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TOPOLOGICAL LOCALISATION OF DEFECTS AT ATOMIC SCALE
Jean-Paul Jernot,Patricia Jouannot-Chesney,Christian Lantuéjoul,Gérard Nouet
Image Analysis and Stereology , 2002, DOI: 10.5566/ias.v21.p191-198
Abstract: The problem addressed in this paper is the detection of defects on atomic structures. The procedure proposed is in two steps. At first a tessellation is built starting from the atoms. It consists of a partition of the space into cells, and is used to define the neighbourhood relationships between the atoms. Then, the local contribution to a topological parameter, namely the Euler-Poincare characteristic, is defined and measured for each cell. Within a regular tessellation, made of identical cells, this local contribution is equal to zero. Any local deviation from regularity corresponds to a tessellation containing cells with non-zero contributions. This allows us to locate the defects from a topological criterion and opens the way to a fully automatic detection of interfaces at atomic scale. The procedure is applied in 2D space for the detection of edge dislocations, grain boundaries and twins from HREM models and images. A 3D example is also given to illustrate its generality.
PRACTICAL DETERMINATION OF THE COORDINATION NUMBER IN GRANULAR MEDIA
Patricia Jouannot-Chesney,Jean-Paul Jernot,Christian Lantuéjoul
Image Analysis and Stereology , 2006, DOI: 10.5566/ias.v25.p55-61
Abstract: In a random stacking of particles, the coordination number is defined as the mean number of particles touching a given one. A classical measurement by image analysis is directly based on this definition. It can be applied in the theoretical case of a global analysis but some problems occur for practical applications. We propose here a new measurement method based on the contribution to the Euler-Poincaré characteristic. A single measurement is performed both on the initial structure (particles linked by contacts) and on the segmented structure (isolated particles). The proposed method is robust w.r.t. the shape of the particles and their contacts.
EVALUATING THE EULER-POINCARé CHARACTERISTIC OF A SET USING A SPATIAL TESSELLATION
Jean-Paul Jernot,Patricia Jouannot-Chesney,Christian Lantué Joul
Image Analysis and Stereology , 2001, DOI: 10.5566/ias.v20.p149-152
Abstract: A new formula is established to evaluate the Euler-Poincaré characteristic of a polyconvex subset X in Rd starting only from measurements of X in the cells of a tessellation. Simplifications occur when X is a union of cells of the tessellation, leading to another formula that unifies and extends several classical digitization results.
UNBIASED ESTIMATORS OF SPECIFIC CONNECTIVITY
Jean-Paul Jernot,Patricia Jouannot,Christian Lantuéjoul
Image Analysis and Stereology , 2007, DOI: 10.5566/ias.v26.p129-136
Abstract: This paper deals with the estimation of the specific connectivity of a stationary random set in IRd. It turns out that the "natural" estimator is only asymptotically unbiased. The example of a boolean model of hypercubes illustrates the amplitude of the bias produced when the measurement field is relatively small with respect to the range of the random set. For that reason unbiased estimators are desired. Such an estimator can be found in the literature in the case where the measurement field is a right parallelotope. In this paper, this estimator is extended to apply to measurement fields of various shapes, and to possess a smaller variance. Finally an example from quantitative metallography (specific connectivity of a population of sintered bronze particles) is given.
Theobald Palm and His Remarkable Observation: How the Sunshine Vitamin Came to Be Recognized
Russell W. Chesney
Nutrients , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/nu4010042
Abstract: The seminal discovery that sunlight was important in the prevention of nutritional rickets was made in 1890 by Theobald A. Palm, a medical missionary who contrasted the prevalence of rickets in northern European urban areas with similar areas in Japan and other tropical countries. He surmised that exposure to sunlight prevented rickets. Over the next 40 years his observation led to an understanding of ultraviolet irradiation and its role in vitamin D synthesis. This opened a new era of appreciation for the curative powers of the sun and “the sunshine vitamin”. While Palm’s observations were in some ways obscure, they had a potent effect on the development of photobiology.
Ambiente y concientización
Luis Chesney Lawrence
Terra Nueva Etapa , 2008,
Abstract: Las ideas sobre la concientización que dejó Paulo Freire (1921-1997), consideradas como una etapa relevante para la educación y liberación del hombre han sido ampliamente divulgadas en toda Latinoamérica y más allá de sus fronteras. En su teoría de la pedagogía del oprimido se estudian las diferentes fases por las que pasa su esfuerzo educativo y, a la vez, en el proceso de toma de conciencia de los problemas que lo rodean. Con el tiempo, estas mismas ideas también han probado ser útiles en otros campos de estudio como ha sido la crítica literaria en general y otras actividades de relevancia cotidiana para las comunidades. En este artículo se presenta en primer lugar, el marco teórico en que se concibe la concientización de Freire, muy poco conocido y, luego, dos casos de estudio aplicados a la resolución de problemas ambientales para los cuales se formuló un modelo operativo que se aplicó en varias comunidades. Se concluye que es posible avanzar adaptando la formulación de este modelo y que los resultados de su aplicación son significativos, pareciendo estar relacionados con la cultura local, con el grado de vinculación a las instituciones del Estado respectivas, con la dinámica de sus movimientos sociales, con la reformas contextuales y con el tiempo de maduración ciudadana, todos elementos se alados en el modelo original, lo cual es coincidente con los efectos ocurridos a las acciones realizadas por Freire en Brasil, en 1988.
