Abstract:
La migración no es un fenómeno nuevo, sino que ha estado ocurriendo desde el nacimiento de la historia de la humanidad. Lo nuevo es que hacia el final del segundo milenio cambió la motivación que origina la migración. En el pasado la gente se trasladaba principalmente en búsqueda de comida, o luego, por razones económicas. Ahora, se aprecia un movimiento significativo de personas a causa del deseo de alcanzar un estilo de vida particular: los migrantes buscan un entorno y una cultura diferente, asociada a las zonas rurales y, en particular, a las zonas rurales situadas en regiones costeras o de monta a. La investigación basada sobre todo en el análisis de datos secundarios y en observación no participante en estas comunidades, indaga en las características de estas migraciones por amenidad en el Oeste Canadiense, analizando los impactos generados por el fenómeno y la crisis de crecimiento de los pueblos de monta a de esta región. Migration is not a new phenomenon but has been happening since the birth of the human history. What is new is that by the end of the second millennium, the motivation that causes migrations changed. In the past, people moved mainly in search of food or, later, for economic reasons. Now, we see a significant movement of people because of the desire to achieve a particular lifestyle: migrants seeking a different environment and culture associated with rural areas and in particular to rural areas located in coastal or mountain regions. Research based mainly on secondary data analysis and participant observation in these communities, explores the characteristics of these migrations for amenity in the Western Canada, analyzing the impacts generated by the phenomenon and the growing pains of the people of mountain regions.

Abstract:
The determination of optical parameters, such as absorption and extinction coefficients, refractive index and the bandgap energy, is crucial to understand the behavior and final efficiency of thin film solar cells based on hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The influence of small variations of the gas flow rates used for the preparation of the p-a-SiC:H layer on the bandgap energy, as well as on the dopant elements concentration, thickness and conductivity of the p-layer, is investigated in this work using several complementary techniques. UV-NIR spectrophotometry and ellipsometry were used for the determination of bandgap energies of four p-a-SiC:H thin films, prepared by using different B 2H 6 and SiH 4 fluxes (B 2H 6 from 12 sccm to 20 sccm and SiH 4 from 6 sccm to 10 sccm). Moreover, radiofrequency glow discharge optical emission spectrometry technique was used for depth profiling characterization of p-a-SiC:H thin films and valuable information about dopant elements concentration and distribution throughout the coating was found. Finally, a direct relationship between the conductivity of p-a-SiC:H thin films and the dopant elements concentration, particularly boron and carbon, was observed for the four selected samples.

The Kabye and Kpaza Massifs correspond to two main granulitic suites in the suture zone of the Pan-African Dahomeyide orogenic belt, in northern Togo. The Kabye Massif is composed of an important west verging nappe pile subdivided into two petrographic units. The nappes in its western petrographic unit are made up of leucocratic garnetbearing granulites defined as the “Lassa-Soumdina Granulites” (GLS). The eastern petrographic unit consists of mela-nocratic granulites, with metagabbroic structures, called the “Ketao-Sirka Granulites” (GKS). These two petrographic units are separated by the Panalo Mylonitic Zone (ZMP). This major west verging zone includes a syn-Dn + 2 dextral shear contact. The Kpaza Massif comprises nappes of melanocratic granulites (GKM), comparable to the GKS of the Kabye Massif.All these granulitic nappes include boudins of pyroxenites or meta-anorthosites, and ultramafic rocks represented by serpentinites, talcschists, actinolite- and chlorite-schists which generally mark thrust soles. The GLS nappes are thrust over the Kara-Niamtougou orthogneissic unit (UKN) which is considered as the easternmost structural unit of the Dahomeyide external zone. On the other hand, the GKS nappes underlie those of the Binah meta-volcanosedimentary Complex (CB) which belongs to the Dahomeyide internal zone. As regards the Kpaza Massif, it occurs as a geologic window tectonically enclosed in the Mono Complex nappes (CM) corresponding to the southern part of the CB.The organization of the Kabye and Kpaza Massifs, as west verging nappe piles, and their relationships with the surrounding structural units express the tangential and folding tectonics that structured the Pan-African belt in northern Togo. The microstructures and mineral parageneses of the granulites and associated rocks in these two massifs indicate a polyphase tectono-metamorphic evolution: a syn-Dn granulitization (collision phase); a syn-Dn + 1 amphibolitization (obduction or tangential phase); and a syn- to post-Dn + 2 greenschist facies retrogressive metamorphism (post-nappe folding phase).

