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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 39 matches for " Patou Masika Musumari "
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Food Insecurity Is Associated with Increased Risk of Non-Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy among HIV-Infected Adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Cross-Sectional Study
Patou Masika Musumari, Edwin Wouters, Patrick Kalambayi Kayembe, Modeste Kiumbu Nzita, Samclide Mutindu Mbikayi, S. Pilar Suguimoto, Teeranee Techasrivichien, Bhekumusa Wellington Lukhele, Christina El-saaidi, Peter Piot, Masako Ono-Kihara, Masahiro Kihara
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085327
Abstract: Background Food insecurity is increasingly reported as an important barrier of patient adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in both resource-poor and rich settings. However, unlike in resource rich-settings, very few quantitative studies to date have investigated the association of food insecurity with patient adherence to ART in Sub-Saharan Africa. The current study examines the association between food insecurity and adherence to ART among HIV-infected adults in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Methods and Findings This is a cross-sectional quantitative study of patients receiving ART at three private and one public health facilities in Kinshasa, DRC. Participants were consecutively recruited into the study between April and November 2012. Adherence was measured using a combined method coupling pharmacy refill and self-reported adherence. Food insecurity was the primary predictor, and was assessed using the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS). Of the 898 participants recruited into the study, 512 (57%) were food insecure, and 188 (20.9%) were not adherent to ART. Food insecurity was significantly associated with non-adherence to ART (AOR, 2.06; CI, 1.38–3.09). We also found that perceived harmfulness of ART and psychological distress were associated respectively with increased (AOR, 1.95; CI, 1.15–3.32) and decreased (AOR, 0.31; CI, 0.11–0.83) odds of non-adherence to ART. Conclusion Food insecurity is prevalent and a significant risk factor for non-adherence to ART among HIV-infected individuals in the DRC. Our findings highlight the urgent need for strategies to improve food access among HIV-infected on ART in order to ensure patient adherence to ART and ultimately the long-term success of HIV treatment in Sub-Saharan Africa.
Comportement de subsistance des Néandertaliens du niveau chatelperronien de Saint-Césaire (Charente Maritime)
Marylène Patou-Mathis
Munibe Antropologia-Arkeologia , 2005,
Abstract: Este estudio presenta los aspectos más sobresalientes del estuio arqueozoologico realizado sobre el nivel Chatelperroniense de Charente Maritime, donde se encontraron los restos de un neandertal. Hay 15 especies de grandes mamíferos. Dominan los animales ungulados frente a los carnívoros que son más escasos. Las especies más representadas son el reno y los bóvidos (Uro y bisonte). El estudio tafonómico pone de manifiesto que la distribución ósea de este nivel no contó con la intervención humana. Si ha quedado demostrada la práctica de la caza en relación a la mayor parte de las especies, especialmente el rinoceronte y mamut adultos, no se puede excluir la práctica del "carro eo". Los animales ungulados recibieron un tratamiento que iba muy lejos, todos los huesos largos, y hasta algunos cortos como las falanges del caballo fueron fracturados con objeto de recuperar el tuétano y se retiró la piel de los renos. Algunos huesos fueron utilizados como combustible y cinco largos fragmentos de hueso largo de gran herbívoro como "retocadores". Además, los hombres del neandertal se dedicaron a recoger asta de reno en invierno (asta de reno macho) y en primavera (asta de hembra y de cervatillo). Durante este periodo, este abrigo pudo servir como campo temporal con ocupaciones múltiples y sucesivas.
