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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 190415 matches for " Patrick Y- K. Wong "
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Progresses and problems in nano-tribology
Jianbin Luo,Shizhu Wen,K. Y. Li Lawrence,Patrick L. Wong
Chinese Science Bulletin , 1998, DOI: 10.1007/BF02883710
Abstract: The recent development in the four areas of nano-tribology is analysed. They are micro and nano-friction and wear, mi-cro and nano-tribological engineering. The research methods in nano-tribology and thin film lubrication in which five branches are included: equivalent viscusity and flowing characteristics of micro fluid, the transition between ordered molecular film and disordered one, the essence of matrix influence on thin film lubrication, the lubrication mechanism of high polymer lubricants and the problem of superlubricity. Meanwhile, more than 35 problems are proposed which should be solved in the future.
Progresses and problems in nano-tribology

Jianbin Luo,Shizhu Wen,Lawrence K Y Li,Patrick L Wong,

科学通报(英文版) , 1998,
Abstract: The recent development in the four areas of nano-tribology is analysed. They are micro and nano-friction and wear, mi-cro and nano-tribological engineering. The research methods in nano-tribology and thin film lubrication in which five branches are included: equivalent viscusity and flowing characteristics of micro fluid, the transition between ordered molecular film and disordered one, the essence of matrix influence on thin film lubrication, the lubrication mechanism of high polymer lubricants and the problem of superlubricity. Meanwhile, more than 35 problems are proposed which should be solved in the future.
Human parathyroid hormone fragment stimulates the de novo synthesis of prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase in chick calvaria
Chin-Yuh Yang,Ching-Liang Meng,Patrick Y- K. Wong
Mediators of Inflammation , 1993, DOI: 10.1155/s0962935193000213
Abstract:
Medical Stakeholders’ Views on the Use of Packaged Charging Based on the Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) in the Proposed Healthcare Reform  [PDF]
Fiona Y. Y. Wong, Frank W. K. Chan, Su Liu
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2013.65032
Abstract:

The second stage consultation of healthcare reform in Hong Kong was launched in late 2010. One of the key features in the healthcare reform is the use of packaged charging based on Diagnosis-Related Group (DRG) structure, for reimbursement of medical fees in order to enhance cost certainty and transparency in private healthcare services. The objective of the study was to investigate the comments, concerns and suggestions of medical practitioners and private hospitals about medical pricing based on DRG. A survey completed by 1100 medical practitioners, seven focus groups with 42 medical practitioners and six hospital administrators participated was conducted. Generally, the participants believed that DRG was more applicable to straight-forward and one-off treatment procedures. Those working in the private sector and non-Family Medicine specialists were more concerned about the desirability and feasibility of DRG, and the potential of control of pricing in private market. The practice of DRG-based pricing method in certain specialties and cases which required multiple examinations and procedures for diagnosis were discussed. Concerns about doctors’ selection of cases, upcoding and gaming on the charging system, as well as the high administration cost were also raised.

