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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 9837 matches for " Patrick Canlas "
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Reduced expression of glycolate oxidase leads to enhanced disease resistance in rice
Mawsheng Chern,Wei Bai,Xuewei Chen,Patrick E. Canlas
PeerJ , 2013, DOI: 10.7717/peerj.28
Abstract: Glycolate oxidase (GLO) is a key enzyme in photorespiration, catalyzing the oxidation of glycolate to glyoxylate. Arabidopsis GLO is required for nonhost defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae and for tobacco Pto/AvrPto-mediated defense responses. We previously described identification of rice GLO1 that interacts with a glutaredoxin protein, which in turn interacts with TGA transcription factors. TGA transcription factors are well known to participate in NPR1/NH1-mediated defense signaling, which is crucial to systemic acquired resistance in plants. Here we demonstrate that reduction of rice GLO1 expression leads to enhanced resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo). Constitutive silencing of GLO1 leads to programmed cell death, resulting in a lesion-mimic phenotype and lethality or reduced plant growth and development, consistent with previous reports. Inducible silencing of GLO1, employing a dexamethasone-GVG (Gal4 DNA binding domain-VP16 activation domain-glucocorticoid receptor fusion) inducible system, alleviates these detrimental effects. Silencing of GLO1 results in enhanced resistance to Xoo, increased expression of defense regulators NH1, NH3, and WRKY45, and activation of PR1 expression.
Overexpression of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone BiP3 Regulates XA21-Mediated Innate Immunity in Rice
Chang-Jin Park,Rebecca Bart,Mawsheng Chern,Patrick E. Canlas,Wei Bai,Pamela C. Ronald
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0009262
Abstract: Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) activates the innate immune response. Although PRR-mediated signaling events are critical to the survival of plants and animals, secretion and localization of PRRs have not yet been clearly elucidated. Here we report the in vivo interaction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone BiP3 with the rice XA21 PRR, which confers resistance to the Gram negative bacterium, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo). We show that XA21 is glycosylated and is primarily localized to the ER and also to the plasma membrane (PM). In BiP3-overexpressing rice plants, XA21-mediated immunity is compromised, XA21 stability is significantly decreased, and XA21 proteolytic cleavage is inhibited. BiP3 overexpression does not affect the general rice defense response, cell death or brassinolide-induced responses. These results indicate that BiP3 regulates XA21 protein stability and processing and that this regulation is critical for resistance to Xoo.
Correction: Rice XB15, a Protein Phosphatase 2C, Negatively Regulates Cell Death and XA21-Mediated Innate Immunity
Chang-Jin Park,Ying Peng,Xuewei Chen,Christopher Dardick,DeLing Ruan,Rebecca Bart,Patrick E. Canlas,Pamela C. Ronald
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060282
Abstract:
Rice Snl6, a Cinnamoyl-CoA Reductase-Like Gene Family Member, Is Required for NH1-Mediated Immunity to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae
Rebecca S. Bart equal contributor,Mawsheng Chern equal contributor,Miguel E. Vega-Sánchez,Patrick Canlas,Pamela C. Ronald
PLOS Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1001123
Abstract: Rice NH1 (NPR1 homolog 1) is a key mediator of innate immunity. In both plants and animals, the innate immune response is often accompanied by rapid cell death at the site of pathogen infection. Over-expression of NH1 in rice results in resistance to the bacterial pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo), constitutive expression of defense related genes and enhanced benzothiadiazole (BTH)- mediated cell death. Here we describe a forward genetic screen that identified a suppressor of NH1-mediated lesion formation and resistance, snl6. Comparative genome hybridization and fine mapping rapidly identified the genomic location of the Snl6 gene. Snl6 is a member of the cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR)-like gene family. We show that Snl6 is required for NH1-mediated resistance to Xoo. Further, we show that Snl6 is required for pathogenesis-related gene expression. In contrast to previously described CCR family members, disruption of Snl6 does not result in an obvious morphologic phenotype. Snl6 mutants have reduced lignin content and increased sugar extractability, an important trait for the production of cellulosic biofuels. These results suggest the existence of a conserved group of CCR-like genes involved in the defense response, and with the potential to alter lignin content without affecting development.
