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Advances in novel parentral drug delivery systems
Patel Rakesh,Patel Kaushal
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2010,
Abstract: The parenteral administration route is the most effective and common form of delivery for active drug substances with poor bioavailability and the drugs with a narrow therapeutic index. Drug delivery technology that can reduce the total number of injection throughout the drug therapy period will be truly advantageous not only in terms of compliance, but also to improve the quality of the therapy. Such reduction in frequency of drug dosing is achieved by the use of specific formulation technologies that guarantee the release of the active drug substance in a slow and predictable manner. The development of new injectable drug delivery system has received considerable attention over the past few years. A number of technological advances have been made in the area of parenteral drug delivery leading to the development of sophisticated systems that allow drug targeting and the sustained or controlled release of parenteral medicines.
Formulation, Optimization and Evaluation of Floating Microspheres of Captopril
Devesh Kapoor,Rakesh Patel
Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2012,
Abstract: The objective of the present study was to develop floating microspheres of Captopril in order to achieve an extended retention in the upper GIT which may enhance the absorption and improve the bioavailability. The microspheres were prepared by solvent evaporation method using different ratio of hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC K4M) with drug in the mixture dichloromethane and ethanol at ratio of (1:1), with tween80 as the surfactant. Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) study shows that drug and other excipients are compatible with each other. The effects of polymers concentration on drug release profile were investigated. A 32 full factorial design was applied to systemically optimize the drug release profile. Polymer to drug ratio (X1) and stirring speed (X2) were selected as independent variables. The floating microspheres were characterized by and results obtained are % yield, particle size analysis, drug entrapment efficiency, buoyancy percentage, in-vitro drug release was studied for 12 hour and scanning electron microscopy. Accelerated stability study was also performed for three months indicated that optimized formulation was stable. The floating microspheres showed better result and it may be use full for prolong the drug release in stomach and improve the bioavailability.
Positron emission tomography and positron emission tomography-computerized tomography in pediatric patients
Patel Chetan,Kumar Rakesh
Journal of Indian Association of Pediatric Surgeons , 2007,
Abstract: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional diagnostic modality, which is routinely used in oncology for diagnosis, staging, monitoring the response to therapy, and restaging of various tumors. PET used in conjunction with computerized tomography (CT) (PET-CT) is more useful as it provides anatomical details and the abnormal uptake on PET can be localized with highest accuracy. Much work has been done regarding PET/PET-CT in the adults but there is paucity in the same in pediatric group. A child must receive special attention when embarking on what is uncertain and often a frightening procedure. While performing PET in pediatric patients, emphasis is given to patient consent, intravenous access, bladder catheterization, and sedation. Based on existing literature and our own experience, we understand that PET-CT can play a very important role in initial staging, restaging, and evaluation of treatment response in lymphoma, neuroendocrine tumors and bone, and soft tissues sarcoma.
WiMAX System Simulation and Performance Analysis under the Influence of Jamming  [PDF]
Rakesh Jha, Hardik Patel, Upena D. Dalal, Wankhede A. Vishal
Wireless Engineering and Technology (WET) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/wet.2010.11004
Abstract: This paper presents simulation of WiMAX based system under jamming. The performance of the system was found out to greatly differ with the use of different jamming signals, allowing central areas to be identified, where system devel-opment should be focused on. In addition, from the basic theory point of view, rather surprising results were also found. This work should give a clear picture of how the studied WiMAX system performs under jamming as well as without jamming. The results show that some forms of interference degrade the performance of the system rapidly, thus the form of incoming jamming should be known and considered before deploying the system. Single carrier jamming and multi–carrier jamming are discussed here. The issues related to jamming and jamming reduction techniques are also covered. Jamming can destroy communication in the targeted area. Multi–carrier jamming is challenge in WiMAX because WiMAX is having OFDM based physical layer. Simulation is the main approach in this paper. OPNET MODELER 14.5 is the software used for the simulation purpose.
