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A review on Bacopa monniera: Current research and future prospects
Gohil Kashmira,Patel Jagruti
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: In recent times, the use of herbal products has increased tremendously in the western world as well as in developed countries. Lately, one of the outstandingly important medicinal plants, widely used therapeutically in the orient and becoming increasingly popular in the west is Bacopa monniera, a well-known nootropic. The present review summarizes our current knowledge of pharmacological actions, preclinical and clinical studies, major bioactives, reported mechanisms of actions, clinical efficacy, safety and the possibility of interactions of the herb with the conventional drugs. Simultaneously, research updates as well as avenues for further research are also mentioned concerning the plant.
Resveratrol and its biological actions
Shah Praharsh,Patel Jagruti
International Journal of Green Pharmacy , 2010,
Abstract: Resveratrol is a phytoalexin that is found in a few edible food materials such as grape skins, pea-nuts and red wine. Numerous reports exists in the literature suggesting that dietary resveratrol may act as an antioxidant, promotes nitric oxide production, inhibits platelet aggregation and increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and subsequently may serve as a cardio-protective agent. Recent reports demonstrated that resveratrol can function as a cancer chemopreventive agent, exhibiting anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, anti-ageing and antiviral properties. However, most of these effects are yet to be confirmed in humans. In the only clinical trial, high doses of special proprietary formulation has demonstrated blood sugar-lowering effects of resveratrol in type 2 diabetes mellitus. As with many polyphenols, resveratrol is reasonably well absorbed but has low bioavailability. It is metabolized by hydroxylation, glucuronidation, sulfation and hydrogenation. We reviewed the published literature and reports to consolidate information available on the biological activity of resveratrol using electronic databases as well as handpicked articles to summarize the biological effects of resveratrol and its clinical benefits against human diseases.
Pharmacological review on Centella asiatica: A potential herbal cure-all
Gohil Kashmira,Patel Jagruti,Gajjar Anuradha
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: In recent times, focus on plant research has increased all over the world. Centella asiatica is an important medicinal herb that is widely used in the orient and is becoming popular in the West. Triterpenoid, saponins, the primary constituents of Centella asiatica are manly believed to be responsible for its wide therapeutic actions. Apart from wound healing, the herb is recommended for the treatment of various skin conditions such as leprosy, lupus, varicose ulcers, eczema, psoriasis, diarrhoea, fever, amenorrhea, diseases of the female genitourinary tract and also for relieving anxiety and improving cognition. The present review attempts to provide comprehensive information on pharmacology, mechanisms of action, various preclinical and clinical studies, safety precautions and current research prospects of the herb. At the same time, studies to evaluate the likelihood of interactions with drugs and herbs on simultaneous use, which is imperative for optimal and safe utilization of the herb, are discussed.
Warfarin-herb interactions: a review and study based on assessment of clinical case reports in literature
Jagruti A. Patel,Kashmira J. Gohil
Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas , 2008,
Abstract: El riesgo potencial de las interacciones entre hierbas y fármacos es de particular interés en la actualidad justamente por el incremento del uso de las hierbas. La mayor seguridad radica en el estrecho índice terapéutico de fármacos como la warfarina, un anticoagulante con un número máximo de reportes de interacciones. El objetivo del presente estudio fue conducir una revisión sistemática de la literatura para consolidar los reportes de casos clínicos de interacciones warfarina-hierbas para evaluar las fiabilidades de dichos reportes. Se revisó la literatura clínica publicada para consolidar y evaluar las interacciones entre varias hierbas y la warfarina, basado en los eventos adversos publicados, descripciones de los reportes de casos clínicos y las series de casos mediante las bases de datos electrónicas así como la selección de las referencias desde el a o 1971 hasta el 2007 y se alinearon sobre la probable causalidad mediante el algoritmo de Naranjo. Se obtuvieron 72 casos de reportes documentados de interacciones de warfarina con varias hierbas, 84.7% de los casos fueron evaluados como posibles interacciones (61/72) y 15.3% (11/72) como probables interacciones. El jugo de arándano fue el más comúnmente involucrado en las interacciones con warfarina con 34.7% de casos (25/72) de los cuales el 92% fueron interacciones posibles (23/25) y el 8% (2/25) fueron interacciones probables. De estos resultados se concluye que combinar anticoagulantes con hierbas parece ser una proposición arriesgada. El número de reportes de hierbas que actúan recíprocamente con warfarin continúa en aumento. Se aconseja específicamente a los pacientes que toman warfarina que eviten tomar medicinas herbarias o medir su INR a las dos semanas de arranque del fármaco, hacerlo de una forma más segura. De esta forma, se necesitan urgentemente estudios más sistemáticos sobre las interacciones de la warfarina y los productos herbales.
