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Programming Protocol-Independent Packet Processors
Pat Bosshart,Dan Daly,Martin Izzard,Nick McKeown,Jennifer Rexford,Cole Schlesinger,Dan Talayco,Amin Vahdat,George Varghese,David Walker
Computer Science , 2013,
Abstract: P4 is a high-level language for programming protocol-independent packet processors. P4 works in conjunction with SDN control protocols like OpenFlow. In its current form, OpenFlow explicitly specifies protocol headers on which it operates. This set has grown from 12 to 41 fields in a few years, increasing the complexity of the specification while still not providing the flexibility to add new headers. In this paper we propose P4 as a strawman proposal for how OpenFlow should evolve in the future. We have three goals: (1) Reconfigurability in the field: Programmers should be able to change the way switches process packets once they are deployed. (2) Protocol independence: Switches should not be tied to any specific network protocols. (3) Target independence: Programmers should be able to describe packet-processing functionality independently of the specifics of the underlying hardware. As an example, we describe how to use P4 to configure a switch to add a new hierarchical label.
Withdrawal-induced delirium associated with a benzodiazepine switch: a case report
Herbert Bosshart
Journal of Medical Case Reports , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1752-1947-5-207
Abstract: A 64-year-old female Caucasian with major depression, alcohol dependence and benzodiazepine dependence was successfully treated for depression and, after lorazepam-assisted alcohol detoxification, was switched from lorazepam to diazepam to facilitate benzodiazepine discontinuation. Subsequent to the benzodiazepine switch, our patient unexpectedly developed an acute delirious state, which quickly remitted after re-administration of lorazepam. A newly diagnosed early form of mixed dementia, combining both vascular and Alzheimer-type lesions, was found as a likely contributing factor for the observed vulnerability to benzodiazepine-induced withdrawal symptoms.Chronic use of benzodiazepines is common in the elderly and a switch to diazepam often precedes benzodiazepine discontinuation trials. However, contrary to common clinical practice, benzodiazepine switching to diazepam may require cross-titration with slow tapering of the first benzodiazepine to allow for the build-up of N-desmethyl-diazepam, in order to safely prevent severe withdrawal symptoms. Alternatively, long-term treatment with low doses of benzodiazepines may be considered, especially in elderly patients with chronic use of benzodiazepines and proven vulnerability to benzodiazepine-associated withdrawal symptoms.The benzodiazepine (BZD)-type sedatives and hypnotics, introduced in the 1960s, marked a major advance in the treatment of anxiety, depression, insomnia and seizures, not least because of their improved therapeutic index. The first BZDs marketed by F. Hoffmann-La Roche, chlordiazepoxide (Librium?) and diazepam (Valium?), became immensely popular. Diazepam was the most widely prescribed drug in the United States and Europe for nearly two decades. Even with the subsequent introduction of numerous other BZDs, diazepam remained one of the first-choice BZDs among prescribers and in 1985 was added to the World Health Organization's essential medicines list [1] for its anti-convulsant, anxiolytic, sedati
Providing Built Environment Students with the Necessary Skills for Employment: Finding the Required Soft Skills  [PDF]
Pat Crawford, Robert Dalton
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2016.41008
Abstract: As the costs of education, class sizes, and competition in a post-recession work force grow, universities will explore the ways in which students may graduate with high opportunities for employment in their chosen field. Students in the Built Environment (B.E.) are graduating from accredited programs, but what skills beyond technical understanding do employers wish to have in their entry level employees? A survey of 8124 respondents of employers, alum, faculty and students allowed these stakeholders to rank order seven soft skills and seven characteristics within each soft skill. This study explores the ways in which the B.E. field ranks the skills and characteristics in comparison to seven other professional fields. The B.E. respondents rank order the soft skills as: communication, decision-making, self-management, experiences, teamwork, professionalism, and leadership. Utilizing ordinal regression, it was found that B.E. respondents rank creative solutions, applying technology, cross disciplinary and international experiences as more important than other fields. Many of the differences are attributed to the need for those in the built environment to think creatively and work collaboratively. The findings can inform educational curriculum to match soft skill training with the professional path of their students.