Optimization of thermal comfort in building through envelope design
Milorad Bojic,Alexandre Patou Parvedy,Harry Boyer
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: Due to the current environmental situation, energy saving has become the leading drive in modern research. Although the residential houses in tropical climate do not use air conditioning to maintain thermal comfort in order to avoid use of electricity. As the thermal comfort is maintained by adequate envelope composition and natural ventilation, this paper shows that it is possible to determine the thickness of envelope layers for which the best thermal comfort is obtained. The building is modeled in EnergyPlus software and HookeJeves optimization methodology. The investigated house is a typical residential house one-storey high with five thermal zones located at Reunion Island, France. Three optimizations are performed such as the optimization of the thickness of the concrete block layer, of the wood layer, and that of the thermal insulation layer. The results show optimal thickness of thermal envelope layers that yield the maximum TC according to Fanger predicted mean vote.
Investigation of the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels root extract in male rats
V Maphosa, PJ Masika, B Moyo
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of the root extract of Elephantorrhiza elephantina (Burch.) Skeels (Fabaceae) were investigated using wistar rats. The extract was administered intraperitoneally (i.p) to rats at graded doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BWt. Carrageenan and Histamine were injected into rat paws sub-plantar to induce paw oedema, while acetic acid and formalin were injected i.p to induce pain. Indomethacin (10 mg/kg) was used as reference drug, whereas the vehicle [0.9% normal saline in 3% tween 80 (2 ml/kg)] was used as negative control. Acute toxicity was tested in rats at doses of 200, 400, 800 and 1600 mg/kg BWt. Compared to control, the aqueous extract of E. elephantina at all doses investigated significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the formation of oedema induced by Carrageenan and Histamine. The extract also caused a significant (P < 0.05) reduction in writhings in the acetic acid test and licking time in the formalin test. The rats did not show any signs of acute toxicity. The study revealed the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of the aqueous extract of E. elephantina, which may be due to the presence of phytochemical constituents such as tannins and flavonoids. The acute toxicity test showed that the plant is relatively safe to use.
Addressing childhood under nutrition in Tanzania: Challenges and opportunities
N Bundara, L Mwanri, J Masika
African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development , 2013,
Abstract: Childhood undernutrition is highly prevalent in low and middle-income countries resulting in a substantial increase in overall disease burden and mortality. The problem is markedly severe in low-income countries particularly in Africa, and Tanzania is not exceptional. Childhood undernutrition is associated with decreased productivity resulting in a vicious cycle of poverty in affected families, communities and nations. Children who survive after two years of life may develop poor health outcomes including faltering growth and irreversible damage to their cognitive, physical and psychosocial development. In a long term, childhood undernutrition can lead to poor socio-economic development of individuals, families and affected communities. Childhood undernutrition in African countries significantly contributes to poor development and the burden of disease as it complicates the existing problem of infectious diseases. Current strategies addressing this problem largely utilise a medical care model which aims to reduce mortality and may have limited selected preventative aspects confined broadly to vaccinations, food fortifications, and micronutrient supplementations. It is apparent that environmental, cultural and social factors are receiving limited attention. This complex and dire situation demands systematic, effective comprehensive multi-level and multi-sectoral policy drivers that provide effective socioeconomic, environmental, health policies and legislations in the pursuit of effective, equitable and just delivery of social and health services for all groups of its citizens regardless of their socio-economic status. Tanzania as a nation alongside other developing countries need to recognise the magnitude of this scourge and develop comprehensive approaches that will enable development of legislations, policies and long term solution to childhood undernutrition. This paper reviews strategies outside of the health sector with high potential for preventing childhood undernutrition in Tanzania and that can be translated in many developing countries. Comprehensive range of legislations and policies are recommended for implementation of interventions to reduce their occurrence or ameliorate childhood undernutrition consequences.
