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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3730 matches for " Patel Naren "
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Sodium Glucose Co transporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: A New Sword for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
R.Rajesh,,Patel Naren,Sudha vidyasagar,,Unnikrishnan
International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research , 2010,
Abstract: The low affinity sodium glucose cotransporter (SGLT2) plays a major role in physiology of glucose reabsorption from proximal part of kidney. Almost all glucose excreted through glomerular filtration, isreabsorbed via SGLT2 until blood glucose level reaches to its hreshold value for glucose excretion i.e. ~180mg/dl. Increasing the glucose excretion by inhibiting the SGLT2 is the novel approach for the treatment of diabetes. Safe and normal life of patients having familial renal glucosuria due to SLC5A2 gene mutation is accelerating the development of SGLT2 inhibitors. Weight loss and very low risk of hypoglycemia are the potential benefits of these inhibitors. There are number of molecules in this class under the stage of development.
Safety Aspects of Antiretroviral Therapy for Management of HIV Infection
R.Rajesh,Sudha vidyasagar,Patel Naren,ManjuVarghese
Journal of Basic and Clinical Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: There are four classes of antiretroviral agents used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Adverse effects to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) are common and often difficult to avoid. In many cases, research is not able to identify the exact cause of an adverse event. The severity of adverse reactions varies greatly and difficult to manage; typically prevention is more desirable than treatment. However, this is not always true. This paper will review safety aspect of class-wide Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, mechanism of action. A class-wide adverse effect for Reverse transcriptase inhibitors includes lactic acidosis, peripheral neuropathy and lipoatrophy. Class wide adverse effects to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors include rash and hepatotoxicity, while efavirenz has its own unique CNS reactions. Protease inhibitor side effects include hyperglycemia, lipoaccumulation, dyslipidemia, and gastrointestinal (GI) intolerance. Coreceptor CCR5 antagonists, which provide a novel mechanism of action, are a recent addition to the armamentarium of antiretroviral agents. Antiretroviral are an important break-through in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. However, adverse reactions from these drugs can range from mild to life-threatening, and determining which agent is the cause is frequently difficult to discern. Fortunately, side effects can be monitored, treated and in many cases, prevented.
Proteomics Analyses of the Opportunistic Pathogen Burkholderia vietnamiensis Using Protein Fractionations and Mass Spectrometry
Samanthi Wickramasekara,Julie Neilson,Naren Patel,Linda Breci,Amy Hilderbrand,Raina M. Maier,Vicki Wysocki
Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/701928
Abstract: The main objectives of this work were to obtain a more extensive coverage of the Burkholderia vietnamiensis proteome than previously reported and to identify virulence factors using tandem mass spectrometry. The proteome of B. vietnamiensis was precipitated into four fractions to as extracellular, intracellular, cell surface and cell wall proteins. Two different approaches were used to analyze the proteins. The first was a gel-based method where 1D SDS-PAGE was used for separation of the proteins prior to reverse phase liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The second method used MudPIT analysis (Multi dimensional Protein Identification Technique), where proteins are digested and separated using cation exchange and reversed phase separations before the MS/MS analysis (LC/LC-MS/MS). Overall, gel-based LC-MS/MS analysis resulted in more protein identifications than the MudPIT analysis. Combination of the results lead to identification of more than 1200 proteins, approximately 16% of the proteins coded from the annotated genome of Burkholderia species. Several virulence factors were detected including flagellin, porin, peroxiredoxin and zinc proteases.
Dexamethasone protected human glioblastoma U87MG cells from temozolomide induced apoptosis by maintaining Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and preventing proteolytic activities
Arabinda Das, Naren L Banik, Sunil J Patel, Swapan K Ray
Molecular Cancer , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-3-36
Abstract: Freshly grown cells were treated with different doses of DXM or TMZ for 6 h followed by incubation in a drug-free medium for 48 h. Wright staining and ApopTag assay showed no apoptosis in cells treated with 40 μM DXM but considerable amounts of apoptosis in cells treated with 100 μM TMZ. Apoptosis in TMZ treated cells was associated with an increase in intracellular free [Ca2+], as determined by fura-2 assay. Western blot analyses showed alternations in the levels of Bax (pro-apoptotic) and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic) proteins resulting in increased Bax:Bcl-2 ratio in TMZ treated cells. Western blot analyses also detected overexpression of calpain and caspase-3, which cleaved 270 kD α-spectrin at specific sites for generation of 145 and 120 kD spectrin break down products (SBDPs), respectively. However, 1-h pretreatment of cells with 40 μM DXM dramatically decreased TMZ induced apoptosis, decreasing Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and SBDPs.Our results revealed an antagonistic effect of DXM on TMZ induced apoptosis in human glioblastoma U87MG cells, implying that treatment of glioblastoma patients with DXM prior to chemotherapy with TMZ might result in an undesirable clinical outcome.Glioblastoma patients usually receive steroids for alleviation of vasogenic edema and pain prior to treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs. Steroids, however, may modulate the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. Dexamethasone (DXM), a synthetic glucocorticoid, is commonly used to reduce inflammation and pain associated with glioblastoma [1]. However, DXM has been reported to make human glioblastoma cells resistant to ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic agents that otherwise cause DNA damage [2-5]. Execution of cells by apoptosis usually requires the activation of cysteine proteases such as calpains and caspases [6]. Diverse stimuli may cause an increase in intracellular free [Ca2+], which is absolutely required for activation of calpain [7]. Activation of caspases may occur via differen
PIPE: Personalizing Recommendations via Partial Evaluation
Naren Ramakrishnan
Computer Science , 1999,
Abstract: It is shown that personalization of web content can be advantageously viewed as a form of partial evaluation --- a technique well known in the programming languages community. The basic idea is to model a recommendation space as a program, then partially evaluate this program with respect to user preferences (and features) to obtain specialized content. This technique supports both content-based and collaborative approaches, and is applicable to a range of applications that require automatic information integration from multiple web sources. The effectiveness of this methodology is illustrated by two example applications --- (i) personalizing content for visitors to the Blacksburg Electronic Village (http://www.bev.net), and (ii) locating and selecting scientific software on the Internet. The scalability of this technique is demonstrated by its ability to interface with online web ontologies that index thousands of web pages.
