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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 12208 matches for " Patrick Murray "
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Who is at increased risk for acute kidney injury following noncardiac surgery?
Patrick Murray
Critical Care , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/cc7942
Abstract: Acute kidney injury (AKI) has long been recognized as a devastating surgical complication [1,2]. Despite the widespread recognition of an increased risk for AKI following a variety of surgical procedures (coronary artery bypass, cardiac valve replacement, aortic aneurysm repair, and other major and/or emergent procedures), the pathogenesis of this syndrome is poorly understood in all of these settings. Accordingly, no interventions have conclusively been proven to prevent perioperative AKI, or to ameliorate the course and outcome of evolving AKI identified during the early postoperative period [3].Efforts to identify approaches to decrease the incidence of perioperative AKI rely upon careful characterization of risk factors, in order to appropriately target clinical management and prophylactic therapies in clinical trials [4]. Studies of perioperative cohorts can identify factors associated with the development and severity of AKI, and a subset of these are modifiable. Modifiable risk factors are further subdivided into preoperative, operative and postoperative categories. It is critically important that multicentre cohorts of patients at high risk for perioperative AKI are studied to inform the design of successful clinical trials of approaches to prevent and treat AKI in surgical patients. Most such studies have been conducted in cardiac surgery cohorts, many of them in single centres [5] and some in larger multicentre registries [6].In the previous issue of Critical Care, Abelha and colleagues [1] presented the results of an analysis of AKI incidence and risk factors in a single-centre study of 1,166 adults undergoing noncardiac surgery and admitted to a postsurgical intensive care unit (postanaesthesia care unit [PACU]) over a 2-year period. They excluded patients who did not have a serum creatinine determination within 30 days before surgery. They further excluded those with evidence of preoperative renal dysfunction (defined as a requirement for renal replacem
Paul Rehak (ed. John G. Younger) 2007. Imperium and Cosmos: Augustus and the Northern Campus Martius. Madison, WI: University of Wisconsin Press.
Patrick Murray
Bulletin of the History of Archaeology , 2010, DOI: 10.5334/bha.20108
Abstract:
Diagnosis of kidney damage using novel acute kidney injury biomarkers: assessment of kidney function alone is insufficient
Patrick T Murray
Critical Care , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/cc10251
Abstract: In the previous issue of Critical Care, Hollmen and colleagues [1] investigate the utility of a novel biomarker of acute kidney injury (AKI) for the pre-harvest assessment of likely outcomes of kidney transplantation from deceased donors. AKI is a syndrome that is associated with a major burden of morbidity and mortality in a variety of high risk patient populations, many of them cared for by intensivists. Clinical and translational research in recent years has focused on improvements in the diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of AKI to improve care. Validation of new systems for the diagnosis and staging of AKI have been important advances, and the discovery and validation of novel biomarkers of AKI that can achieve earlier diagnosis and improve prognostic stratification have been a more recent focus in the field [2]. One such marker is neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), which is a 25-kDa gelatinase-bound protein that was originally characterized in neutrophils. In recent years, NGAL has been shown to be produced in the kidney following ischemic or nephrotoxic injury in both animals and humans, and has clinical utility for the early or differential diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of AKI [3-6].Renal transplantation is a clinical setting of ischemia-reperfusion injury that includes many features of laboratory experimental models of AKI, including the timed development of acute tubular necrosis (ATN), potentially permitting the use of agents for primary or secondary prophylaxis to prevent or ameliorate AKI. Delayed graft function (DGF) caused by severe ATN, defined by a requirement for dialysis during the initial post-transplant week, complicates postoperative management, and if prolonged (>14 days), adversely effects allograft survival. The incidence of DGF is rising with the growing practice of accepting expanded criteria donors to increase transplantation rates. There is a limited literature investigating the utility of NGAL for the diagnostic
A Unified Channel Charges Expression for Analytic MOSFET Modeling
Hugues Murray,Patrick Martin
Active and Passive Electronic Components , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/652478
Abstract:
A Unified Channel Charges Expression for Analytic MOSFET Modeling
Hugues Murray,Patrick Martin
Active and Passive Electronic Components , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/652478
Abstract: Based on a 1D Poissons equation resolution, we present an analytic model of inversion charges allowing calculation of the drain current and transconductance in the Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor. The drain current and transconductance are described by analytical functions including mobility corrections and short channel effects (CLM, DIBL). The comparison with the Pao-Sah integral shows excellent accuracy of the model in all inversion modes from strong to weak inversion in submicronics MOSFET. All calculations are encoded with a simple C program and give instantaneous results that provide an efficient tool for microelectronics users. 1. Introduction Although MOSFET modeling is now well covered and addressed in BSIM, EKV, and PSP compact models [1], it is always interesting to present a semianalytic resolution of 1D Poissons equation which can be implemented in popular computers with usual software giving most physical results (potential and charges distribution) instantaneously. New approaches of MOSFET surface potential modeling were performed from analytic treatment and have brought a renewal in analytic resolution of surface potential [2–5]. We previously used a similar method in the analytic description of surface potential by Taylor expansion [6]. Oguey and Cserveny [7] proposed as early as 1982 a complete analytic model based on the gate and drain source voltages. An important step was reached in modeling by Enz et al. in 1995 [8], Iniguez et al. [9] in 1996, and Cheng [10] in 1998 who gave analytic expression of the inversion charge. We certainly do not pretend to provide an alternative method to the compact models implemented on the simulators for CAD, but are simply trying to provide analytical support to the understanding of strategic components of microelectronics. From the analytical expression of inversion charge as a function of gate and drain bias, we attempted to provide a single analytical expression that achieves explicit functions of the drain current ( , ) and the transconductance . The originality is based on a model in which the threshold voltage does not appears explicitly, but is replaced in the analytical expression by a parameter dependent on the surface potential at zero drain bias. It became obvious to us that the influence of other parameters could be included in these equations by more complex developments based on quasi two-dimensional analysis that exceeded this paper. Thus, we have not considered the specific effects: ballistic transport, tunneling through the oxide gate, which alone account for
Torsion in Groups of Integral Triangles  [PDF]
Will Murray
Advances in Pure Mathematics (APM) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/apm.2013.31015
Abstract:

Let 0γ<π be a fixed pythagorean angle. We study the abelian group Hr of primitive integral triangles (a,b,c) for which the angle opposite side c is γ. Addition in Hr is defined by adding the angles β opposite side b and modding out by π-γ. The only Hr for which the structure is known is Hπ/2, which is free abelian. We prove that for generalγ, Hr has an element of order two iff 2(1-

Taylor Expansion of Surface Potential in MOSFET: Application to Pao-Sah Integral
Hugues Murray,Patrick Martin,Serge Bardy
Active and Passive Electronic Components , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/268431
Abstract: We propose a simple model, derived from Pao-Sah theory, valid in all modes from weak to strong inversion, to calculate the drain current in Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET). The Pao-Sah double integral is decomposed into single integrals with limits of integration calculated from Taylor polynomials of inverse functions. The solution is presented analytically wherever possible, and the integration is made from simple numerical methods (Simpson, Romberg) or adaptative algorithms and can be implemented in simple C-program or in usual mathematical software. The transconductance and the diffusion current are also calculated with the same model.
