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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9924 matches for " Patrick Tso "
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Adult Medication-Free Schizophrenic Patients Exhibit Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Robert K. McNamara,Ronald Jandacek,Therese Rider,Patrick Tso
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/796462
Abstract:
Adult Medication-Free Schizophrenic Patients Exhibit Long-Chain Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency: Implications for Cardiovascular Disease Risk
Robert K. McNamara,Ronald Jandacek,Therese Rider,Patrick Tso,Yogesh Dwivedi,Ghanshyam N. Pandey
Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/796462
Abstract: Deficiency in long-chain omega-3 (LCn ? 3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n ? 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n ? 3), has been implicated in the pathoetiology of cardiovascular disease, a primary cause of excess premature mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). In the present study, we determined erythrocyte EPA + DHA levels in adult medication-free patients SZ ( ) and age-matched healthy controls ( ). Erythrocyte EPA + DHA composition exhibited by SZ patients (3.5%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (4.5%, ?22%, ). The majority of SZ patients (72%) exhibited EPA+DHA levels ≤4.0% compared with 37% of controls (Chi-square, ). In contrast, the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4 ) (+9%, ) and the AA:EPA + DHA ratio (+28%, ) were significantly greater in SZ patients. Linoleic acid (18:2 ) was significantly lower (?12%, ) and the erythrocyte 20:3/18:2 ratio (an index of delta6-desaturase activity) was significantly elevated in SZ patients. Compared with same-gender controls, EPA + DHA composition was significantly lower in male (?19%, ) but not female (?13%, ) SZ patients, whereas the 20:3/18:2 ratio was significantly elevated in both male (+22%, ) and female (+22%, ) SZ patients. These results suggest that the majority of SZ patients exhibit low LCn ? 3 fatty acid levels which may place them at increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. 1. Introduction Patients with schizophrenia (SZ) have two- to three-fold higher mortality rates compared with the general population, corresponding to an average 15-year reduction in life expectancy, and cross-sectional epidemiological studies have found that cardiovascular disease is a primary cause of excess premature mortality in SZ patients [1–6]. The etiology of elevated cardiovascular risk in SZ is likely multifactorial, potentially involving excessive smoking and alcohol use, lack of exercise, and poor diets [7, 8]. Moreover, second generation antipsychotic (SGA) medications are associated with cardiovascular risk factors including dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, and weight gain [9–13], though these risk factors have also been reported in SGA-na?ve first-episode SZ patients [14–16]. Together, these data highlight an urgent need to identify risk and resilience factors associated with elevated cardiovascular disease risk in SZ. An emerging body of evidence suggests that low levels of long-chain omega-3 (LCn ? 3) fatty acids, principally eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n ? 3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n ? 3), are a modifiable risk factor for
The missense mutation in Abcg5 gene in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) segregates with phytosterolemia but not hypertension
Jianliang Chen, Ashok Batta, Shuqin Zheng, Wayne R Fitzgibbon, Michael E Ullian, Hongwei Yu, Patrick Tso, Gerald Salen, Shailendra B Patel
BMC Genetics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2156-6-40
Abstract: To investigate whether the missense change in Abcg5 is responsible for the sitosterolemia we performed a segregation analysis in 103 F2 rats from a SHR × SD cross. Additionally, we measured tail-cuff blood pressure and measured intestinal lipid transport to identify possible mechanisms whereby this mutation causes sitosterolemia.Segregation analysis showed that the inheritance of the Gly583Cys mutation Abcg5 segregated with elevated plant sterols and this pattern was recessive, proving that this genetic change is responsible for the sitosterolemia in these rat strains. Tail-cuff monitoring of blood pressure in conscious animals showed no significant differences between wild-type, heterozygous and homozygous mutant F2 rats, suggesting that this alteration may not be a significant determinant of hypertension in these rats on a chow diet.This study shows that the previously identified Gly583Cys change in Abcg5 in three hypertension-susceptible rats is responsible for the sitosterolemia, but may not be a major determinant of blood pressure in these rats.Sitosterolemia is an