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Growth and Development of the HIV Exposed Uninfected Children below 5 Years in Developing Countries: Focus on Nutritional Challenges, Mortality and Neurocognitive Function  [PDF]
Patience Kuona, Gwendoline Kandawasvika, Felicity Gumbo, Kusum Nathoo, Babill Stray-Pedersen
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2014.520211
Abstract: The future of any population is children. Resource limited settings with a high prevalence of HIV infection notably also have an excessive burden of malnutrition. The advances in prevention of mother to child HIV transmission programmes have led to very effective combination antiretroviral regimens resulting in growing numbers of HIV exposed but uninfected children. The mortality of HIV exposed but uninfected children below 5 years is high in resource limited settings. It is also important to pay particular attention to their longitudinal growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes. In these settings, the contribution of feeding practices, choice of complementary foods and micronutrient deficiencies, to health outcomes of HIV exposed uninfected children are not clearly defined. This review highlights some gaps in research that need to be addressed in areas with increasing numbers of HIV exposed but uninfected children. Interventions to reduce mortality, improve growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes in HIV exposed uninfected children from resource limited areas should be prioritized.
Whole Blood Omega 3 Fatty Acid Levels of HIV Exposed and HIV Unexposed 7 - 10 Years Old Children from a Low Income Country with High Burden of Under-Nutrition  [PDF]
Patience Kuona, Grace Mashavave, Janet Dzangare, Marshall Munjoma, Kusum Nathoo, Babill Stray-Pedersen
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2015.65050
Abstract: Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids are essential macronutrients that have several benefits which have been described for children’s health. Omega 3 LCPUFA metabolism has been reported to be altered in under-nourished and in HIV infected children. Therefore, we describe Eicosapentaenoic acid, Docosapentaenoic acid and Docosahexaenoic acid levels of HIV infected, HIV exposed uninfected and HIV unexposed uninfected school aged children from a low income country with a high burden of HIV infection and under-nutrition. This cross-sectional study recruited children 7 to 10 years old. Capillary blood was collected on filter paper and whole blood fatty acid analysis done using automated gas liquid chromatography. Kruskal Wallis and Median tests were used to compare the distribution and medians of the Omega 3 LCPUFA among the children according to HIV status, gender, age and nutritional status. A total of 318 children were recruited with 21 (7%) being HIV infected and 116 (37%) being HIV exposed uninfected. Chronic malnutrition was present in 12% of the children. The omega 3 fatty acids were expressed as percent weight of total fatty acids. The medians (interquartile range) for EPA, DPA and DHA for all the children were 0.19 (0.09), 0.79 (0.19) and 2.14 (0.54) %wt/wt respectively. EPA, DPA and DHA levels were not associated with the HIV status of the children. EPA levels were much lower in the 7-year-age group compared with the 8 and 9 - 10-year-age groups. Further studies assessing LCPUFA levels that include larger sample size, children from both urban and rural areas are recommended as this may assist in clearly defining the association of LCPUFA with HIV status in children from low income countries with high burden of under-nutrition.
Proteomic Analysis of Salt-Induced Changes in Protein Expression in PPARα Null Mice  [PDF]
Patience O. Obih, Adebayo Oyekan
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.511111
Abstract: PPARs are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that regulate β-oxidation of fatty acids in the cardiovascular system and PPARα isoform is a putative target for regulation of cardiovascular function. High salt diet is an injurious stimulus to cardiovascular function but its effect on PPARα and PPARα–associated profile of proteins is unknown. Quantitative proteomics involving a two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) followed by LC-MS/MS technology was used to characterize the changes in protein expression profile in the kidney, heart, and blood vessels from PPARα null (KO) and wild type (WT) mice placed on normal (0.3%, NS) or high salt (4% NaCl, HS) diet. Initial biological variation analysis using DeCyder software (v. 6.0) revealed the presence of 20 upregulated proteins and 9 proteins that are downregulated in the kidney, aorta, and heart tissues from KO and WT mice. A multimodality comparison of the differentially expressed proteins showing ≥ 1.5-fold change, ≥20% appearance at P ≤ 0.05 between strains (WT vs KO) and treatment (NS vs HS) revealed that HS diet affected 20 proteins in WT mice and 17 proteins in KO mice. However, 9 proteins were altered between WT and KO placed on NS and 7 proteins were altered by HS between WT and KO mice. The identified proteins include but not limited to those involved in fatty acid oxidation (FAO), mitochondrial electron transport chain, amino acid metabolism, stress response, DNA synthesis, and programmed cell death. HS diet led to upregulation of FAO enzymes viz: acyl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, transketolase, and electron-transferring-flavoprotein dehydrogenase to different extents in WT and KO mice. These data showed differential and protein-specific responses to HS diet in PPARα WT and KO mice that probably reflect the functional capacities of PPARα as a means to limiting any salt-induced injury to the heart, kidney, and blood vessels.