Identification of MicroRNA-Like RNAs in Mycelial and Yeast Phases of the Thermal Dimorphic Fungus Penicillium marneffei
Susanna K. P. Lau equal contributor,Wang-Ngai Chow equal contributor,Annette Y. P. Wong,Julian M. Y. Yeung,Jessie Bao,Na Zhang,Si Lok,Patrick C. Y. Woo ,Kwok-Yung Yuen
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002398
Abstract: Background Penicillium marneffei is the most important thermal dimorphic fungus causing systemic mycosis in China and Southeast Asia. While miRNAs are increasingly recognized for their roles in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in animals and plants, miRNAs in fungi were less well studied and their potential roles in fungal dimorphism were largely unknown. Based on P. marneffei genome sequence, we hypothesize that miRNA-like RNAs (milRNAs) may be expressed in the dimorphic fungus. Methodology/Principal Findings We attempted to identify milRNAs in P. marneffei in both mycelial and yeast phase using high-throughput sequencing technology. Small RNAs were more abundantly expressed in mycelial than yeast phase. Sequence analysis revealed 24 potential milRNA candidates, including 17 candidates in mycelial and seven in yeast phase. Two genes, dcl-1 and dcl-2, encoding putative Dicer-like proteins and the gene, qde-2, encoding Argonaute-like protein, were identified in P. marneffei. Phylogenetic analysis showed that dcl-2 of P. marneffei was more closely related to the homologues in other thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungi than to Penicillium chrysogenum and Aspergillus spp., suggesting the co-evolution of dcl-2 among the thermal dimorphic fungi. Moreover, dcl-2 demonstrated higher mRNA expression levels in mycelial than yeast phase by 7 folds (P<0.001). Northern blot analysis confirmed the expression of two milRNAs, PM-milR-M1 and PM-milR-M2, only in mycelial phase. Using dcl-1KO, dcl-2KO, dclDKO and qde-2KO deletion mutants, we showed that the biogenesis of both milRNAs were dependent on dcl-2 but not dcl-1 or qde-2. The mRNA expression levels of three predicted targets of PM-milR-M1 were upregulated in knockdown strain PM-milR-M1KD, supporting regulatory function of milRNAs. Conclusions/Significance Our findings provided the first evidence for differential expression of milRNAs in different growth phases of thermal dimorphic fungi and shed light on the evolution of fungal proteins involved in milRNA biogenesis and possible role of post-transcriptional control in governing thermal dimorphism.
First Discovery of Two Polyketide Synthase Genes for Mitorubrinic Acid and Mitorubrinol Yellow Pigment Biosynthesis and Implications in Virulence of Penicillium marneffei
Patrick C. Y. Woo equal contributor ,Ching-Wan Lam equal contributor,Emily W. T. Tam equal contributor,Chris K. F. Leung,Samson S. Y. Wong,Susanna K. P. Lau ,Kwok-Yung Yuen
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001871
Abstract: Background The genome of P. marneffei, the most important thermal dimorphic fungus causing respiratory, skin and systemic mycosis in China and Southeast Asia, possesses 23 polyketide synthase (PKS) genes and 2 polyketide synthase nonribosomal peptide synthase hybrid (PKS-NRPS) genes, which is of high diversity compared to other thermal dimorphic pathogenic fungi. We hypothesized that the yellow pigment in the mold form of P. marneffei could also be synthesized by one or more PKS genes. Methodology/Principal Findings All 23 PKS and 2 PKS-NRPS genes of P. marneffei were systematically knocked down. A loss of the yellow pigment was observed in the mold form of the pks11 knockdown, pks12 knockdown and pks11pks12 double knockdown mutants. Sequence analysis showed that PKS11 and PKS12 are fungal non-reducing PKSs. Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detector/electrospray ionization-quadruple time of flight-mass spectrometry (MS) and MS/MS analysis of the culture filtrates of wild type P. marneffei and the pks11 knockdown, pks12 knockdown and pks11pks12 double knockdown mutants showed that the yellow pigment is composed of mitorubrinic acid and mitorubrinol. The survival of mice challenged with the pks11 knockdown, pks12 knockdown and pks11pks12 double knockdown mutants was significantly better than those challenged with wild type P. marneffei (P<0.05). There was also statistically significant decrease in survival of pks11 knockdown, pks12 knockdown and pks11pks12 double knockdown mutants compared to wild type P. marneffei in both J774 and THP1 macrophages (P<0.05). Conclusions/Significance The yellow pigment of the mold form of P. marneffei is composed of mitorubrinol and mitorubrinic acid. This represents the first discovery of PKS genes responsible for mitorubrinol and mitorubrinic acid biosynthesis. pks12 and pks11 are probably responsible for sequential use in the biosynthesis of mitorubrinol and mitorubrinic acid. Mitorubrinol and mitorubrinic acid are virulence factors of P. marneffei by improving its intracellular survival in macrophages.
Quick Diagnosis
Patrick Y.H. Wong,Aron Tischler
University of Toronto Medical Journal , 2009, DOI: 10.5015/utmj.v86i2.367
Abstract:
Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Allergic Activities of Pentaherb Formula, Moutan Cortex (Danpi) and Gallic Acid
Kelly Y. P. Liu,Shuiqing Hu,Ben C. L. Chan,Elaine C. L. Wat,Clara B. S. Lau,Kam L. Hon,Kwok P. Fung,Ping C. Leung,Patrick C. L. Hui,Christopher W. K. Lam,Chun K. Wong
