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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 394708 matches for " Patrick J. O’Connor "
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Effect of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on Bone Healing
Jessica Cottrell,J. Patrick OConnor
Pharmaceuticals , 2010, DOI: 10.3390/ph3051668
Abstract: Nonspecific and COX-2 selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) function by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase isoenzymes and effectively reduce pain and inflammation attributed to acute or chronic musculoskeletal pathologies. However, use of NSAIDs as an analgesic is thought to negatively contribute to bone healing. This review strived to provide a thorough unbiased analysis of the current research conducted on animals and humans regarding NSAIDs and their effect on bone healing. Specifically, this review discusses the role of animal models, dosing regiments, and outcome parameters when examining discrepancies about NSAIDS and their effects on bone regeneration. The role of COX-2 in bone regeneration needs to be better defined in order to further elucidate the impact of NSAIDs on bone healing.
The Earliest Colubroid-Dominated Snake Fauna from Africa: Perspectives from the Late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation of Southwestern Tanzania
Jacob A. McCartney, Nancy J. Stevens, Patrick M. OConnor
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090415
Abstract: The extant snake fauna has its roots in faunal upheaval occurring across the Paleogene - Neogene transition. On northern continents, this turnover is well established by the late early Miocene. However, this transition is poorly documented on southern landmasses, particularly on continental Africa, where no late Paleogene terrestrial snake assemblages are documented south of the equator. Here we describe a newly discovered snake fauna from the Late Oligocene Nsungwe Formation in the Rukwa Rift Basin of Tanzania. The fauna is small but diverse with eight identifiable morphotypes, comprised of three booids and five colubroids. This fauna includes Rukwanyoka holmani gen. et sp. nov., the oldest boid known from mainland Africa. It also provides the oldest fossil evidence for the African colubroid clade Elapidae. Colubroids dominate the fauna, comprising more than 75% of the recovered material. This is likely tied to local aridification and/or seasonality and mirrors the pattern of overturn in later snake faunas inhabiting the emerging grassland environments of Europe and North America. The early emergence of colubroid dominance in the Rukwa Rift Basin relative to northern continents suggests that the pattern of overturn that resulted in extant faunas happened in a more complex fashion on continental Africa than was previously realized, with African colubroids becoming at least locally important in the late Paleogene, either ahead of or as a consequence of the invasion of colubrids. The early occurrence of elapid snakes in the latest Oligocene of Africa suggests the clade rapidly spread from Asia to Africa, or arose in Africa, before invading Europe.
Immunohistochemical Localization of Key Arachidonic Acid Metabolism Enzymes during Fracture Healing in Mice
Hsuan-Ni Lin, J. Patrick OConnor
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088423
Abstract: This study investigated the localization of critical enzymes involved in arachidonic acid metabolism during the initial and regenerative phases of mouse femur fracture healing. Previous studies found that loss of cyclooxygenase-2 activity impairs fracture healing while loss of 5-lipoxygenase activity accelerates healing. These diametric results show that arachidonic acid metabolism has an essential function during fracture healing. To better understand the function of arachidonic acid metabolism during fracture healing, expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase -2 (COX-2), 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO), and leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) was localized by immunohistochemistry in time-staged fracture callus specimens. All four enzymes were detected in leukocytes present in the bone marrow and attending inflammatory response that accompanied the fracture. In the tissues surrounding the fracture site, the proportion of leukocytes expressing COX-1, COX-2, or LTA4H decreased while those expressing 5-LO remained high at 4 and 7 days after fracture. This may indicate an inflammation resolution function for 5-LO during fracture healing. Only COX-1 was consistently detected in fracture callus osteoblasts during the later stages of healing (day 14 after fracture). In contrast, callus chondrocytes expressed all four enzymes, though 5-LO appeared to be preferentially expressed in newly differentiated chondrocytes. Most interestingly, osteoclasts consistently and strongly expressed COX-2. In addition to bone surfaces and the growth plate, COX-2 expressing osteoclasts were localized at the chondro-osseous junction of the fracture callus. These observations suggest that arachidonic acid mediated signaling from callus chondrocytes or from callus osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction regulate fracture healing.