Hepatoprotective activity of Piper longum traditional milk extract on carbon tetrachloride induced liver toxicity in Wistar rats
Jagruti A. PATEL,Urvi S. SHAH
Boletín Latinoamericano y del Caribe de Plantas Medicinales y Aromáticas , 2009,
Abstract: En el sistema de medicina tradicional india, Piper longum Linn. (Piperaceae) (frutos y polvo de la raíz) es dado con leche hervida para el tratamiento de ictericia y dolencias del hígado. Sin embargo, las bases bioquímicas y el mecanismo de acción hepatoprotectora del extracto lácteo de Piper longum no se ha estudiado científicamente. El presente estudio fue designado para investigar la actividad hepatoprotectora del extracto lácteo de Piper longum. El tetracloruro de carcono (CCl4) se usó como hepatoxina a una dosis de 0.5 ml/kg p.o. en aceite de oliva (1:1) tres veces a la semana por 21 días para producir la necrosis hepática crónica reversible. El tratamiento con el extracto lácteo de Piper longum (200 mg/día p.o. por 21 días) tuvo un efecto hepatoprotector significativo evidenciado por el decrecimiento en suero de enzimas, bilirrubina directa y bilirrubina total. El efecto hepatoprotector de Piper longum es comparable al fármaco de referencia silimarina (25 mg/kg/día p.o. por 21 días).
Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat, India
Javiya Viren,Ghatak Somsuvra,Patel Kamlesh,Patel Jagruti
Indian Journal of Pharmacology , 2008,
Abstract: Objectives: The present study was undertaken to assess the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa at a tertiary care hospital in Gujarat, India. Due to significant changes in microbial genetic ecology, as a result of indiscriminate use of anti-microbials, the spread of anti-microbial resistance is now a global problem. Materials and Methods: Out of 276 culture positive samples, 56 samples of Pseudomonas aeruginosa were examined and 10 different types of specimen were collected. Microbial sensitivity testing was done using disk diffusion test with Pseudomonas species NCTC 10662, as per CLSI guidelines. Results: The highest number of Pseudomonas infections was found in urine, followed by pus and sputum. Pseudomonas species demonstrated marked resistance against monotherapy of penicillins, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, tetracyclines and macrolides. Only combination drugs like Ticarcillin + Clavulanic acid, Piperacillin + Tazobactum, Cefoperazone + Sulbactum, Cefotaxime + Sulbactum, Ceftriaxome + Sulbactum and monotherapy of amikacin showed higher sensitivity to Pseudomonas infections; however, the maximum sensitivity was shown by the Carbapenems. Conclusion: From the present study, we conclude that urinary tract infection was the most common hospital acquired infection. Also, co-administration of β -lactamase inhibitors markedly expanded the anti-microbial sensitivity of semi-synthetic penicillins and cephalosporins. The aminoglycoside group of antibiotics - amikacin - demonstrated maximum sensitivity against pseudomonas species. Therefore, use of amikacin should be restricted to severe nosocomial infections, in order to avoid rapid emergence of resistant strains. Periodic susceptibility testing should be carried out over a period of two to three years, to detect the resistance trends. Also, a rational strategy on the limited and prudent use of anti-Pseudomonal agents is urgently required.
Cleavage of pyrene-stabilized RNA bulge loops by trans-(±)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine
Sejal Patel, Jagruti Rana, Jyoti Roy, Haidong Huang
Chemistry Central Journal , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1752-153x-6-3
Abstract: RNA cleaving agents are promising next-generation therapeutic tools. Ribozyme and RNA interference have been found to cleave RNA in high efficiencies [1-4]. Artificial ribonuclease is another appealing candidate due to the flexibility to introduce chemical modifications [5-8]. These modifications can play crucial roles in enhancing cleavage activities or increasing the stability of artificial ribonucleases in vivo. The catalytic group of an artificial nuclease is often a metal ion or a charged organic functional group. Compared to metal complexes, organic molecules have better pharmacological profiles. Therefore, it is of great interest to develop a highly efficient and sequence-specific non-metalloribonuclease. Many efforts have been exerted to attach a catalytic moiety to antisense deoxyribonucleotide to achieve specific sequence targeting [9-17]. The catalytic moiety often contains cationic nitrogen atoms such as those of oligoamine, imidazole, and guanidine. The effectiveness of such a strategy is highly dependent on several factors. The first factor is the DNA sequence which determines whether the DNA forms a stable duplex with the target RNA, especially when the RNA is highly structured, and whether the duplex formation affects the RNA phosphodiester group on its susceptibility to cleavage. The second factor is the inherent activity of the catalytic group. The third factor is the chemical linkage that positions the catalytic moieties around the cleavage site. Systematic investigation of the above three factors simultaneously is difficult. Fortunately, the first two factors can be studied independently. Indeed, studies have been conducted on DNA/RNA duplex cleavage in the presence of high concentrations of metal ions and imidazole [18,19]. Once the ideal DNA sequence and catalytic functionality are identified, the chemical linkage can be selected from a library that contains linkers of randomized length and orientation.Here we report a detailed study of the cle
Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Potential of Stem Methanolic Extract of Justicia gendarussa Burm
K.L. Krishna,K. Mruthunjaya,Jagruti A. Patel
International Journal of Pharmacology , 2010,
Abstract: In vitro antioxidant activity of stem extracts of Justicia gendarussa Burm along with in vivo hepatoprotective activity of methanolic fraction was carried out to ascertain the folkloric claim of its hepatoprotective activity. The crude methanolic extract was prepared by soxhlet extraction and fractionated into pet ether, chloroform and methanol fractions. The marc remained was further extracted with doubled distilled water by refluxation in waterbath. Preliminary phytochemical tests, total phenolic and flavonoid content present in each fraction/extract was determined. All fractions and aqueous extract were evaluated for their antioxidant activity using DPPH free radical scavenging activity, hydrogen peroxide scavenging activity, reduction of ferric ion in presence and absence of EDTA. The methanolic fraction was further studied for its in vivo hepatoprotective activity using CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The various biochemical parameters were evaluated to asses its hepatoprotective activity. Methanolic fraction has more phenolic/flavonoid content and shows good antioxidant activity. The methanolic fraction has a good hepatoprotective activity at dose of 300 mg kg-1 b.wt. in albino rats. Interestingly its hepatoprotective activity decreases as the dose increases. Stem extract of JG has moderate hepatoprotective activity; it may be due to its total phenolic and flavonoid contents. These findings substantiate the ancient literature about its reports as hepatoprotective herb and inspires for further extensive study regarding its exact hepatoprotective activity.
Design, development and in vitro evaluation of Mesalamine tablets containing Pectin and Chitosan for colon-specific drug delivery
Nirav V. Patel,Jayvadan K. Patel,Shreeraj H. Shah,Jagruti J Patel
International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences , 2010,
Abstract: The potential of matrix, multilayer and compression coated tablets of Mesalamine to reach the colon intact has been investigated in vitro, using Pectin as a carrier. Matrix tablets containing various proportions of Pectin were prepared by wet granulation and direct compression techniques. Multilayer tablets were formulated using Pectin as release controlling layers, on either side of Mesalamine matrix tablets. Mesalamine core tablets were prepared and compression coated with Pectin. The effect of the coat: core ratio as well as the incorporation of different percentages of Chitosan in the Pectin coat on drug release was investigated. In vitro release studies indicated that matrix and multilayer tablets failed to control the drug release in the physiological environment of stomach and small intestine. Compression coated formulations were able to protect the tablet cores from premature drug release, but at high Pectin coat: core ratios 4: 1 (F13) and 5: 1 (F14). Inclusion of Chitosan 3% and 5% w/w (F11 and F12) in the Pectin coat offered better protection at a lower coat: core ratio (3: 1). Selective delivery of Mesalamine to the colon could be achieved using a Pectin or Pectin/Chitosan mixture in the form of compression coated tablets.
Identifying Novel Drug Indications through Automated Reasoning
Luis Tari, Nguyen Vo, Shanshan Liang, Jagruti Patel, Chitta Baral, James Cai
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040946
Abstract: Background With the large amount of pharmacological and biological knowledge available in literature, finding novel drug indications for existing drugs using in silico approaches has become increasingly feasible. Typical literature-based approaches generate new hypotheses in the form of protein-protein interactions networks by means of linking concepts based on their cooccurrences within abstracts. However, this kind of approaches tends to generate too many hypotheses, and identifying new drug indications from large networks can be a time-consuming process. Methodology In this work, we developed a method that acquires the necessary facts from literature and knowledge bases, and identifies new drug indications through automated reasoning. This is achieved by encoding the molecular effects caused by drug-target interactions and links to various diseases and drug mechanism as domain knowledge in AnsProlog, a declarative language that is useful for automated reasoning, including reasoning with incomplete information. Unlike other literature-based approaches, our approach is more fine-grained, especially in identifying indirect relationships for drug indications. Conclusion/Significance To evaluate the capability of our approach in inferring novel drug indications, we applied our method to 943 drugs from DrugBank and asked if any of these drugs have potential anti-cancer activities based on information on their targets and molecular interaction types alone. A total of 507 drugs were found to have the potential to be used for cancer treatments. Among the potential anti-cancer drugs, 67 out of 81 drugs (a recall of 82.7%) are indeed known cancer drugs. In addition, 144 out of 289 drugs (a recall of 49.8%) are non-cancer drugs that are currently tested in clinical trials for cancer treatments. These results suggest that our method is able to infer drug indications (original or alternative) based on their molecular targets and interactions alone and has the potential to discover novel drug indications for existing drugs.
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