Molecules , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/molecules18032483
Abstract: Pentaherb formula (PHF) has been proven to improve the quality of life of children with atopic dermatitis without side effects. The aim of this study was to elucidate the potential anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic activities of PHF, Moutan Cortex (Danpi/DP) and gallic acid (GA) using human basophils (KU812 cells), which are crucial effector cells in allergic inflammation. PHF, DP and GA could significantly suppress the expression of allergic inflammatory cytokine IL-33-upregulated intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, and the release of chemokines CCL2, CCL5, CXCL8 and inflammatory cytokine IL-6 from KU812 cells (all p < 0.05). With the combined use of dexamethasone (0.01 μg/mL) and GA (10 μg/mL), the suppression of ICAM-1 expression and CCL5 and IL-6 release of IL-33-activated KU812 cells were significantly greater than the use of GA alone (all p < 0.05). The suppression of the IL-33-induced activation of intracellular signalling molecules p38 mitogen activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-kB and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase in GA-treated KU812 cells could be the underlying mechanism for the suppression on ICAM-1, chemokines and cytokines. The combined use of dexamethasone with the natural products PHF or DP or GA might therefore enhance the development of a novel therapeutic modality for allergic inflammatory diseases with high potency and fewer side effects.
A Consensus-Based Policy Framework on Pharmacist-Led Self-Management Using the Delphi Process  [PDF]
Fiona Y. Y. Wong, Frank W. K. Chan, Joyce H. S. You, Eliza L. Y. Wong, Eng-Kiong Yeoh
Journal of Service Science and Management (JSSM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jssm.2012.53027
Abstract: Fragmentation of the healthcare system and lack of connectivity between in-hospital and community services, have posed an impact on management of patients with chronic conditions. As self-management is an essential component in chronic disease management model and pharmacists are underutilized in Hong Kong, this study developed a consensus-based policy framework on pharmacist-led self-management using a Delphi panel consisted of medical doctors, pharmacists, Chinese medicine practitioners and dispensers. We had studied a local population survey to understand the use of over-the-counter medication, conducted focus groups and telephone survey to explore the views of the four health professions and the general population, respectively, on pharmacist-led approach in self-management. The find- ings served as the base for developing the self-administered questionnaire in Delphi. A total of 19 experts completed the questionnaires and rated the validity and clarity of each statement in a 9-point scale. The Delphi process was completed in two rounds. Community pharmacists could only play an assisting role in patient self-management. They should focus primarily on drug-related issues and were suggested to work on lifestyle modifications collaboratively with physicians and nurses. The government has to develop supportive measures to enhance pharmacist-led patient self-management in the future.
Contributing to a Healthy Older Population of the Future: Investigating the Daily Walking Steps of Working Adults in Hong Kong  [PDF]
Linda Y. K. Lee, Simon C. Lam, S. L. Wong, Alisa K. P. Wong, Cheryl C. Y. Yeung
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.39004
Abstract:

Developing a healthy lifestyle during adulthood is one of the essential factors to prepare for healthy aging. This cross-sectional descriptive study investigated the daily walking steps of 893 working adults from nine occupation categories in Hong Kong. Their daily walking steps were measured using a pedometer. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the difference in daily walking steps between participants in different occupation category. Chi-square test was used to compare the difference in proportion of working adults in each occupation category who walked and did not walk 10,000 steps per day. Results reveal that the participants in average walked 8661 steps per day. “Plant and machine operators and assemblers” and “clerks” were the two least active groups. Participants from the nine occupation categories demonstrated a significant difference in the number of daily walking steps. Post hoc analysis revealed a significant difference between “plant and machine operators and assemblers” and “service workers and shop sales workers” (p < 0.01), as well as between “plant and machine operators and assemblers” and “craft and related workers” (p < 0.01). Participants from the nine occupation categories also demonstrated a significant difference in the proportion of those who walked and did not walk 10,000 steps per day. Owing to a large difference in number of participants in the nine occupation categories and other study limitations, further systematic investigation is indicated to confirm the study results. To summarize, working adults in Hong Kong are only somewhat active. Identifying the factors that deter the working adults from walking and the ways to promote walking among working adults is necessary to prepare a healthy older population of the future.

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