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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 333137 matches for " Patricia S. Conville "
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Nucleic Acid Amplification Tests for Diagnosis of Smear-Negative TB in a High HIV-Prevalence Setting: A Prospective Cohort Study
J. Lucian Davis,Laurence Huang,William Worodria,Henry Masur,Adithya Cattamanchi,Charles Huber,Cecily Miller,Patricia S. Conville,Patrick Murray,Joseph A. Kovacs
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016321
Abstract: Nucleic acid amplification tests are sensitive for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis in populations with positive sputum smears for acid-fast bacilli, but less sensitive in sputum-smear-negative populations. Few studies have evaluated the clinical impact of these tests in low-income countries with high burdens of TB and HIV.
Adaptability and Persistence of the Emerging Pathogen Bordetella petrii
Adrian M. Zelazny, Li Ding, Joanna B. Goldberg, Lilia A. Mijares, Sean Conlan, Patricia S. Conville, Frida Stock, Samuel J. Ballentine, Kenneth N. Olivier, Elizabeth P. Sampaio, Patrick R. Murray, Steven M. Holland
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0065102
Abstract: The first described, environmentally isolated, Bordetella petrii was shown to undergo massive genomic rearrangements in vitro. More recently, B. petrii was isolated from clinical samples associated with jaw, ear bone, cystic fibrosis and chronic pulmonary disease. However, the in vivo consequences of B. petrii genome plasticity and its pathogenicity remain obscure. B. petrii was identified from four sequential respiratory samples and a post-mortem spleen sample of a woman presenting with bronchiectasis and cavitary lung disease associated with nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. Strains were compared genetically, phenotypically and by antibody recognition from the patient and from inoculated mice. The successive B. petrii strains exhibited differences in growth, antibiotic susceptibility and recognition by the patient’s antibodies. Antibodies from mice inoculated with these strains recapitulated the specificity and strain dependent response that was seen with the patient’s serum. Finally, we characterize one strain that was poorly recognized by the patient’s antibodies, due to a defect in the lipopolysaccharide O-antigen, and identify a mutation associated with this phenotype. We propose that B. petrii is remarkably adaptable in vivo, providing a possible connection between immune response and bacterial evasion and supporting infection persistence.
Medical Students’ Knowledge of Clinical Practical Procedures: Relationship with Clinical Competence  [PDF]
Patricia Katowa-Mukwato, Sekelani S. Banda
Creative Education (CE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2014.521212
Abstract: Clinical competence is an attribute expected of every practicing doctor while proficiency in procedural skills is a requirement by certifying bodies. To attain competency in the performance of procedural/psychomotor skills, possession of conceptual knowledge has been documented as a fundamental pre-requisite in reference to medical education literature. At the University Of Zambia School Of Medicine, the matter of cognitive knowledge in relation to competence in clinical practical skills for undergraduate medical students was investigated in a project which was conducted in 2013. Fifty-six (56) students from a class of 60 (93% response rate) of the final year medical students’ class of 2012/2013 completed a Multiple Choice Question (MCQ) knowledge test which was administered to ascertain the level of knowledge on 14 selected clinical practical procedures. Knowledge levels of clinical practical procedures of the final year medical students were found to be inadequate represented by a 39% pass rate with students’ scores lower than the Angoff determined pass mark on most items. Expectedly, students were more knowledgeable in those procedures where they were formally taught and those where there was a high likelihood of being assessed. The correlation between knowledge and self-perceived competence was positive Spearman rho of 0.360, while a negative correlation was recorded between knowledge and manifest competence (objectively measured competence) Pearson r .116. The positive correlation between knowledge and self-perception of competence is an indication of the role of knowledge in improving self-concept about a skill, which may consequently lead to improved performance.