Formulation and evaluation of transdermal patch of Aceclofenac
Rakesh P. Patel,Grishma Patel,Ashok Baria
International Journal of Drug Delivery , 2011,
Abstract: The purpose of this research was to develop a matrix-type transdermal therapeutic system containing drug Aceclofenac with different ratios of hydrophilic (hydroxyl propyl cellulose) and hydrophobic (ethyl cellulose) polymeric systems by the solvent evaporation technique by using 15 % w/w of dibutyl phthalate to the polymer weight, incorporated as plasticizer. Different concentrations of oleic acid and isopropyl myristate were used to enhance the transdermal permeation of Aceclofenac. The physicochemical compatibility of the drug and the polymers studied by differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy suggested absence of any incompatibility. Formulated transdermal films were physically evaluated with regard to thickness, weight variation, drug content, flatness, tensile strength, folding endurance, percentage of moisture content and water vapour transmission rate. All prepared formulations indicated good physical stability. In-vitro permeation studies of formulations were performed by using Franz diffusion cells. Formulation prepared with hydrophilic polymer containing permeation enhancer showed best in-vitro skin permeation through rat skin (Wistar albino rat) as compared to all other formulations. The results followed the release profile of Aceclofenac followed mixed zero-order and first-order kinetics in different formulation. However, the release profile of the optimized formulation F9 (r2 = 0.9935 for Higuchi) indicated that the permeation of the drug from the patches was governed by a diffusion mechanism. Formulation F9 showed highest flux among all the formulations and 1.369 fold enhancements in drug permeation. These results indicate that the formulation containing 15 % of oleic acid with 10 % Isopropyl myristate give better penetration of Aceclofenac through rat skin. Keywords: Aceclofenac, Transdermal Film, Permeation enhancer, In-vitro permeation study.
An overview of size reduction technologies in the field of pharmaceutical manufacturing
Patel Rakesh,Baria Ashok,Patel Nikunjana
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics , 2008,
Abstract: Size reduction is a process of reducing large solid unit masses into small unit masses, coarse particles or fine particles. Size reduction process is also termed as comminution or diminution or pulverizations . In addition to the standard adjustments of the milling process (i.e., speed, screen size, design of rotor, load), special techniques of milling may be useful including special atmosphere, temperature control, sonocrystallization, supercritical fluid process. etc. Moreover, some advance technologies of size reduction including Micron Technologies, Gran-U-Lizer Technology, Jet-O-Mizer and Microfluidics have been popular. Various application of size reduction concept covers oral delivery of poorly soluble drugs, micronization, nanotechnology (micro- and nano suspensions), etc. This systemic review highlights advantages and disadvantages, mechanisms, theories, techniques, advances, and pharmaceutical applications of size reduction technology.
Isoflavones and PPAR Signaling: A Critical Target in Cardiovascular, Metastatic, and Metabolic Disease
Rakesh P. Patel,Stephen Barnes
PPAR Research , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/153252
Abstract: Isoflavone intake through foods and dietary supplements has both health advocates and critics. The latter come from a concern about the estrogenic effects of isoflavones in certain species. However, careful removal of isoflavones and other estrogens from the diet of rodents leads to the metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that isoflavones have other mechanisms of action, potentially those involving regulation of fatty acid metabolism via the nuclear receptors PPARα and PPARγ. The goal of this paper was to examine the evidence for isoflavone/PPAR signaling and to identify diseases in which such signaling would have an important impact. It is therefore of note that investigators using a chemical structure approach to discover PPAR ligands identified isoflavones as the best structures in the library of compounds that they tested. Future studies will involve careful identification of the underlying mechanisms whereby isoflavones have their action via PPAR signaling. 1. Introduction The importance of plant estrogens (phytoestrogens) in the human diet has become a topic of great interest [1], as well as dispute [2]. The principal phytoestrogens in the American and Western European diets are the isoflavones in soy foods [3, 4]. It is noteworthy that soy protein is widely used for animal diets both in commercial food production and for animals in research studies. In the latter, it has been realized by several investigators that isoflavones have significant physiological effects. Many toxicologists have been concerned that the estrogenic properties of isoflavones could lead to infertility [5]. Such a connection was first observed in sheep infertility in Western Australia which was attributed to the red clover (Trifolium pratense) that they consume. Red clover contains large amounts of isoflavones [6]. Similar infertility effects were observed in captive cheetahs [7], although this may be related to the failure of the cat family to glucuronidate many xenobiotics [8]. On the other hand, removal of soy from the diets of rats in chemoprevention experiments led to an increase in incidence of chemically induced mammary tumors [9]. Similarly, soy improved the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats on a high-salt diet [10] and ameliorated the cold sensitivity of mice with gene knockouts of the first members of the β oxidation of long-chain fatty acids [11]. Many such examples of the disparate effects of isoflavones have been reported which stem, in part, from a lack of understanding of biological mechanisms of action of isoflavones in individual
A Review Of Internet Gateway Discovery Approaches For Mobile Adhoc Networks
Deepak Kumar Patel,Rakesh Kumar
International Journal of Computers & Technology , 2013,
Abstract: A mobile ad hoc network (MANET) consists of wireless mobile nodes without having a fixed infrastructure. The communication between these mobile nodes is carried out without any centralized control. The communication among the nodes within the infrastructure less networks is done through some routing protocol. But whenever any mobile node want to communicate a node in a network that is outside the ad hoc network such as internet, there should be an appropriate mechanism for establishing this connection. Gateway discovery is a fundamental process in connecting MANET with the internet. A mobile node can connect to the internet by discovery of some specialized nodes called as gateway nodes These Gateway nodes act as a bridge between the mobile ad hoc networks and the internet. The basic aim of the gateway discovery approach is to modify the route discovery process so that it is not only used for discovery of destination mobile nodes but also the gateways. In this paper we are going to present a review of various gateway discovery approaches which are used for establishing the interconnection of mobile ad hoc networks and internet.
