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Investigation on Relationship between Test Anxiety and Academic Performance of Nursing and Midwifery Students in Tabriz and Maragheh—Iran  [PDF]
Maedeh Alizadeh, Fattaneh Karimi, Sousan Valizadeh, Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi, Parvin Cheraghi, Asghar Tanomand
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.621345
Abstract: Background and Aim: Given the dramatic decline in the ability of test due to test anxiety, the goal of this study was to evaluate the relationship between test anxiety and academic performances in students. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on 216 Iranian nursing and midwifery students in 2011-2012, utilizing Sarason Anxiety Inventory, demographic checklist and the average mark of students in the period of midterm and final exam. Multinomial logistic regression analyses by reporting odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were performed by SPSS17 software to assess the relationship between test anxiety and academic performances. Results: Mild, moderate and sever test anxiety was observed in 30.6, 43.1 and 26.4 percent of students respectively. Test anxiety was significantly related to academic performance (average), major and city. Also, there was 52.9% decrease for odds of having sever anxiety (compared to mild anxiety) with 1 point increase in average (OR = 0.471, 95% CI = (0.298 - 0.745) and p = 0.001). Conclusions: Due to inverse relationship between test anxiety and academic performance, performing preventive programs such as in time treatment of anxiety, empowering the students to deal with anxiety and conducting consulting services for how to studying are very important. Consequently it would be a big step in decreasing the test anxiety and therefore in improving the academic performance.
Evaluation of Student Satisfaction from Hamadan University of Medical Sciences Educational Process and Programs in 2011-2012
Edris Hoseinzadeh,Yadollah Hamidi,Ghodratollah Roshanaie,Parvin Cheraghi
Pajouhan Scientific Journal , 2013,
Abstract: Introduction: Mission of Universities is to respond to the needs and expectations of its key stakeholders and specially their students. Quality promotion and continuous improvement of education and research processes in universities of medical sciences is important. Determining of student satisfaction level as the most important indicators to reach the desired quality should be considered. Thus this study with purpose of student satisfaction evaluation from education and research processes in Hamadan medical sciences faculties was performed.Material and Methods: This cross - sectional study was conducted in Hamadan University of Medical Sciences at 2011-2012. 385 students selected from all schools based on stratified method. To measure student satisfaction a researcher made questionnaire consisted of 71 questions related to various aspects of educational services (9 compasses) was used. Obtained data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software the chi-square test.Results: Most of the participants (72.2%) were in the age group 25 to 21 years. 50.3 percent of students were female. Most of students were at the undergraduate level (38.8%) and physician (32.9%). Level of satisfaction for all compasses was at moderate level. Based on statistic result only in internships and apprenticeships compasses satisfaction level showed a significant correlation with studying duration (P<0.05). Also in the teachers counseling, workshops and laboratory activity compasses the stratification level had a significance relation with degree (P<0.05).Conclusion: The results showed that the student’s satisfaction from educational processes is at moderate level. Satisfaction level based on degree of students is different, so managers and policy makers of educational system as well as teachers of various degrees can utilize the present study results to restructure of educational strategy in order to promotion the quality and the satisfaction level of educational services.
THE COMPARISON BETWEEN MEDIA/ TEACHING AIDS AND DISCUSSION GROUPS OF EPIDEMIOLOGY LECTURE AMONG PUBLIC HEALTH SCIENCES’ STUDENTS
Maria Cheraghi
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Scientific Innovation , 2012,
Abstract: The aim of study was to compare different types of teaching in epidemiology lecture among public health sciences’ students. It was a comparable study (cross- sectional study), among public health sciences’ students who registered in year 2011- 2012, at the faculty of health sciences, Ahvaz Jundishapur University Medical Sciences, Iran. Twenty two subjects (n= 22) of public health group, faculty of Health Sciences who registered in year 2011- 2012 were involved. The investigator was taught two different types of teaching of topics, with using media such as power point slides, films or videos and creating discussion groups. The epidemiology lecture was included of types of prevention in different categories of diseases, experimental and observational studies in Epidemiology. At the end of each lecture, the students were tested by an exam. The exam consisted of 20 optional questions. Each correct answer was marked as one score. The total and highest score was 20. The results of students were compared to evaluate the best type of teaching. The results showed that mean score of fundamental epidemiology lecture in both first and second semester was higher in teaching by making discussion groups compare to teaching using media. Similar trend was noted for observational and experimental study in first and second semester (p< 0.05 for all parameters). It could be concluded that teaching by making discussion groups is most effective than teaching by using media aids for the three epidemiology subjects.