MORSE DECOMPOSITION, ATTRACTORS AND CHAIN RECURRENCE
JOSE AYALA,PATRICK CORBIN,KELLY MC CONVILLE,FRITZ COLONIUS
Proyecciones (Antofagasta) , 2006,
Abstract: The global behavior of a dynamical system can be described by its Morse decompositions or its attractor and repeller configurations. There is a close relation between these two approaches and also with (maximal) chain recurrent sets that describe the system behavior on finest Morse sets. These sets depend upper semicontinuously on parameters. The connection with ergodic theory is provided through the construction of invariant measures based on chains
Molecular biology of breast metastasis: 'Has it spread?' Disarming one of the most terrifying questions
Patricia S Steeg
Breast Cancer Research , 2000, DOI: 10.1186/bcr85
Abstract: The number of clinicians whose eyes glaze over as metastasis researchers dutifully recite the many steps of the metastatic process, and go on to examine tumor cell invasion in minute detail, signals either that we give boring lectures or that we have evoked the 'so what?' response. Those who would favor the latter response might state that, even for the greater than 90% of patients without detectable distant metastases at surgery, it remains possible that tumor cells have already invaded out of the primary tumor and are sitting contentedly in distant sites undetected. Only 'growth' and angiogenesis remain. Why study metastasis when it may be virtually complete by the time the patient walks into the clinic? Has the barn door been left open? Should we all drop our experiments and switch to antiangiogenesis projects?Two reviews in this series have addressed this critical question, and arrived at similar answers. Investigators from Dr Ann Chambers' laboratory have watched it all happen. She and others have tagged tumor cells and watched them metastasize to the livers and lungs of experimental animals using in vivo videomicroscopy [1]. She reports that the clinicians are partially correct; both metastatically competent and poorly metastatic cell lines arrive at the metastatic site and extravasate at high frequencies. What separates the cells with high from those with low metastatic potential is their ability to colonize in that distant site. Differences in metastatic colonization potential are observable at the micrometastatic stages, before angiogenesis is a rate-limiting step. In addition to Dr Chambers' in vivo work, other researchers using nonbreast cancer cell lines have recently identified different points of metastatic blockade in distant organs, such as metastatic colonization attached to lung endothelium [2]. Both findings, however, point to colonization at the secondary site as the metastasis-limiting point. Thus, intravital videomicroscopy efforts have confirm
INCIDENCIA DE INSECTOS Y áCAROS PLAGAS EN PEPINO DULCE (Solanum muricatum Ait.) CULTIVADO EN LA IV REGIóN, CHILE
Larraín S.,Patricia;
Agricultura Técnica , 2002, DOI: 10.4067/S0365-28072002000100002
Abstract: from october 1995 through march 1997, pests were studied on pepino (solanum muricatum ait.) plants grown at cerrillos de tamaya (30° s lat; 71°16′ w long) in ovalle, iv region, chile. six pepino plots were planted at two-month intervals. the different pests that infested the crops were monitored. additionally, acaricides and insecticides were evaluated for the control of two-spotted spider mites tetranychus urticae (koch), and mealybugs phenacoccus solenopsis (tingley), respectively. results showed twenty-four species of arthropods infesting pepino plants. among them, the mites, especially tetranychus urticae, were abundant and reached levels of 350 mites per leaf, causing severe defoliation. spraying the acaricides cyhexatin and amitraz effectively controlled the infestation. the pepino fly, rhagoletis nova (schiner), provoked considerable losses during certain periods, but its greatest importance is that it is a quarantined pest and limits pepino exports to important markets. other pests of economic significance to the crop, whose population levels must be monitored and controlled, are the moth symmetrischema tangolias (gyen), the green peach aphid myzus persicae (sulzer) and the soil mealybug phenacoccus solenopsis (tingley). the mealybug was controlled spraying clorpirifos and carbofuran.