A survey of antibodies to pestivirus in sheep in the Republic of Ireland
Ronan G O'Neill, Michael O'Connor, Patrick J O'Reilly
Irish Veterinary Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/2046-0481-57-9-525
Abstract: The primary members of the genus Pestivirus are classical swine fever virus (CSFV), bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) types I and II, and border disease virus (BDV). CSFV is host specific under natural circumstances (i.e., it infects pigs only); BDV affects sheep, goats and pigs; and BVDV genotypes I and II affect cattle, sheep, goats, deer and pigs [11]. Consequently, current recommendations are that the virus genome, rather than species of origin, be used as the basis for a revised genus classification [32].Border disease virus spreads naturally by horizontal and vertical transmission. Oro-nasal infection in healthy adults or neonates causes mild or inapparent disease. The consequences of infection are primarily reproductive - barren ewes, abortions, stillbirths and stunted, weak lambs with variable degrees of nervous dysfunction [19,24]. Other occasional effects include 'hairy' and malpigmented wool, skeletal abnormalities, and immunosuppression with subsequent secondary bacterial infection [12,24]. However, border disease is an uncommon clinical finding, in contrast to the pervasive consequences of BVDV infection in the cattle population in the Republic of Ireland [8]. When they do occur, outbreaks of clinical BDV can significantly reduce productivity in individual flocks [2]. Genomic, antigenic and serological studies have shown that BDV is more closely related to CSFV than to BVDV [33]. BDV infection of pigs complicates the serological diagnosis of CSFV, a Class A notifiable disease [23], and is a potential cause of antibody false-positives with serious implications for animal movement and trade. In addition, congenital infection of pigs with BDV can mimic clinical infection with low virulence strains of CSFV [21]. The objectives of the present study were to assess the serological prevalence of border disease virus in the Irish sheep population, and to explore the relationship and cross-reactions between antibodies to BDV and the other important pestivirus,
Minimization of Radiation Exposure due to Computed Tomography in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Patrick D. Mc Laughlin,Owen J. OConnor,Siobhán B. O’Neill,Fergus Shanahan
ISRN Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/790279
A New Troodontid Theropod, Talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov., from the Upper Cretaceous Western Interior Basin of North America
Lindsay E. Zanno, David J. Varricchio, Patrick M. O'Connor, Alan L. Titus, Michael J. Knell
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0024487
Abstract: Background Troodontids are a predominantly small-bodied group of feathered theropod dinosaurs notable for their close evolutionary relationship with Avialae. Despite a diverse Asian representation with remarkable growth in recent years, the North American record of the clade remains poor, with only one controversial species—Troodon formosus—presently known from substantial skeletal remains. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report a gracile new troodontid theropod—Talos sampsoni gen. et sp. nov.—from the Upper Cretaceous Kaiparowits Formation, Utah, USA, representing one of the most complete troodontid skeletons described from North America to date. Histological assessment of the holotype specimen indicates that the adult body size of Talos was notably smaller than that of the contemporary genus Troodon. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Talos as a member of a derived, latest Cretaceous subclade, minimally containing Troodon, Saurornithoides, and Zanabazar. MicroCT scans reveal extreme pathological remodeling on pedal phalanx II-1 of the holotype specimen likely resulting from physical trauma and subsequent infectious processes. Conclusion/Significance Talos sampsoni adds to the singularity of the Kaiparowits Formation dinosaur fauna, which is represented by at least 10 previously unrecognized species including the recently named ceratopsids Utahceratops and Kosmoceratops, the hadrosaurine Gryposaurus monumentensis, the tyrannosaurid Teratophoneus, and the oviraptorosaurian Hagryphus. The presence of a distinct troodontid taxon in the Kaiparowits Formation supports the hypothesis that late Campanian dinosaurs of the Western Interior Basin exhibited restricted geographic ranges and suggests that the taxonomic diversity of Late Cretaceous troodontids from North America is currently underestimated. An apparent traumatic injury to the foot of Talos with evidence of subsequent healing sheds new light on the paleobiology of deinonychosaurians by bolstering functional interpretations of prey grappling and/or intraspecific combat for the second pedal digit, and supporting trackway evidence indicating a minimal role in weight bearing.
Preferences for Very Low and Very High Voice Pitch in Humans
Daniel E. Re, Jillian J. M. O'Connor, Patrick J. Bennett, David R. Feinberg
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032719
Abstract: Manipulations of voice pitch have been shown to alter attractiveness ratings, but whether preferences extend to very low or very high voice pitch is unknown. Here, we manipulated voice pitch in averaged men's and women's voices by 2 Hz intervals to create a range of male and female voices speaking monopthong vowel sounds and spanning a range of frequencies from normal to very low and very high pitch. With these voices, we used the method of constant stimuli to measure preferences for voice. Nineteen university students (ages: 20–25) participated in three experiments. On average, men preferred high-pitched women's voices to low-pitched women's voices across all frequencies tested. On average, women preferred men's voices lowered in pitch, but did not prefer very low men's voices. The results of this study may reflect selection pressures for men's and women's voices, and shed light on a perceptual link between voice pitch and vocal attractiveness.