The Traits of the Personable
Naren Ramakrishnan
Computer Science , 2002,
Abstract: Information personalization is fertile ground for application of AI techniques. In this article I relate personalization to the ability to capture partial information in an information-seeking interaction. The specific focus is on personalizing interactions at web sites. Using ideas from partial evaluation and explanation-based generalization, I present a modeling methodology for reasoning about personalization. This approach helps identify seven tiers of `personable traits' in web sites.
Selling Participation to Audiences in China
Kuo Huang,Naren Chitty
Global Media Journal : Canadian Edition , 2009,
Abstract: Media globalization is facilitated by the development of new technologies within a framework of digitization and convergence. Contemporary new media provide networks through which the mingling of media occurs, shaping a “multi-mediacy” age, and a connecting of mediated/mediating venues in a condition of “immediacy”. Additionally, the business of communication has evolved from being the “communication of business” to the “business of business”. Multi-mediacy and immediacy have generated new avenues of profit from media. The paper will draw on Chitty’s theorization on web transactional venues to discuss new ways of farming of revenue from media. Media revenues have in the past and today been drawn from licence fees, media subscriptions and advertising. Today, media networks also sell “participation” to audiences directly by charging for text message voting/gaming, or sell a range of products and services through web-venue based commerce. This paper will undertake case studies to examine the increasing trend of “direct audience payment for participation”. The case studies that will be used are (A) the intervention of Chinese Service Providers in reality TV shows and (B) E-commerce on the Internet. Monternet (mo[bile I]nternet) and Linktone are investigated as Service Providers (SPs) and the consumer-to-consumer (C2C) website www.taobao.com is studied compared with Eachnet (eBay in China). The paper will also investigate the influences of “direct audience payment for participation” on the quality of media products and communication flow between media and audience and generally discuss the consequences of the “direct audience payment for participation” from the perspective of communication ethics.
Detection of a Virtual Passive Pointer
Naren Vira,Shaleen Vira
International Journal of Image Processing , 2009,
Abstract: The paper presents a methodology for detecting a virtual passive pointer. Thepassive pointer or device does not have any active energy source within it (asopposed to a laser pointer) and thus cannot easily be detected or identified. Themodeling and simulation task is carried out by generating high resolution colorimages of a pointer viewing via two digital cameras with a popular threedimensional(3D) computer graphics and animation program, Studio 3D Max byDiscreet. These images are then retrieved for analysis into a Microsoft’s VisualC++ program developed based on the theory of image triangulation. The programoutputs a precise coordinates of the pointer in the 3D space in addition to it’sprojection on a view screen located in a large display/presentation room. Thecomputational results of the pointer projection are compared with the knownlocations specified by the Studio 3D Max for different simulated configurations.High pointing accuracy is achieved: a pointer kept 30 feet away correctly hits thetarget location within a few inches. Thus this technology can be used inpresenter-audience applications.
Reinforcing Reachable Routes
Srinidhi Varadarajan,Naren Ramakrishnan
Computer Science , 2002,
Abstract: This paper studies the evaluation of routing algorithms from the perspective of reachability routing, where the goal is to determine all paths between a sender and a receiver. Reachability routing is becoming relevant with the changing dynamics of the Internet and the emergence of low-bandwidth wireless/ad-hoc networks. We make the case for reinforcement learning as the framework of choice to realize reachability routing, within the confines of the current Internet infrastructure. The setting of the reinforcement learning problem offers several advantages, including loop resolution, multi-path forwarding capability, cost-sensitive routing, and minimizing state overhead, while maintaining the incremental spirit of current backbone routing algorithms. We identify research issues in reinforcement learning applied to the reachability routing problem to achieve a fluid and robust backbone routing framework. The paper is targeted toward practitioners seeking to implement a reachability routing algorithm.
The Partial Evaluation Approach to Information Personalization
Naren Ramakrishnan,Saverio Perugini
Computer Science , 2001,
Abstract: Information personalization refers to the automatic adjustment of information content, structure, and presentation tailored to an individual user. By reducing information overload and customizing information access, personalization systems have emerged as an important segment of the Internet economy. This paper presents a systematic modeling methodology - PIPE (`Personalization is Partial Evaluation') - for personalization. Personalization systems are designed and implemented in PIPE by modeling an information-seeking interaction in a programmatic representation. The representation supports the description of information-seeking activities as partial information and their subsequent realization by partial evaluation, a technique for specializing programs. We describe the modeling methodology at a conceptual level and outline representational choices. We present two application case studies that use PIPE for personalizing web sites and describe how PIPE suggests a novel evaluation criterion for information system designs. Finally, we mention several fundamental implications of adopting the PIPE model for personalization and when it is (and is not) applicable.
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