein,Patrick O. Brown
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020007
Abstract: Cancer invasion and metastasis have been likened to wound healing gone awry. Despite parallels in cellular behavior between cancer progression and wound healing, the molecular relationships between these two processes and their prognostic implications are unclear. In this study, based on gene expression profiles of fibroblasts from ten anatomic sites, we identify a stereotyped gene expression program in response to serum exposure that appears to reflect the multifaceted role of fibroblasts in wound healing. The genes comprising this fibroblast common serum response are coordinately regulated in many human tumors, allowing us to identify tumors with gene expression signatures suggestive of active wounds. Genes induced in the fibroblast serum-response program are expressed in tumors by the tumor cells themselves, by tumor-associated fibroblasts, or both. The molecular features that define this wound-like phenotype are evident at an early clinical stage, persist during treatment, and predict increased risk of metastasis and death in breast, lung, and gastric carcinomas. Thus, the transcriptional signature of the response of fibroblasts to serum provides a possible link between cancer progression and wound healing, as well as a powerful predictor of the clinical course in several common carcinomas.
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