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Over the past twenty years, the scientific community and politicians in consolidated democracies have been regularly alarmed by political and electoral participation, portrayed as undergoing a brutal and linear decline. Each election is now scrutinized in terms not only of its results but also of its level of electoral turnout. This paper deals with two important issues—the reality of changes in electoral turnout in Europe and the impact of the institutional constraint of compulsory voting in voter turnout levels—through an analysis of 402 elections held in thirty-five States from 1944 until December, the 31st 2009. We do observe a contemporary erosion of voter turnout but at this stage voters are not so impossible to find as some claim they are. Furthermore, the assumption that interest in, and the importance of, compulsory voting as an institutional constraint encouraging voter turnout is confirmed.
This paper shows existence and efficiency of equilibria of a two period production model with uncertainty as a consequence of the catastrophe map being smooth and proper. Its inverse mapping defines a finite covering implying finiteness of equilibria. Beyond the extraction of local equilibrium information of the model, the catastrophe map renders itself well for a global study of the equilibrium set. It is shown that the equilibrium set has the structure of a smooth submanifold of the Euclidean space which is diffeomorphic to the sphere implying connectedness, simple connectedness, and contractibility.
This paper considers a group of consumers who have
preferences over how a good is produced and distributed, rather its traits
alone. Moreover, it is hypothesized that ethical preferences also depend on
prices, and that prices inform consumers about the way goods are produced and
distributed. The concept of conspicuous ethics is introduced in order to
motivate the consumption of ethically produced goods. The paper states the
assumptions and conditions representing the consumption behavior of the ethical
consumer. It is shown that a price-dependent
direct utility function provides the necessary structure in the
characterization of the consumption behavior of the ethical consumer.