Variation in diabetes care by age: opportunities for customization of care
Patrick J O'Connor, Jay R Desai, Leif I Solberg, William A Rush, Donald B Bishop
BMC Family Practice , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2296-4-16
Abstract: We conducted a cohort study of members of a health plan cared for by multiple medical groups in Minnesota. Study subjects were a random sample of 1109 adults age 45 and over with an established diagnosis of diabetes using a diabetes identification method with estimated sensitivity 0.91 and positive predictive value 0.94. Survey data (response rate 86.2%) and administrative databases were used to assess diabetes severity, glycemic control, quality of life, microvascular and macrovascular risks and complications, preventive care, utilization, and perceptions of diabetes.Compared to those aged 45–64 years (N = 627), those 65 and older (N = 482) had better glycemic control, better health-related behaviors, and perceived less adverse impacts of diabetes on their quality of life despite longer duration of diabetes and a prevalence of cardiovascular disease twice that of younger patients. Older patients did not ascribe heart disease to their diabetes. Younger adults often had explanatory models of diabetes that interfere with effective and aggressive care, and accessed care less frequently. Overall, only 37% of patients were simultaneously up-to-date on eye exams, foot exams, and glycated hemoglobin (A1c) tests within one year.These data demonstrate the need for further improvement in diabetes care for all patients, and suggest that customisation of care based on age and explanatory models of diabetes may be an improvement strategy that merits further evaluation.At present, about 4–5% of U.S. adults age 18 and over have diagnosed type 2 diabetes [1] In various populations, the median age of adults with diabetes typically ranges from 59 to 64 years [2] In the last decade, the overall incidence of diabetes in America has risen due to increasing obesity, inactivity, and population aging – despite new diagnostic criteria for diabetes based on fasting glucose that may be less likely to classify elderly patients as having diabetes [3-6]The care of older patients with diabetes pr
A pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Upper Cretaceous Lapurr sandstone, West Turkana, Kenya
O'Connor, Patrick M.;Sertich, Joseph J.W.;Manthi, Fredrick K.;
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S0001-37652011000100019
Abstract: an isolated pterosaurian caudal cervical (~ postcervical) vertebra was recovered from the upper cretaceous lapurr sandstone ofwest turkana, northwestern kenya. the vertebral centrum is short, wide, and dorsoventrally compressed. although the specimen is lightly built similar to most pterosaurs, it is here referred to pterodactyloidea and tentatively to the azhdarchidae in that it lacks pneumatic features on both the centrum and neural arch. this represents one of the few pterosaurs recovered from the entirety of afro-arabia, the first pterosaur recovered from the cretaceous of east africa, and, significantly, a specimen that was recovered from fluvial deposits rather than the near-shore marine setting typical of most pterosaur discoveries.
Minimization of Radiation Exposure due to Computed Tomography in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Patrick D. Mc Laughlin,Owen J. OConnor,Siobhán B. O’Neill,Fergus Shanahan,Michael M. Maher
ISRN Gastroenterology , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/790279
Abstract: Patient awareness and concern regarding the potential health risks from ionizing radiation have peaked recently (Coakley et al., 2011) following widespread press and media coverage of the projected cancer risks from the increasing use of computed tomography (CT) (Berrington et al., 2007). The typical young and educated patient with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may in particular be conscious of his/her exposure to ionising radiation as a result of diagnostic imaging. Cumulative effective doses (CEDs) in patients with IBD have been reported as being high and are rising, primarily due to the more widespread and repeated use of CT (Desmond et al., 2008). Radiologists, technologists, and referring physicians have a responsibility to firstly counsel their patients accurately regarding the actual risks of ionizing radiation exposure; secondly to limit the use of those imaging modalities which involve ionising radiation to clinical situations where they are likely to change management; thirdly to ensure that a diagnostic quality imaging examination is acquired with lowest possible radiation exposure. In this paper, we synopsize available evidence related to radiation exposure and risk and we report advances in low-dose CT technology and examine the role for alternative imaging modalities such as ultrasonography or magnetic resonance imaging which avoid radiation exposure. 1. Introduction Increased exposure to ionising radiation in patients with Crohn’s disease has been documented in recent publications and is a significant cause for concern [1, 2]. Improvements in CT hardware and software have greatly expanded its role in the diagnosis and characterisation of IBD, the detection of complications, and the assessment of response to treatment [2]. These advances have been hugely beneficial to the management of many patients, but CT may on occasion become a victim of its own success when IBD patients may undergo CT examination for a less than robust indication and the radiologist’s report may not have any impact upon patient management. In these cases, the potential for carcinogenesis as a result of radiation exposure is difficult to justify. 2. Ionizing Radiation: Potential Hazards in IBD Patient Cancer induction is the primary concern for IBD patients who are routinely exposed to ionizing radiation. IBD patients can be subjected to serial imaging studies over prolonged periods of followup due to early age of presentation and, sometimes, decades of active disease [2]. In addition, IBD patients are already at increased risk of certain malignancies such as
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