An Overview of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Implications for Excitotoxic Vulnerability in the Hippocampus
Patrick S. Murray,Philip V. Holmes
International Journal of Peptides , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/654085
Abstract: The present paper examines the nature and function of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampal formation and the consequences of changes in its expression. The paper focuses on literature describing the role of BDNF in hippocampal development and neuroplasticity. BDNF expression is highly sensitive to developmental and environmental factors, and increased BDNF signaling enhances neurogenesis, neurite sprouting, electrophysiological activity, and other processes reflective of a general enhancement of hippocampal function. Such increases in activity may mediate beneficial effects such as enhanced learning and memory. However, the increased activity also comes at a cost: BDNF plasticity renders the hippocampus more vulnerable to hyperexcitability and/or excitotoxic damage. Exercise dramatically increases hippocampal BDNF levels and produces behavioral effects consistent with this phenomenon. In analyzing the literature regarding exercise-induced regulation of BDNF, this paper provides a theoretical model for how the potentially deleterious consequences of BDNF plasticity may be modulated by other endogenous factors. The peptide galanin may play such a role by regulating hippocampal excitability. 1. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Overview Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family, a group of structurally related polypeptide growth factors. The family also includes nerve growth factor (NGF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin-4 (NT-4/5) [1]. Other neurotrophins have also been identified, NT-6 and NT-7; however, these likely do not exist in mammals [2–4]. Neurotrophins activate one or more of the high-affinity tropomyosin-receptor kinase (Trk) receptor family [1, 5, 6], as well as the low-affinity p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) [7]. Neurotrophins direct growth and differentiation in the developing nervous system [1, 3, 6, 8]. Levels of the different neurotrophins relate in a predictable pattern to stages of embryonic development. Infusion of BDNF into the adult brain promotes neurogenesis [9, 10], and dendritic spine reorganization in the rat hippocampal formation [11]. BDNF gene transfection triggers dendritic and axonal branching in dentate gyrus (DG) granule cell cultures [12] while mice with a targeted gene deletion show substantial impairment in normal cerebellar development, among other developmental and behavioral deficits [13]. Trk receptors precipitate the activation of many signaling cascades, including phospholipase C (PLC), phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), and Ras [14, 15],
Data Sharing as Part of the Normal Scientific Process: A View from the Pharmaceutical Industry
Patrick Vallance?,Andrew Freeman?,Murray Stewart
PLOS Medicine , 2016, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001936
Abstract:
SolexaQA: At-a-glance quality assessment of Illumina second-generation sequencing data
Murray P Cox, Daniel A Peterson, Patrick J Biggs
BMC Bioinformatics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2105-11-485
Abstract: We present SolexaQA, a user-friendly software package designed to generate detailed statistics and at-a-glance graphics of sequence data quality both quickly and in an automated fashion. This package contains associated software to trim sequences dynamically using the quality scores of bases within individual reads.The SolexaQA package produces standardized outputs within minutes, thus facilitating ready comparison between flow cell lanes and machine runs, as well as providing immediate diagnostic information to guide the manipulation of sequence data for downstream analyses.Second-generation technologies are rapidly coming to dominate modern DNA and RNA sequencing efforts [1]. Among the available systems, Illumina sequencing (known informally as Solexa) is playing an increasingly prominent role. However, the error profiles of high-throughput short read sequencing technologies differ markedly from traditional Sanger sequencing [2]; they tend to exhibit a steep, exponential increase in error rates along the read length, and are susceptible to a wider range of chemistry and machine failures (such as air bubbles in system fluidics). Although the quality of second-generation sequencing data affects downstream applications, monitoring and diagnosis of data quality has not kept pace with the rapid rate of improvement seen in other aspects of the technology.Owners of Illumina machines have access to on-board diagnostic tools, which give detailed information about data quality for each lane, tile and nucleotide position. However, these tools are not available to most users, the majority of whom now outsource data collection to dedicated sequencing centers. In our experience, these centers do not usually release data quality information, although we advocate strongly that they should. Lacking this information, users must turn to publicly available software packages to quantify data quality. The R package TileQC [3], which offers similar functionality to Illumina's proprietar
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