Contract farming approach to essential oil production in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa
MO Adewumi, AJ Afolayan, PJ Masika
Journal of Agriculture and Social Research (JASR) , 2010,
Abstract: Based on empirical evidence from small scale growers and a processor, this study evaluated contract farming of rose geranium (Pelagonium graveoleus) production in a rural setting of Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. With the aid of interview schedules and observation, cross sectional data were collected from the growers and processor of geranium oil on their 2007 production activities. The analytical tools employed descriptive statistics and farm budget model. The contract rose geranium growers in the area supplied the land for planting while the processor supplied the other inputs from land preparation to the harvesting of the plant. The contractual agreement was, however, unwritten with no signed contract between the parties. Further analysis revealed some ambiguities in the contractual arrangement. With an average of US $4 785.61 as production and processing costs on a hectare of rose geranium, the processor receives US $3 862.39 as net profit, while the contract growers received US $833.33. This arrangement appears unsustainable. Although contract farming is essentially private in the area, the arrangement can become an integral policy, where the government, together with the growers and agro-industry, join to create a conducive production environment. Sustainable contract farming of essential oil plants in South Africa, calls for a policy option that enforces well documented and clearly explained agreements between the farmers and the processors.
Nutritional quality of vegetable and seed from different accessions of Amaranthus> in South Africa#
AP Mnkeni, P Masika, M Maphaha
Water SA , 2007,
Abstract: Amaranthus vegetable and seed are highly nutritious, but in many parts of South Africa they are hardly utilised as food. Assessment of five accessions of Amaranthus available in South Africa was carried out to select the best accession for vegetable and seed. Seeds were planted in pots in a glass house and leaves and seed were harvested. Leaves were analysed for ascorbic acid, crude protein, nitrate and minerals. Seeds were analysed for protein, fat and minerals. Ascorbic acid content in the leaves varied between 630 and 496 mg/100g. V2 contained significantly higher amount of nitrates (1 474 mg/100g) while VOP and AMA17 had the lowest (729 mg/100g). AMA 17 leaves had the highest concentrations for all the minerals that were determined in leaves. The seeds of AMA17 contained significantly higher amounts of manganese, calcium and zinc than the seeds from all other accessions and it is therefore most recommended, especially in view of the more favourable health aspects thereof. VOP seed would probably be more acceptable to the local population as food because of the cream colour compared to the black colour of the other accessions.
Morbidity profile in a rural community-based rehabilitation programme in Butembo, North Kivu Province, Congo
Prosperine V. Masika,Prosper M. Lutala
African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/phcfm.v3i1.215
Abstract: Background: Medicine in low socio-economic countries is primarily disease-oriented; prevention and rehabilitative care are secondary concerns. Hence, curative care erodes the few resources allocated to health. Despite the well-documented benefits of communityrehabilitation in the management of chronic conditions, little is known about common conditions present in the community in Butembo. Objectives: The objective of this study was to determine the conditions encountered during rehabilitation in Butembo and to identify the trends of the five most common conditions during the study period. Method: Data were extracted from a rehabilitation programme connect to one centre in Butembo. A descriptive retrospective medical study was performed for the period between 2004 and 2007. Descriptive statistics with percentages were computed. The Chi-square test was used to evaluate the differences with a probability of 5%. Results: Cerebral palsy (46.9%), cataract (17.3%), clubfoot (11.8%), glaucoma (6.8%), and cleft lip (4.5%) were the most commonly encountered conditions, with cerebral palsy the most common condition throughout the study period. With regard to gender, male patients were significantly more affected by cataracts (p = 0.0290), clubfoot (p < 0.0100) and glaucoma (p < 0.0100) than female patients. Children aged five or younger had a higher incidence of cerebral palsy (χ2 = 263.2, df = 1, p = 0.0000) cataract (p = 0.0170), clubfoot (p < 0.0010), and glaucoma (p = 0.0010). Additionally, the overall comparisons by gender and age demonstrated differences for the five most common conditions (χ2 = 15.3, df = 4, and p = 0.0040; and χ2 = 114, df = 4, and p < 0.0001 for gender and