Combinatorial rigidity for some infinitely renormalizable unicritical polynomials
Davoud Cheraghi
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: We prove combinatorial rigidity of infinitely renormalizable unicritical polynomials, P_c :z \mapsto z^d+c, with complex c, under the a priori bounds and a certain "combinatorial condition". This implies the local connectivity of the connectedness loci (the Mandelbrot set when d = 2) at the corresponding parameters.
Typical orbits of quadratic polynomials with a neutral fixed point: non-Brjuno type
Davoud Cheraghi
Mathematics , 2010,
Abstract: We investigate the quantitative aspects of the near-parabolic renor- malization scheme introduced by Inou and Shishikura. This is used to study the dynamics of an infinite dimensional class of holomorphic maps of the form $f(z)=e^{2\pi i \alpha} z+ O(z^2)$, including the quadratic polynomials $f(z)=e^{2\pi i \alpha} z+ z^2$, for some irrational values of $\alpha$. We prove an optimal upper bound on the size of their max- imal linearization domain in terms of the Siegel-Brjuno series of $\alpha$. In particular, in the special case of quadratic polynomials, we obtain a topological description of the orbits of typical points, a fine-scale feature of the post-critical set, as well as a semi-continuity property of the post-critical set.
Typical orbits of quadratic polynomials with a neutral fixed point: Brjuno type
Davoud Cheraghi
Mathematics , 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s00220-013-1747-5
Abstract: We describe the topological behavior of typical orbits of complex quadratic polynomials P_alpha(z)=e^{2\pi i alpha} z+z^2, with alpha of high return type. Here we prove that for such Brjuno values of alpha the closure of the critical orbit, which is the measure theoretic attractor of the map, has zero area. Then combining with Part I of this work, we show that the limit set of the orbit of a typical point in the Julia set is equal to the closure of the critical orbit.
A Classifier Ensemble of Binary Classifier Ensembles
Hamid Parvin,Sajad Parvin
International Journal of Electronics Communication and Computer Technology , 2011,
Abstract: This paper proposes an innovative combinational algorithm to improve the performance in multiclass classification domains. Because the more accurate classifier the better performance of classification, the researchers in computer communities have been tended to improve the accuracies of classifiers. Although a better performance for classifier is defined the more accurate classifier, but turning to the best classifier is not always the best option to obtain the best quality in classification. It means to reach the best classification there is another alternative to use many inaccurate or weak classifiers each of them is specialized for a sub-space in the problem space and using their consensus vote as the final classifier. So this paper proposes a heuristic classifier ensemble to improve the performance of classification learning. It is specially deal with multiclass problems which their aim is to learn the boundaries of each class from many other classes. Based on the concept of multiclass problems classifiers are divided into two different categories: pairwise classifiers and multiclass classifiers. The aim of a pairwise classifier is to separate one class from another one. Because of pairwise classifiers just train for discrimination between two classes, decision boundaries of them are simpler and more effective than those of multiclass classifiers.The main idea behind the proposed method is to focus classifier in the erroneous spaces of problem and use of pairwise classification concept instead of multiclass classification concept. Indeed although usage of pairwise classification concept instead of multiclass classification concept is not new, we propose a new pairwise classifier ensemble with a very lower order. In this paper, first the most confused classes are determined and then some ensembles of classifiers are created. The classifiers of each of these ensembles jointly work using majority weighting votes. The results of these ensembles are combined to decide the final vote in a weighted manner. Finally the outputs of these ensembles are heuristically aggregated. The proposed framework is evaluated on a very large scale Persian digit handwritten dataset and the experimental results show the effectiveness of the algorithm.