QUANTIFICATION OF GALLIC ACID AND ELLAGIC ACID IN ARJUNARISHTA BY VALIDTAED HPTLC DENSITOMETRY
Preeti Tiwari* and Rakesh K. Patel
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research , 2012,
Abstract: Arjunarishta, also known as Parthadhyarishta, is a polyherbal hydro alcoholic formulation and is advised as a choice of remedy in cardiovascular disorders. A simple, precise and accurate HPTLC method has been established for the determination of quercetin and rutin in Arjunarishta–T and Arjunarishta-M prepared by traditional and modern methods respectively and also in its marketed formulation. The developed HPTLC method was validated in terms of precision, accuracy, LOD, LOQ, specificity, robustness and ruggedness. The amount of gallic acid in Arjunarishta-T, M and its marketed formulation was found to be 0.0332, 0.0331 and 0.0330% w/w respectively while ellagic acid was found to be 0.0361, 0.0360 and 0.0359% w/w respectively. This is the first report for the quantification of gallic acid and ellagic acid in Arjunarishta by HPTLC. Furthermore, no TLC densitometric methods have been reported for the quantification of gallic acid and ellagic acid from Arjunarishta.
Studies on Carbon-Fly Ash Composites with Chopped PANOX Fibers
Rakesh V. Patel,S. Manocha
Journal of Composites , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/674073
Abstract: Chemical analysis and morphological studies of fly ash reveals the complex chemical constituents present as spherical particles with diameter of less than 25?μm. The constituents of fly ash are silica, alumina, iron oxide, titanium dioxide, calcium and magnesium oxide, and other trace elements. The use of thermosetting as well thermoplastic polymer matrix has been made by several workers to develop polymer matrix fly ash particulate composites by using the hard and abrasive properties of fly ash and lightweight of polymers. Such composites have poor mechanical strength, fracture toughness, and thermal stability. To overcome these shortcomings, in carbonaceous matrix, the carbon fibers were added as additional reinforcement along with the fly ash. The composites were developed with two different methods known as Dry method and Wet method. The processing parameters such as temperature and pressure were optimized in establishing the carbon matrix. Physical, thermal, and mechanical characteristics were studied. The microstructures of composites show good compatibility between fly ash and fibers with the carbon matrix. These composites have higher strength, thermal stability, and toughness as compared to polymer matrix fly ash particulate composites. 1. Introduction The spherical shaped materials blown out from the furnace during combustion of coal in thermal power stations make up 75% of ash generated. The spherules when empty are called cenospheres and when filled up with smaller spheres are known as plerospheres [1]. The cenospheres comprise of 0.5–1.0 weight percentage of the fly ash individual particles are chemically fairly homogeneous, but the pronounced compositional variation exists among particles with similar physical and structural attributes [2]. Cenospheres are compressed of nearly stoichiometric mullite (3Al2O3·2SiO2) needles bonded by aluminosilicate glass of similar composition that offers excellent thermal, elastic, and mechanical characteristics for use in thermostructural applications [3]. Elemental map study through energy filtered TEM shows the aluminosilicate-based and iron oxide based-nanoparticles are present in the fly ash [4]. Unburned organic matter during combustion of coal leaves carbon in three different forms in the fly ash [5, 6]. Fly ash contains toxic elements like Co, Pb, Ni, Cd, Cu, Fe, and Zn in trace [7, 8]. Particle filled polymer composites have become attractive because of their wide applications and low cost. Polymers such as Nylon 6 [9], Natural Rubber [10, 11], Styrene Butadiene Rubber [10], Epoxy [11, 12], Poly
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