Abstract:
Coral reefs have largely declined across multiple spatial scales due to a combination of local-scale anthropogenic impacts, and due to regional-global climate change. This has resulted in a significant loss of entire coral functional groups, including western Atlantic Staghorn coral (Acropora cervicornis) biotopes, and in a net decline of coral reef ecosystem resilience, ecological functions, services and benefits. Low-tech coral farming has become one of the most important tools to help restore depleted coral reefs across the Wider Caribbean Region. We tested a community-based, low-tech coral farming approach in Culebra Island, Puerto Rico, aimed at adapting to climate change-related impacts through a two-year project to propagate A. cervicornis under two contrasting fishing management conditions, in coastal areas experimenting significant land use changes. Extreme rainfall events and recurrent tropical storms and hurricanes had major site-and method-specific impacts on project outcome, particularly in areas adjacent to deforested lands and subjected to recurrent impacts from land-based source pollution (LBSP) and runoff. Overall, coral survival rate in “A frame” units improved from 73% during 2011-2012 to 81% during 2012-2013. Coral survival rate improved to 97% in horizontal line nurseries (HLN) incorporated during 2012-2013. Percent tissue cover ranged from 86% to 91% in “A frames”, but reached 98% in HLN. Mean coral skeletal extension was 27 cm/y in “A frames” and 40 cm/y in HLN. These growth rates were up to 545% to 857% faster than previous reports from coral farms from other parts of the Caribbean, and up to 438% faster than wild colonies. Branch production and branchiness index (no. harvestable branches > 6 cm) increased by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the original colonies at the beginning of the project. Coral mortality was associated to hurricane physical impacts and sediment-laden runoff impacts associated to extreme rainfall and deforestation of adjacent lands. This raises a challenging question regarding the impact of chronic high sea surface temperature (SST), in combination with recurrent high nutrient pulses, in fostering increased coral growth at the expense of coral physiological conditions which may compromise corals resistance to disturbance. Achieving successful local management of reefs and adjacent lands is vital to maintain the sustained net production in coral farms and of reef structure, and the provision of the important ecosystem services that they provide. These measures are vital for buying time for

Abstract:
In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G: (1). This equation has only 0.81% error compared to the common accepted value [1]. The parameters in the equation are the following: the fine structure constant, qthe elementary charge, the mass of the electron, the permittivity of the free space, ethe exponential function and the relation between a circumference and its diameter. Values attached:[2],

Abstract:
The fine-structure constant α [1] is a constant in physics that plays a fundamental role in the electromagnetic interaction. It is a dimensionless constant, defined as: (1)
being q the elementary charge, ε0 the vacuum permittivity, h the Planck constant and c the speed of light in vacuum. The value shown in (1) is according CODATA 2014 [2].
In this paper, it will be explained that the fine-structure constant is one of the roots of the following equation: (2)
being e the mathematical constant e (the base of the natural logarithm). One of the solutions of this equation is: (3)
This means that it is equal to the CODATA value in nine decimal digits (or the seven most significant ones if you prefer). And therefore, the difference between both values is: (4)
This coincidence is higher in orders of magnitude than the commonly accepted necessary to validate a theory towards experimentation.
As the cosine function is periodical, the Equation (2) has infinite roots and could seem the coincidence is just by chance. But as it will be shown in the paper, the separation among the different solutions is sufficiently high to disregard this possibility.
It will also be shown that another elegant way to show Equation (2) is the following (being i the imaginary unit): (5)
having of course the same root (3). The possible meaning of this other representation (5) will be explained.