autosomal recessive disease, characterized by significantly increased plasma levels of plant sterols (such as sitosterol, campesterol), and is associated with premature atherosclerotic disease [1]. This disease has been mapped to a single locus, STSL, on human chromosome 2p21 [2,3]. Mutations in both alleles of one of two genes, ABCG5 or ABCG8, that comprise this locus, are now known to cause this disease [4-6]. No phytosterolemic patient with a single mutant ABCG5 allele and a mutant ABCG8 allele has been reported, suggesting these genes are not only linked physically, but their protein products may act as obligate heterodimers. ABCG5 and ABCG8 encode for sterolin-1 and sterolin-2 respectively. These genes are expressed in the liver, gall bladder and intestine and are implicated in determining biliary sterol excretion and selectivity of sterol absorption at the apical surfaces of the enterocytes [7-
19th International Congress of Arachnology
Tso, I-Min
Arachnologische Mitteilungen , 2012, DOI: 10.5431/aramit4418
Abstract: Congress invitation
Measuring violations of General Relativity from single gravitational wave detection by non-spinning binary systems: higher-order asymptotic analysis
Rhondale Tso,Michele Zanolin
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: A frequentist asymptotic expansion method for error estimation is employed for a network of gravitational wave detectors to assess the capability of gravitational wave observations, with Adv. LIGO and Adv. Virgo, to distinguish between the post-Einsteinian (ppE) description of coalescing binary systems and that of GR. When such errors are smaller than the parameter value, there is possibility to detect these violations from GR. A parameter space with inclusion of dominant dephasing ppE parameters is used for a study of first- and second-order (co)variance expansions, focusing on the inspiral stage of a nonspinning binary system of zero eccentricity detectible through Adv. LIGO and Adv. Virgo. Our procedure is more reliable than frequentist studies based only on Fisher information estimates and complements Bayesian studies. Second-order asymptotics indicate the possibility of constraining deviations from GR in low-SNR ($\rho \sim 15-17$) regimes. The errors on $\beta$ also increase errors of other parameters such as the chirp mass $\mathcal{M}$ and symmetric mass ratio $\eta$. Application is done to existing alternative theories of gravity, which include modified dispersion relation of the waveform, non-spinning models of quadratic modified gravity, and dipole gravitational radiation (i.e., Brans-Dicke type) modifications.
A majorization-minimization approach to variable selection using spike and slab priors
Tso-Jung Yen
Statistics , 2010, DOI: 10.1214/11-AOS884
Abstract: We develop a method to carry out MAP estimation for a class of Bayesian regression models in which coefficients are assigned with Gaussian-based spike and slab priors. The objective function in the corresponding optimization problem has a Lagrangian form in that regression coefficients are regularized by a mixture of squared $l_2$ and $l_0$ norms. A tight approximation to the $l_0$ norm using majorization-minimization techniques is derived, and a coordinate descent algorithm in conjunction with a soft-thresholding scheme is used in searching for the optimizer of the approximate objective. Simulation studies show that the proposed method can lead to more accurate variable selection than other benchmark methods. Theoretical results show that under regular conditions, sign consistency can be established, even when the Irrepresentable Condition is violated. Results on posterior model consistency and estimation consistency, and an extension to parameter estimation in the generalized linear models are provided.
Heat Transfer with Viscous Dissipation in Couette-Poiseuille Flow under Asymmetric Wall Heat Fluxes  [PDF]
J. Sheela-Francisca, C. P. Tso, Dirk Rilling
Open Journal of Fluid Dynamics (OJFD) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojfd.2012.24011
Abstract: Analytical solutions of temperature distributions and the Nusselt numbers in forced convection are reported for flow through infinitely long parallel plates, where the upper plate moves in the flow direction with constant velocity and the lower plate is kept stationary. The flow is assumed to be laminar, both hydro-dynamically and thermally fully developed, taking into account the effect of viscous dissipation of the flowing fluid. Both the plates being kept at specified and at different constant heat fluxes are considered as thermal boundary conditions. The solutions obtained from energy equation are in terms of Brinkman number, dimensionless velocity and heat flux ratio. These parameters greatly influence and give complete understanding on heat transfer rates that has potentials for designing and analyzing energy equipment and processes.