Rice XB15, a Protein Phosphatase 2C, Negatively Regulates Cell Death and XA21-Mediated Innate Immunity
Chang-Jin Park,Ying Peng,Xuewei Chen,Christopher Dardick,DeLing Ruan,Rebecca Bart,Patrick E. Canlas,Pamela C. Ronald
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060231
Abstract: Perception of extracellular signals by cell surface receptors is of central importance to eukaryotic development and immunity. Kinases that are associated with the receptors or are part of the receptors themselves modulate signaling through phosphorylation events. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) XA21 receptor kinase is a key recognition and signaling determinant in the innate immune response. A yeast two-hybrid screen using the intracellular portion of XA21, including the juxtamembrane (JM) and kinase domain as bait, identified a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), called XA21 binding protein 15 (XB15). The interaction of XA21 and XB15 was confirmed in vitro and in vivo by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, respectively. XB15 fusion proteins purified from Escherichia coli and from transgenic rice carry PP2C activity. Autophosphorylated XA21 can be dephosphorylated by XB15 in a temporal- and dosage-dependent manner. A serine residue in the XA21 JM domain is required for XB15 binding. Xb15 mutants display a severe cell death phenotype, induction of pathogenesis-related genes, and enhanced XA21-mediated resistance. Overexpression of Xb15 in an XA21 rice line compromises resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. These results demonstrate that Xb15 encodes a PP2C that negatively regulates the XA21-mediated innate immune response.
A rice transient assay system identifies a novel domain in NRR required for interaction with NH1/OsNPR1 and inhibition of NH1-mediated transcriptional activation
Mawsheng Chern, Wei Bai, Wing Hoi Sze-To, Patrick E Canlas, Laura E Bartley, Pamela C Ronald
Plant Methods , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1746-4811-8-6
Abstract: We have established a rice transient protoplast assay to demonstrate that NH1 is a transcriptional co-activator and that NRR represses NH1-mediated activation. We identified three NRR homologues (RH1, RH2, and RH3). RH1 and RH3, but not RH2, also effectively repress NH1-mediated transcriptional activation. NRR, RH1, RH2, and RH3 share sequence similarity in a region beyond the previously identified NPR1-interacting domain. This region is required for strong interaction with NH1. A double point mutation, W66A/F70A, in this novel NH1-interacting domain severely reduces interaction with NH1. Mutation W66A/F70A also greatly reduces the ability of NRR to repress NH1-mediated activation. RH2 carries a deviation (amino acids AV) in this region as compared to consensus sequences (amino acids ED) among NRR, RH1, and RH3. A substitution (AV to ED) in RH2 results in strong binding of mutant RH2ED to NH1 and effective repression of NH1-mediated activation.The protoplast-based transient system can be used to dissect protein domains associated with their functions. Our results demonstrate that the ability of NRR and its homologues to repress NH1-mediated transcriptional activation is tightly correlated with their ability to bind to NH1. Furthermore, a sequence is identified as a novel NH1-interacting domain. Importantly, this novel sequence is widely present in plant species, from cereals to castor bean plants, to poplar trees, to Arabidopsis, indicating its significance in plants.Plants survive pathogen attack by employing various defense strategies, including strengthening of cell walls, the accumulation of phytoalexins, synthesis of salicylic acid (SA), and induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes. A hypersensitive response (HR) is often associated with the defense response and limits pathogen growth to the infected site. After an initial local infection, systemic acquired resistance (SAR) often occurs, which coordinately induces expression of a set of PR genes, leading to
Rice XB15, a Protein Phosphatase 2C, Negatively Regulates Cell Death and XA21-Mediated Innate Immunity
Chang-Jin Park,Ying Peng,Xuewei Chen,Christopher Dardick,DeLing Ruan,Rebecca Bart,Patrick E Canlas,Pamela C Ronald
PLOS Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060231