To Understand the Process of Theory and Practice Gap in Nursing Education in Iran
MA Cheraghi,M Salsali
Iranian Journal of Public Health , 2005,
Abstract: Background: The predominant form of nursing education in Iran is university-based education. BSc, MSc, and PhD are the nursing programmes in Iran. The teaching method in Iran is very formal and nursing students obtain much theoretical information that they do not utilize it in practice settings. The system of nursing education in Iran involves a lot of exams and memorization, but students often forget the information after the exam. Thus, nursing students are not very satisfied with this kind of education. In contrast, there is not any professional relationship between practical settings and academic centers, and no major changes in the structure of nursing education were made in response to acceleration of university-based programme. In addition, it is worth mentioning that the dominant form of nursing care in the practical settings is the traditional form, and the practice experience is not integrated with the theoretical content presented in the school blocks of study. In fact, in the four years program of nursing education for getting BSc, there is need to study input, process, context, and output of educational process in order to reach a suitable model according to realities of Iran society health needs. Method: Using Grounded theory, this study is doing. The aim of this study is exploring the processes of theory-practice gap in nursing education in Iran at baccalaureate degree in order to reach a tentative theory about this gap. The phrase "grounded theory" refers to theory that is developed inductively from a corpus of data. If done well, this means that the resulting theory at least fits one dataset perfectly. Questions are included: Where is the gap between theory and practice, and which attempts should be made to bridge it? Samples are: nurse educators, nursing students, clinical nurses, and nurse administrators. The basic idea of the grounded theory approach is to read (and re-read) a textual database (such as a corpus of field notes) and "discover" or label variables (called categories, concepts and properties) and their interrelationships. The ability to perceive variables and relationships is termed "theoretical sensitivity" and is affected by a number of things including one’s reading of the literature and one’s use of techniques designed to enhance sensitivity. For covering this aims, constant comparison method throughout the open, axial, and selective coding of study has been applied. Strauss and Corbin method of coding is applying in this study. Finding: This study is in the early of its stage, and accordingly, the researcher is study
Antioxidant Supplementation among Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): Is it Necessary?
E. Pirabbasi,M. Cheraghi
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2012,
Abstract: The development of airflow limitation is related to inadequate antioxidant intake and hence dietary supplementation may be a beneficial therapeutic intervention. Antioxidants with good bioavailability or molecules that have antioxidant enzyme activity may not only protect cells against the direct injurious effects of oxidants, but may fundamentally alter the inflammatory events that play an important part in the pathogenesis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). We aimed to review highlights the role of antioxidant and antioxidant vitamins in respiratory health. This is a retrospective study which is reviewing twenty cross-sectional and nine interventional studies from years 1990 to 2007 which were journal publications on the benefits of antioxidants and antioxidant supplementation among COPD patients. The results and finding from reviewing the studies, revealed that antioxidant vitamins [e.g. Vitamin A, E, C and N-acetyl Cysteine (NAC)] had an important role in respiratory health and lung function.
A Glance of Children Health Related Food Advertisements on Channel 2 and News Network of Iran
Khodabakhsh Karami,Maria Cheraghi
Pakistan Journal of Nutrition , 2011,
Abstract: Many children get home work from school and spend their considerable time in front of the TV screens. The pattern of food advertisements viewed by the TV's is essential. Socio-cultural factors have an important role in food choices. Nutritional status of children is even very effective for a healthy life in adolescent. Studies show that people choices for both valuable or junk foods and drinks are affected by advertisement that they view. We aimed to assess the food advertising mode on Channel 2 and News Network of Iran Broadcasting. The advertised subjects have been evaluated in January and February 2010 for 20 days (10 days for every channel including 4 weekends and 6 working days). 78% of the food advertising time on channel 2 was for junk and unhealthy foods and the proportions for News Network was 72%. More than 85% of food advertising broadcast on channel 2 for kids attributed to unhealthy food. The study has shown that most of the TV nutritional advertisements were targeted for junk snacks and food with low value nutrients including high in fat, sugars, salt and other additives. The education of the population with respect of food choices and availability of wide selection of safe foods and avoidance of junk foods should be a strategy for health concerning policy makers. National law and regulations also must be enacted for legal prohibition of advertising junk and poor nutrient foods.
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