Virulence of Aeromonas hydrophila Isolated from Fresh Water Catfish  [PDF]
Patience Temitope Fowoyo, Frank Achimugu
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2019.71001
Abstract: Background: A large proportion of Nigerians consume fish as the source of protein in their meals. This may be attributed to health factors, preference and affordability for low income earners. The incidence of Aeromonas hydrophila in fresh catfish may constitute a significant health risk to the consumer if there is a horizontal transfer to man as it has been reported to be pathogenic. This study examined the possibility of fresh water catfish being a reservoir of pathogenic Aeromonas hydrophila. Method: Aeromonas hydrophila was isolated from the different organs of fresh water catfish (Clarias gariepinus and Ictalurus punctatus) obtained from Kporoko river in Lokoja. Aeromonas hydrophila was identified using both phenotypic and genotypic methods. The pathogenic traits of the Aeromonas species such as biofilm formation, production of haemolysin, enterotoxin and enzymes were determined. Results: Aeromonas hydrophila occurred in all the examined fish organs (fish, liver, kidney, skin and gut) of Clarias gariepinus but occurred only in the skin, intestine, kidney and gut of Ictalurus punctatus examined, but the incidence of Aeromonas hydrophila was prevalent in the gut of all the fishes analyzed. All the Aeromonas isolates analysed in this study produced biofilm, haemolysins and lipase enzymes. They also produced enterotoxins with values ranging between 0.069 - 1.138. Conclusion: The occurrence of Aeromonas in fresh catfish possessing these pathogenic traits is of great public health significance to man as it indicates the likelihood of man being predisposed to toxigenicity when the toxin concentration reaches a lethal value. It is therefore recommended that the internal organs of fresh catfish be thoroughly cleaned and cooked before consumption.
A Model for Improving E-Tax Systems Adoption in Rural Zambia Based on the TAM Model  [PDF]
Patience Njina Soneka, Jackson Phiri
Open Journal of Business and Management (OJBM) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojbm.2019.72062
Abstract: The objective of this study was to assess the factors that influence the level of e-tax systems adoption in Zambia. The study focused on TaxOnline system used by domestic taxes division in Zambia. The study was conducted in rural Zambia. In this study, the researcher used Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). The sample size was purposively selected from various taxpayers who were coming through to Zambia Revenue Authority Solwezi internet bureau. 100 semi structured survey questionnaires were distributed with 100% response. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results showed that, E-tax system in Zambia is useful, easy to use and also secure. Based on the findings, majority of the taxpayers are filing their returns and paying taxes online. However, there are few taxpayers who still feel E-tax is not useful, easy to use and secure. Therefore, more awareness and taxpayer education must continue to bring everyone on board. E-Tax involves E-Filing and E-Payment which is the process of submitting returns over the internet using an approved E-Tax system. Adoption is the action or fact of choosing to take up or follow something. Technology Acceptance Model is an information system theory that models how users come to accept and use a technology. TaxOnline is a system used in Zambia to file returns and pay taxes online.
Cell-Specific Effects of Ethanol on Nitric Oxide Synthase Induced by Inflammatory Mediators  [PDF]
Patience O. Obih, Barry J. Potter
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2014.513132
Abstract: To examine the pro- and anti-oxidant properties of nitric oxide (NO) production in alcoholic liver disease, we compared the effects of ethanol pretreatment (24 hrs, 100 mM concentration in a dedicated CO2 incubator) on the induction of inducible NO synthase and its activity in a cell culture system. We employed two types of liver cells as models for the intact liver parenchyma: the rat hepatoma cell FTO2B and rat hepatocytes in primary culture. Cells were incubated with a combination of cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-β) and LPS in the presence or absence of (85 - 93 mM) ethanol in the culture media. At series of time intervals, production of nitric oxide was measured as the accumulation of nitrite and nitrate, using Griess assay. The results revealed that 1) total NO formation was attenuated by ethanol in hepatocytes (ca. 50%) but augmented in FTO2B cells (ca. 37%) and 2) both pretreatment and co-treatment with ethanol were necessary for maximal ethanol effect. These results indicate that the effects of ethanol on inflammatory processes, such as induction of NO synthesis, are cell-type specific.