Variabilidad en la explotación y distribución de obsidianas en la Puna Meridional argentina
Escola,Patricia S;
Estudios atacame?os , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0718-10432004002800003
Abstract: geochemical characterization of two obsidian sources located in the department of antofagasta de la sierra (catamarca) is presented. this information is combined with results of provenance analysis (inaa) carried out on obsidian archaeological artifacts from 20 sites dated between 2200-600 bp and located in several ecological zones of northwest argentina. considering that the circulation range for the two sources are different, this paper attempts to evaluate the differential nature of, procurement, consumption and exchange strategies for both these obsidian sources. we further analyzed the lithic assemblages recovered from one of the obsidian sources and from the casa chavez montículos site
LA EXPEDITIVIDAD Y EL REGISTRO ARQUEOLóGICO
Escola,Patricia S.;
Chungará (Arica) , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0717-73562004000300008
Abstract: technological strategies using an organizacional perspective are well known in the bibliography, however, expediency and the material implications have not been subjected to intensive analysis. few approaches to the circumstances that facilitate this strategy have considered the relevance of no time stress, its relation with some changes in subsistence organization and the influence of sedentism or mobility reduction. nevertheless, there are not many technological studies that attempt to expose the dynamics of this behavior and the processes of procurement, production, use and discard involved. in this sense, this paper discusses the scope of expediency as a technological plan and examine the use of certain terminology related to the material products as well as the characteristics of its archaeological record. it must be noted that the latter analysis include an evaluation of early agropastoralism artifact assemblages (2.200-700 b.p.) from southern puna (antofagasta de la sierra, catamarca, argentina)
El mercado de los alimentos funcionales y los nuevos retos para la educación alimentaria - nutricional
Sedó Masís,Patricia;
Revista Costarricense de Salud Pública , 2002,
Abstract: el estudio de los alimentos cobra cada día más importancia, dada la alta incidencia de enfermedades crónicas y cáncer, y el reconocimiento de que la dieta, como parte de un estilo de vida saludable, tiene un papel preponderante en la prevención y cura de enfermedades. paralelo a la investigación de alimentos naturales, surgen nuevas corrientes en el procesamiento de alimentos, las cuales vienen a dar respuesta a las necesidades de los consumidores por adquirir productos procesados más "saludables". el mercado de alimentos procesados con supuestas propiedades benéficas y la mayor información circulante, plantea nuevos retos a la educación nutricional. el objetivo de este trabajo es, partir de una revisión bibliográfica, describir algunas de las tendencias actuales del mercado de alimentos con características "funcionales", su influencia en el comportamiento del consumidor, y los nuevos retos que significa esta situación para la educación alimentaria nutricional en costa rica.
Alimentos funcionales: análisis general acerca de las características químico - nutricionales, desarrollo industrial y legislación alimentaria
Sedó Masís,Patricia;
Revista Costarricense de Salud Pública , 2001,
Abstract: el proceso de transición socio demográfica que vive actualmente costa pica, coloca a este país en una situación particular. por un lado, se presentan problemas nutricionales, tanto por deficiencia como por exceso en ciertos componentes de la dieta, lo que da como resultado una mayor incidencia de enfermedades crónico degenerativas; y, por otro, se presenta un envejecimiento acelerado de la población, siendo ésta más vulnerable al desarrollo de enfermedades crónicas y cáncer. la investigación científica que se ha llevado a cabo en las últimas décadas, ha demostrado el papel que juegan ciertos componentes químico-nutricionales en la prevención y tratamiento de muchas enfermedades. esta situación ha provocado un cambio del simple concepto de alimento como fuente de nutrientes, a uno más integral que traduce la potencialidad que los alimentos pueden tener, no sólo de nutrir, sino también de prevenir y curar enfermedades. este enfoque en el estudio de los alimentos se orienta hacia la exaltación de las propiedades benéficas de ciertos componentes químicos, situación reconocida desde hace muchísimos a?os, y en la cual se basa la ciencia de la nutrición. los objetivos de este trabajo son: presentar los nuevos avances en el estudio de los alimentos, como fuente de sustancias esenciales para la salud humana, así como reflexionar acerca del mercado floreciente de los alimentos "funcionales", y los retos que enfrenta en la actualidad y en el futuro todos los sectores involucrados con la producción, comercialización y regulación de estos productos alimenticios.
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