Light-bending tests of Lorentz invariance
Rhondale Tso,Quentin G. Bailey
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.84.085025
Abstract: Classical light bending is investigated for weak gravitational fields in the presence of hypothetical local Lorentz violation. Using an effective field theory framework that describes general deviations from local Lorentz invariance, we derive a modified deflection angle for light passing near a massive body. The results include anisotropic effects not present for spherical sources in General Relativity as well as Weak Equivalence Principle violation. We develop an expression for the relative deflection of two distant stars that can be used to analyze data in past and future solar-system observations. The measurement sensitivities of such tests to coefficients for Lorentz violation are discussed.
Estimates of energy expenditure using the RT3 accelerometer in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus  [PDF]
Tim K. Tso, Wen-Nan Huang, Chen-Kang Chang
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.26089
Abstract: This study aimed to characterize energy expenditure patterns using the triaxial accelerometer and to identify the association of energy expenditure with clinical parameters in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Estimates of energy expenditures represented by total activity calorie (TA), physical activity calorie (PA), total activity calorie per body weight (TABW), and physical activity calorie per body weight (PABW) of 49 female SLE patients were assessed using the RT3 triaxial accelerometer (StayHealthy, Monrovia, CA) in a sevenday period. SLE patients in the highest body mass index (BMI) tertile showed significantly lower values of TABW compared to those in the lowest tertile, while SLE patients in the lowest TABW tertile showed significantly higher body weight, waist circumference, BMI, SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), dosage of prednisone, and blood pressure. There was a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and SLE patients with metabolic syndrome showed significantly lower TABW. In addition, both TABW and PABW significantly but negatively correlated with SLEDAI. In conclusion, the RT3 accelerometer is suitable for evaluating total and physical activity-related energy expenditure in patients with SLE. TABW measured by the triaxial accelerometer is inversely related with body weight status and disease activity in SLE patients. This suggests that estimates of energy expenditure by the tri-axial accelerometer may be applied in the management of SLE.
The association of circulating interleukin-18 with fasting insulin and weight loss in obese children  [PDF]
Tim K. Tso, Wen-Nan Huang, Chen-Kang Chang
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.27102
Abstract: Obesity is an independent risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease and increases insulin resistance in children. Interleukin (IL)-18 is a novel pro-inflammatory cytokine with potential atherogenetic properties. This study ai- med to identify circulating levels of IL-18 in obese children and examine the effects of combined nutritional education-physical activity course on circulating IL-18. Plasma IL-18, body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose and insulin, homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA IR), lipid profile, uric acid, high- sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and homocysteine were determined in 70 obese children aged 10-12 years before and after attending a 13-week weight reduction program, which included physical activities and nutritional education. Twenty-five age-matched non-obese children served as controls. At baseline, obese children had significantly higher levels of BMI, fasting insulin, HOMA IR, triglyceride (TG), uric acid, hs-CRP, and IL-18 but lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) than non-obese children. Plasma IL-18 levels in obese children decreased significantly after the weight reduction program. At baseline, plasma IL-18 levels in obese children positively correlated with BMI, HOMA IR, insulin and TG but negatively correlated with HDL-C. There was a significant relationship between plasma IL-18 and BMI changes. Moreover, fasting insulin was responsible for IL-18 variability in obese children. These findings suggest that elevated plasma IL-18 levels in obese children are partly associated with parameters of obesity and insulin resistance, and are significantly affected by modest weight loss.
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