Abstract: Perception of extracellular signals by cell surface receptors is of central importance to eukaryotic development and immunity. Kinases that are associated with the receptors or are part of the receptors themselves modulate signaling through phosphorylation events. The rice (Oryza sativa L.) XA21 receptor kinase is a key recognition and signaling determinant in the innate immune response. A yeast two-hybrid screen using the intracellular portion of XA21, including the juxtamembrane (JM) and kinase domain as bait, identified a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C), called XA21 binding protein 15 (XB15). The interaction of XA21 and XB15 was confirmed in vitro and in vivo by glutathione-S-transferase (GST) pull-down and co-immunoprecipitation assays, respectively. XB15 fusion proteins purified from Escherichia coli and from transgenic rice carry PP2C activity. Autophosphorylated XA21 can be dephosphorylated by XB15 in a temporal- and dosage-dependent manner. A serine residue in the XA21 JM domain is required for XB15 binding. Xb15 mutants display a severe cell death phenotype, induction of pathogenesis-related genes, and enhanced XA21-mediated resistance. Overexpression of Xb15 in an XA21 rice line compromises resistance to the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae. These results demonstrate that Xb15 encodes a PP2C that negatively regulates the XA21-mediated innate immune response.
Correction: Rice XB15, a Protein Phosphatase 2C, Negatively Regulates Cell Death and XA21-Mediated Innate Immunity
Chang-Jin Park,Ying Peng,Xuewei Chen,Christopher Dardick,DeLing Ruan,Rebecca Bart,Patrick E Canlas,Pamela C Ronald
PLOS Biology , 2008, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0060282
Abstract:
Westphalia at the Edge of Chaos? The Nation-State and the 9/11 Frontiers of Change
Felipe Canlas III
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 2003,
Abstract: This article looks at the impact of 9/11 on International Relations theorizing, examining specifically the claim that events following the 9/11 attacks have necessitated the creation of a “new” international order far different from the one established based on the norms of Westphalia. The article contextualizes the discussion on the new breed of international terrorism within the debate over the prospects of a “new” international order as explained by post-9/11 theorists. The article concludes that the changes trumpeted by the same scholars as heralding the coming of a new post 9/11 international order are not revolutionary as proclaimed. Instead, these are actually evolutionary in nature and thus, do not result in a complete change in the international system.
GATT Issues, Gut Issues
Corinne A. Canlas
Kasarinlan : Philippine Journal of Third World Studies , 1994,
Abstract: The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) finds its theoretical foundation in the economic theory of comparative advantage, from which it draws the set of basic trading principles that it overtly upholds, namely, nondiscrimination, reciprocity, and transparency. In accordance with these principles, GATT sells itself as an agreement that will ensure fair trade through the rationalization of trade barriers and prevention of trade wars between its members. This paper counters such claims, showing how developing countries could suffer from the stipulations of the treaty emerging from the Uruguay Round of GATT negotiations. The purported economic improvements in developing countries under the treaty are highly suspect. GATT makes developing countries vulnerable to potential exploitation by the dominators of the world market. Additionally, profit-driven transnational corporations successfully lobbied for their interests—against those of developing countries—in the GATT negotiating table. The argument against the latest GATT treaty boils down to its effect on agricultural production in developing countries, particularly the Philippines. With a government that has never provided food subsidies or any similar forms of support to its farmers, the Philippines stands to lose from GATT’s imposition against such subsidies in the name of creating a level playing field. The country is in a rush to industrialize in order to become globally competitive, hence it is reducing the portion of its lands dedicated to agriculture. This could lead to the worsening of the country’s dismal state of food security. With this subjection of lands to the terms of market efficiency comes the decreasing possibility of genuine land reform. In light of the country’s ratification of the GATT treaty, the paper insists that after consulting with the affected sectors of society, the Philippine government must prioritize the establishment of national food self-reliance through accelerated implementation of agrarian reform and the endowment of financial support to small farmers.
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