age, respectively). Conclusion: Common conditions and associated factors were identified that will add to the effectiveness of the programme in terms of materials needed, staff skills, and programming. Special skills are still needed to help treat some acute conditions that can be handled at the rehabilitation centre, and a triage of attending rehabilitation centres could improve the effectiveness of the programme and lower the possibility of missed opportunities for acute stage patients. Résumé Généralités: Dans les pays à faible niveau socio-économique, la médecine est principalement orientée sur le curatif, pendant que la prévention et les soins de rééducation/réhabilitation sont des préoccupations secondaires. Ainsi, les soins curatifs érodent le peu de ressources allouées à la santé. Malgré les avantages bien documentés de la réhabilitation communautaire dans la gestion des maladies
Scaling up of trachoma mapping in Salima District, Central Malawi  [PDF]
Khumbo Kalua, Isaac Singini, Mavuto Mukaka, Kelias Msyamboza, Michael Masika, Robin Bailey
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.61009
Abstract:

Background: A number of suspected endemic districts with Trachoma have not been mapped in Malawi, and this contributes to delays for scaling up trachoma control activities. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of trachoma and associated risk factors in one of the suspected endemic districts (Salima District) in central Malawi and to generate information to guide policy decisions. Methods: A population-based survey conducted in randomly selected clusters in Salima District (population 418,672), centralMalawi. Children aged 1-9 years and adults aged 15 and above were assessed for clinical signs of trachoma. Results: In total, 884 households were enumerated within 36 clusters. A total of 2765 persons were examined for ocular signs of trachoma. The prevalence of trachomatous inflammation, follicular (TF) among children aged 1-9 years was 17.1% (95% CI 14.9-19.4). The prevalence of trachoma trichiasis (TT) in women aged 15 years and above was 1.3% (CI 0.7-2.3), while the prevalence in men was zero. The presence of a dirty face and lack of sanitation were significantly associated with trachoma follicular (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Prevalence rate of trachoma follicles (TF) in Central Malawi exceeds the WHO guidelines for the intervention with mass antibiotic distribution (TF > 10%), and warrants the trachoma SAFE (Surgery, Antibiotics, Face washing and Environmental hygiene) control strategy to be undertaken in Salima District.

Diabetic fetopathy associated with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia and ambiguous genitalia: a case report
Patou Tantbirojn, Mana Taweevisit, Suchila Sritippayawan, Boonchai Uerpairojkit
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-2-251
Abstract: A 19-year-old Thai primigravida with familial history of diabetes mellitus (DM) was diagnosed as having gestational DM type 2, based on 100 g oral glucose tolerance test, and was poorly controlled with insulin injections. Delayed targeted ultrasonography at 28 weeks gestation revealed multiple fetal anomalies. The woman underwent low transverse cesarean section at 30 weeks gestation due to preterm labor and transverse lie. The newborn with ambiguous genitalia was delivered but expired after birth. Autopsy findings revealed alobar holoprosencephaly, a prominent forehead, hypotelorism, an absent nose, absent bilateral ears, median cleft lip and palate, preaxial polydactyly of the right hand, accessory spleens, single umbilical artery, markedly enlarged adrenal glands and ambiguous external genitalia The subsequent fetal chromosomal study revealed 46,XX.We describe a case of diabetic fetopathy with classic facial malformation and preaxial hallucal polydactyly which has been proposed as a marker of diabetic embryopathy. Bilateral adrenal hyperplasia with ambiguous genitalia, an uncommon associated anomaly, was also identified. It is controversial whether adrenal hyperplasia can be a novel feature of diabetic fetopathy or just a coincidental finding. Further observation and adequate investigation are needed in such cases.It is well known that maternal diabetes, type 1 or type 2 including gestational diabetes, increase the risk of congenital malformations [1]. The most frequent types of malformations involve the central nervous, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and skeletal systems [2]. Although in the present century, there have been significant improvements in the management and outcome of diabetic women and infants and most neonatal problems have declined, nevertheless diabetes-associated anomalies still remain a major health problem in Thailand [3]. While many fetal malformations occur as a result of maternal diabetes, ambiguous genital organs are not
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