Modernidad, cultura y desarrollo en Venezuela
Luis Chesney Lawrence
Terra Nueva Etapa , 2007,
Abstract: Este artículo tiene como objetivo estudiar la relación entre desarrollo y cultura, para lo cual las categorías de la modernidad ocupan un lugar destacado, enfocado centralmente a la situación venezolana. Se ha considerado oportuno profundizar este estudio sobre la base del marco conceptual de la modernidad e inquirir sobre este modelo, poco conocido en su aplicación, con el fin de recorrer su origen, teorías que la explican y los alcances que puede tener en algunos aspectos del desarrollo nacional. Este examen toma como escenario una visión histórica de la modernidad hasta los tiempos actuales, la contemporaneidad, con una visión panorámica, deteniéndose en los puntos más álgidos para observar especialmente sus efectos sobre la cultura y la educación en el país. Para su realización se recurrió a una extensa revisión bibliográfica sobre la cual se plantearon las principales secciones que estructuran el ensayo.
Catz, Dogz & Robotz? Human interaction with domestic robotic devices
Shaun Lawson,Thomas Chesney
Journal of Physical Agents , 2008,
Abstract: This special issue of the Journal of Physical Agents is devoted to human interaction with domestic robots. The form, features and future, of domestic robotic devices, from entertainment-based agents through to robotic cleaners, companions, assistants and helpers, are considered and discussed.
Health behaviors and risk factors in those who use complementary and alternative medicine
Richard L Nahin, James M Dahlhamer, Beth L Taylor, Patricia M Barnes, Barbara J Stussman, Catherine M Simile, Marc R Blackman, Margaret A Chesney, Morgan Jackson, Heather Miller, Kim K McFann
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-217
Abstract: The current study is a cross-sectional regression analysis using data from the 2002 National Health Interview Survey. Data were collected in-person from 31,044 adults throughout the 50 states and the District of Columbia.After controlling for a range of other factors, we found that engaging in leisure-time physical activity, having consumed alcohol in one's life but not being a current heavy drinker, and being a former smoker are independently associated with the use of CAM. Obese individuals are slightly less likely to use CAM than individuals with a healthy body-mass index. No significant associations were observed between receipt of an influenza vaccine and CAM use.Those engaging in positive health behaviors and exhibiting fewer health risk factors are more likely to use CAM than those who forgo positive health behaviors or exhibit more health risk factors. The fact that users of CAM tend to pursue generally healthy lifestyles suggests that they may be open to additional recommendations toward optimizing their health.Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) comprises a diverse set of healing philosophies, therapies and products. Increasingly, people with chronic health conditions are turning toward CAM for relief [1,2]. Prior national surveys on CAM use in the United States (U.S.) have focused on sociodemographic factors such as gender, region of residence, income, and education [1-3]. These surveys have generally found that individuals more likely to use CAM are female, live in the western U.S., are likely to have a health complaint, and have a higher socioeconomic status than do nonusers. What is not known is the extent to which those who use CAM also engage in positive health behaviors, such as smoking cessation or increased physical activity and/or exhibit fewer health risk factors such as obesity, and whether these behaviors are independent of health status and other factors associated with CAM use. These have been identified as key research questions in
Subjective and objective outcome in congenital clubfoot; a comparative study of 204 children
David Chesney, Simon Barker, Nicola Maffulli
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-8-53
Abstract: We used a patient-administered subjective assessment of outcome following treatment of clubfoot and compared it with objective anthropometry and range of movement of the ankle to assess and compare subjective and objective outcome in clubfoot. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson correlation coefficients. Significance was tested using Student's t-test test.Objective outcome can be assessed using length of the foot, calf circumference and range of movement at the ankle. These are easy to measure, reproducible, and correlate well with subjective outcome. Objective outcome is comparable for boys and girls. However, subjectively, female patients and their parents are less happy with the results of management of clubfoot.There is a correlation between the anthropometric measures and the subjective outcome and an objective grading can be designed using foot length, calf muscle bulk and range of movement at the ankle.Although some authors believe that patients themselves are the ultimate judges of whether they have a 'good foot' [1-4], the need to evaluate outcome of management of clubfoot has traditionally employed objective measures [3]. Combining subjective evaluation of cosmetic acceptability with a more objective assessment of movement and position of the foot is likely to give a more comprehensive picture of the final result of clubfoot.Objective measures to assess outcome include; range of movement at the ankle [3], leg and foot muscle strength [4], pressure distribution under the sole of the foot [5], calf circumference, gait [6], skinfold thickness, foot length, foot width [7], and shoe size [8]. Radiographic assessment has also been advocated by some, with a number of measurements reported [9], although the use of radiographs is not universally accepted.As far as we are aware, comparison of objective and subjective measures has, however, not been performed, hence the correlation between the two is unknown. We employed a simple patient-administered sub
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