Food Prohibitions and Other Traditional Practices in Pregnancy: A Qualitative Study in Western Region of Ghana  [PDF]
Patience Otoo, Helen Habib, Augustine Ankomah
Advances in Reproductive Sciences (ARSci) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/arsci.2015.33005
Abstract: Women all over the world are confronted with many difficult choices during pregnancy and child birth. Wrong choices often result in unfavorable outcomes for expectant mothers and their babies, a situation which is common in developing countries. Cultural practices, beliefs and taboos are often implicated in determining the care received by mothers during pregnancy and child birth which is an important determinant of maternal mortality. This study explored the traditional practices associated with pregnancy and childbirth in Shama District of the Western Region, Ghana. A qualitative study consisting of six focus group discussions of between eight and ten participants per group and eight in-depth interviews were held over a period of one month. The purpose was to explore local foods that are forbidden for pregnant women and why, herbal medicine use during pregnancy and child birth and reasons for choosing home or hospital delivery. The findings show that pregnant women are forbidden from taking nutritious foods such as snails, ripe plantain, okra and many others for fear of complications during pregnancy and child birth. Herbal medicines are frequently used by pregnant women and traditional birth attendants to induce labour, augment and control bleeding during labour. Traditional beliefs and practices as well as negative attitude of health workers are found to reduce health utilization by pregnant women. Health education concerning traditional practices that are detrimental to the health of pregnant women should be emphasized during ANC visits.
Model Predictive Control of Uncertain Constrained Linear System Based on Mixed ?2/?∞ Control Approach
Patience E. Orukpe
Journal of Control Science and Engineering , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/402948
Abstract: Uncertain constrained discrete-time linear system is addressed using linear matrix inequality based optimization techniques. The constraints on the inputs and states are specified as quadratic constraints but are formulated to capture hyperplane constraints as well. The control action is of state feedback and satisfies the constraints. Uncertainty in the system is represented by unknown bounded disturbances and system perturbations in a linear fractional transform (LFT) representation. Mixed ℋ2/ℋ∞ method is applied in a model predictive control strategy. The control law takes account of disturbances and uncertainty naturally. The validity of this approach is illustrated with two examples.
Does Ethanol Play a Pro-Oxidant Role during Oxidative Stress in the Liver?  [PDF]
Patience O. Obih, Joseph S. Soblosky, Barry J. Potter
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2015.38001
Abstract: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of liver injury during xenobiotic and alcohol metabolism, ischemia/reperfusion injury. In this study we examined if ethanol acted as a pro-oxidant making cells become more sensitive to tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBH) killing. Cell viability was determined in a rat hepatoma cell line (FTO2B) and rat primary hepatocytes in culture in the presence or absence of ethanol pretreatment. To elucidate the contribution of labile iron, deferoxamine (DF, an iron chelator) or lipid free radicals, N,N-diphenyl-p-phenylenediamine (DPPD, a lipid scavenger) were added to the ethanol tBH co-treatment. The levels of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) in the hepatocytes were also measured. Ethanol treatment (both pretreatment and co-treatment during the 3-hr tBH exposure) increased cell killing dramatically in both FTO2B cells and primary rat hepatocytes. Both DF and DPPD decreased ethanol-enhanced tBH cell killing in hepatocytes. These results demonstrated that co-treatment of FTO2B cells and primary rat hepatocytes with ethanol and tBH increased cell killing. The GSH level was dramatically reduced while GSSG level rose. Both DFP and DPPD reversed or protected the cells from this insult, indicating that ethanol was a pro-oxidant.
Aqueous Solubility Enhancement of Mirtazapine: Effect of Cosolvent and Surfactant  [PDF]
Kenneth E. Ezealisiji, Chika J. Mbah, Patience O. Osadebe
Pharmacology & Pharmacy (PP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/pp.2015.610049
Abstract: The poor aqueous solubility of drugs is a challenging problem faced by pharmaceutical scientists in drug formulation. Cosolvency and micellization techniques have been severally used to enhance the solubility of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. Mirtazapine, a tetracyclic antidepressant used for the treatment of moderate to severe depression and anxiety, has very poor aqueous solubility. The objective of the study was to investigate the effect of solubilizing agents (cosolvents and surfactants) on the aqueous solubility of mirtazapine while envisaging that any significant improvement in its aqueous solubility could contribute towards alleviating the withdrawal symptoms often associated with the drug. The solubility of mirtazapine was determined at room temperature in aqueous mixtures of cosolvents (propylene glycol and polyethylene glycol 400) and surfactants (polysorbate 20, polysorbate 80 and sodium lauryl sulfate). An exponential increase in mirtazapine solubility was observed when total drug solubility in water-cosolvent system was plotted against cosolvent fraction volume. Polyethylene glycol 400 gave larger solubilization capacity (σ) when compared to propylene glycol. With the surfactants, linear relationship between the total solubility of the drug in water-surfactant mixtures and surfactant concentration was noted. Sodium lauryl sulfate showed the largest solubilization power (k) when compared to the nonionic surfactants (polysorbate 20 and polysorbate 80 respectively). A linear relationship between standard free energy and partition coefficient was also observed. The result of the study shows that aqueous solubility of mirtazapine is significantly improved by cosolvency and micellization and therefore there exists the possibility of improving the withdrawal symptoms often experienced with the drug. It also suggests that large free energy is required for drugs with high partition coefficients to permeate the biological membrane.
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