Unearthing Elements of Successful Park Master Planning: A Case Study of Belle Isle Park, Detroit, Michigan  [PDF]
Hanbing Liang, Pat Crawford
Current Urban Studies (CUS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/cus.2018.61002
Does a well-designed master plan guarantee the future of a park? The answer to this question is not certain, which leads to asking what other factors contribute to the success or failure of master planning? Having a blueprint to guide the development of a park, often called a master plan, is commonly accepted as integral to park development. Belle Isle Park is the largest public park in Detroit. Since its establishment in 1880, the park has gone through dramatic social and economic changes, along with the City of Detroit. This case study takes Belle Isle’s unique history to identify possible factors that are significant to park development and success or failure of master planning. Despite the four master plans that were created for Belle Isle (by Frederick Law Olmsted, Dan Kiley and other design firms), the master plans did not significantly influence the actual growth of the park. Through this case study, four major factors, beyond good design, were identified that need to be taken into consideration throughout the entire process. These factors include: 1) permeability of location, access and spillover; 2) concordance of purpose, interests and decisions; 3) milieu of influencers, ideologies and consequences; and 4) connectedness of engagement, support and pride.
Patricia Goldman-Rakic
Pat Levitt
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0000038
Biobank debate heats up
Pat Hagan
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030408-02
Abstract: John Newton, appointed chief executive officer earlier this year, used his first public appearance last night (April 7) to outline the potential of the project to save lives and transform the treatment of illnesses. He told a meeting of politicians, academics and industry leaders that the bank - which involves collecting DNA samples from 500,000 middle-aged people in the UK - could allow scientists to pinpoint specific factors involved in certain diseases, ultimately leading to new and better treatments.The meeting, organised by MPs, took place in response to calls for a public debate on the £45 million Biobank project. Last month, the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee launched a scathing attack on the Medical Research Council (MRC), which is managing the initiative. The committee accused the MRC of poor financial management, and said the evidence suggested the Biobank scheme was "a politically-driven project."But Newton insisted that, in the long run, it would reap benefits. He told the meeting: "The UK Biobank is not a single study, or even a single project, but a resource for the biomedical research community for the first few decades of this century. Its true value may not be realized for some 30 years. But every generation has the responsibility to plant shade trees for the next."According to Newton, the real advantage of such a precious database will be in studying the associations between discrete environmental, lifestyle and genetic factors and the way they interact. "This will allow the risk of disease to be predicted in populations. Predicting risk in individuals is not the aim of the study. Knowing difference in risk in populations can provide direct evidence for the scope of prevention. ...The power of the UK Biobank is that its design provides the most powerful means of identifying the true causes of disease."As an indication of what he hopes it will achieve, Newton drew parallels with the Framingham study of the 1960s, which eventually
EMBO to set up research awards
Pat Hagan
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030707-01
Abstract: It marks a change of direction for EMBO, which boasts 1200 scientist members, more than 36 of whom have been awarded the Nobel Prize. So far, the organization has focused its financial resources on providing fellowships for research scientists, organizing courses and workshops and supporting promising young investigators in molecular biology.Announcing the move in a press statement released last week, EMBC president Professor Julio E. Celis said it would make the organization "even more central" to the promotion of biosciences in Europe. But he also made it clear that the program could act as a prototype for other, more ambitious programs, such as the planned European Research Council.The proposed council has been a topic for discussion for several years. In February, EMBO and other leading bioscience bodies in Europe - including the European Life Sciences Forum and the Federation of European Biochemical Societies - backed the idea in a bid to stem the flood of Europe's brightest young minds to the US and elsewhere.The details of how the research project will be funded and administered have yet to be worked out. But according to Professor Frank Gannon, EMBO executive director, it marks an "historic step.""This funding will be investigator initiated and selected, like all EMBO activities, solely on the basis of quality," he said.It's now anticipated that discussions will start among interested member states and a formal agreement will be drawn up by next year.According to an EMBO spokeswoman, member states will be asked to opt into a special project in order to finance the scheme."The money will ultimately come from member countries but that does not mean every one will have to join," she said. "It could be just half, or it could be all of them," she said, adding that the question of whether members who opt out will still have access to grants is subject to negotiation.John Tooze, former executive director of EMBO and now based at Cancer Research UK, said he welcomed
New MRC head named
Pat Hagan
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030514-02