Abstract:
In the history of mathematics
different methods have been used to detect if a number is prime or not. In this
paper a new one will be shown. It will be demonstrated that if the following
equation is zero for a certain number p,
this number p would be prime. And
being m an integer number higher than (the lowest, the most efficient the operation). . If the result is an integer, this result will tell
us how many permutations of two divisors, the input number has. As you can
check, no recurrent division by odd or prime numbers is done, to check if the
number is prime or has divisors. To get to this point, we will do the
following. First, we will create a domain with all the composite numbers. This
is easy, as you can just multiply one by one all the integers (greater or equal
than 2) in that domain. So, you will get all the composite numbers (not getting
any prime) in that domain. Then, we will use the Fourier transform to change
from this original domain (called discrete time domain in this regards) to the
frequency domain. There, we can check, using Parseval’s theorem, if a certain
number is there or not. The use of Parseval’s theorem leads to the above
integral. If the number p that we
want to check is not in the domain, the result of the integral is zero and the
number is a prime. If instead, the result is an integer, this integer will tell
us how many permutations of two divisors the number p has. And, in consequence information how many factors, the number p has. So, for any number p lower than 2m？- 1, you can check if it is prime or not, just making the
numerical definite integration. We will apply this integral in a computer
program to check the efficiency of the operation. We will check, if no further
developments are done, the numerical integration is inefficient computing-wise
compared with brute-force checking. To be added, is the question regarding the
level of accuracy needed (number of decimals and number of steps in the
numerical integration) to have a reliable result for large numbers. This will
be commented on the paper, but a separate study will be needed to have detailed
conclusions. Of course,

Abstract:
Le livre d’O. Le Cour Grandmaison est un bel exemple, comme le dit E. Balibar dans sa préface, d’un ouvrage de philosophie populaire éclairant et suggestif.Pourquoi un ouvrage de philosophie populaire ? Parce qu’il s’agit, à partir de la pensée spinoziste, d’analyser la nature et les effets d’un affect particulier – la haine – dans le champ des relations interhumaines ; et il s’agit de le faire philosophiquement, c’est-à-dire non pas en évaluant normativement tel ou tel comportement hain...

Abstract:
Le but de cet article est de saisir ce que signifie, pour le corps, être actif. à partir de la proposition 49 de la partie IV de l’éthique, on propose de distinguer deux manières d’appréhender le corps – soit comme corps organique, soit comme corps affectif -, et l’on montre que la question éthique du devenir actif s’adresse à la dimension affective du corps. Il faut penser le devenir actif du corps affectif comme augmentation de son aptitude non seulement à affecter, mais aussi à être affecté. En effet, être affecté pour le corps n’est pas identique à patir : au contraire, plus est grande l’ouverture sensible d’un corps aux autres corps, plus est grande son activité éthique. The aim of this paper is to understand how the body can be active. With the proposition 49 of the fourth part of Ethics, two ways of conceiving of the body are distinguished : like an organic body or like an affective body. The ethics question of becoming active is about the affective body. This becoming active must be understood as increasing of the ability to affect, as well as to be affected. To be affected is different from to be passive. On the contrary, the more the body is able to be affected, the more he becomes active.

Abstract:
While the routine use of Leontief’s closed model is limited to the case
in which the whole income of an economy goes to wages, this paper shows that
the model also permits the representation of production programs corresponding
to every level of income distribution between wages and profits. In addition,
for each of these programs, the model allows calculating the price system and
the profit rate when this rate is the same in all industries. Thus, the results
obtained in Sraffa’s surplus economy are established following an alternative
way, this makes it possible to build a particular standard system for each
level of income distribution between wages and profits. Besides, the fact that
the model includes the set of households as a particular industrial branch permits
to build a balanced-growth path of the economy in which the quantities of work
used in each industry as well as the goods consumed by the workers are studied
explicitly, unlike what happens in von Neumann’s model. The paper also shows
that, under a weak assumption, the balanced-growth rate is independent of the
worker’s choice.