Abstract: The appointment, announced yesterday (May 12) by Science Minister Lord Sainsbury, ends months of speculation about who would succeed Sir George Radda when he completes his four-year tenure as chief executive. Blakemore will take up his position on October 1 this year, and will receive an annual salary of £110,000, plus potential performance-related annual bonuses of up to 20%.Blakemore studied medical sciences at Cambridge University and completed his PhD at the University of California, Berkeley. He holds Doctor of Science degrees from both Oxford and Cambridge. His research has mainly focused on vision and the early development of the brain, but he has also won acclaim for his work in raising the profile of science. Now chairman, formerly president, of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, he also won the Michael Faraday Award in 1989 for his work to further public engagement with science.But he takes over the helm at the MRC at a time when the UK's leading research institution has more than its share of troubles.Earlier this year, the House of Commons Science and Technology Committee launched a scathing attack on the MRC over its £45 million Biobank project. The project, which involves collecting DNA samples from 500,000 middle-aged people in the UK, has been marketed by the MRC as a potential key to unlocking the secrets of some genetic diseases. The hope is it will eventually lead to new and better treatments. But MPs hit out at what they called poor financial management and slammed the Biobank scheme as a "politically-driven project."More recently, the MRC has faced rebellion from scientists angry at the planned closure of the National Institute for Medical Research at Mill Hill in north London. It wants to relocate the institute to Cambridge.Nevertheless, Lord Sainsbury insisted Blakemore's skills — both in science and communication — would benefit the MRC. "His research background, active participation in science councils and associations,
Cancer Research UK names new head
Pat Hagan
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030620-02
Abstract: Alex Markham, currently director of the Molecular Medicines Unit at the University of Leeds and honorary consultant physician at Leeds Teaching Hospital NHS Trust, will take up his new position in September 2003.The job of chief executive became available after Paul Nurse announced earlier this year he was leaving to become president of Rockefeller University in New York.In addition to his clinical and academic posts, Markham serves on the Department of Health's Committee on Safety of Medicines and is also involved with the government's Gene Therapy Advisory Committee.Announcing the appointment Tuesday (June 17), Cancer Research UK said in a press statement that Markham, who is 52, "has also held senior advisory roles for the Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust and has extensive management experience in the pharmaceutical industry."Markham said in a statement that it was "an honor and a privilege" to have been chosen. "My job will be to maintain the charity's world-class research and build on recent advances to take new knowledge into the clinic for the benefit of cancer patients."Researchers who have worked with Markham in the past predict he will do well in the job. Stuart Orkin, a Howard Hughes Medical Institute investigator at Harvard Medical School, collaborated with Markham almost 20 years ago on the genetics of the blood disorder β-thalassaemia. "I always found him to be an energetic, imaginative, and engaging person with a vision of the future," Orkin told us. "He will bring this energy and vision, I am sure, to this new challenge. His background in genetics fits well with contemporary cancer research."And Bob Williamson, director of the Murdoch Children's Research Institute at the University of Melbourne, described Markham as someone who was "always ahead of his time."Williamson told us he knew Markham well when he was a molecular biologist in industry in the 1970s and a medical student in the 1980s. "He recognized the biotech potential of molec
NIMR closure on hold
Pat Hagan
Genome Biology , 2003, DOI: 10.1186/gb-spotlight-20030605-02
Abstract: The decision was taken last week to set up an expert task force to consider the long-term future of the National Institute for Medical Research (NIMR), based at Mill Hill in north London.On Friday May 30, MRC chief executive George Radda confirmed in a letter to John Skehel, director of the NIMR, that the plan now is to consider "a broader set of options" for the size and location of the institute.The decision reflects the unprecedented opposition the MRC encountered when it revealed plans to close the Mill Hill site and move the NIMR to Cambridge. The proposal was put forward as part of a much wider blueprint for the future of MRC laboratories, called the Forward Investment Strategy.The consultation period for the plans ended on Monday May 26, and the results were discussed a few days later by the full MRC council, as well as a special subcommittee tackling the issue of MRC investment strategy over the next 10 to 15 years.Within hours, it was announced that an expert task force would be set up, chaired jointly by Radda and his successor Colin Blakemore, who will take over the post in October. Others on the task force will include Council members, independent experts and senior scientists from the NIMR.It will look at how NIMR research can be "strategically positioned" within the MRC's overall vision, how dialogue with staff at Mill Hill can be improved and how best to prepare a business case to persuade the government to cover future investment in the NIMR.An interim report will be produced by the end of this year, and a final blueprint completed within the next 12 months.Radda's letter to Skehel hinted there is no time to waste. "I suggest we start to discuss possible composition of the task force and its work programme with you and your senior colleagues when Colin Blakemore and I visit on 5 June," he said.
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