This research aims to study the movement of orbits proposed by Mohammed et al. in 2015 and 2016, and their impact on the encoding of letters adopted by Mahmood and Mahmood in 2019 in order to make the latter more difficult when read in the theory of partition.

Abstract:
The objective of this study is to compare the partition of heat energy (HE) in two sheep breeds by indirect calorimetry and integral calculus. An experiment was conducted with two Spanish native sheep breeds (dry and non-pregnant) which were fed with pelleted mixed diets above maintenance. Six Guirras and six Manchegas breed sheep were selected (58.8 ± 3.1 and 60.2 ± 3.2 kg body weight, respectively). All sheep were fed with the same concentrate mixed ration (0.300 kg cereal straw as forage and 0.700 kg concentrate) in two meals. Half the daily ration was offered at 800 h and another half at 1600 h. The sheep had free access to water. Sheep were allocated in metabolic cages; energy balance and gas exchange were assessed in each sheep. The statistical analyses included the fixed effect of breed and random effect of sheep. The metabolic energy (ME) for maintenance represented 69% of the total ME intake and the average was 354 kJ per kg of metabolic body weight (kg0.75 BW) on average. The basal metabolism (HeE) was greater (P < 0.05) in Guirra than Manchega breed (270 ± 18 vs. 247 ± 15 kJ/kg0.75 BW and day). As sheep were fed with above maintenance, the retained energy in the body accounted for 22% of the ME intake and 77% of the ME intake was lost as heat. 51% of the MEI was converted to HeE; 5% was lost as physical activity of standing and lying down (HjE), and 13% was associated with the process of feeding and work of digestion and metabolism (HdE). Within HdE, 47% represented the cost of intake and feeding and 54% the cost of digestion and metabolism. No differences in HE partition between breeds were found, although Guirra breed showed less efficiency of energy retention than Manchega breed. Therefore, this study demonstrated a tentative approach of partitioning HE, combining indirect calorimetry and integral calculus.

Abstract:
Transdermal delivery acts as an alternative to oral delivery of drugs and possibly provids also an alternative to hypodermic injection. Transdermal delivery when compared to oral route has a variety of advantages namely: avoiding the degradation of drugs in the stomach environment, providing steady plasma levels, avoiding first-pass metabolism, increaseing patient compliance, easy to use, non-invasive and inexpensive, increasing the therapeutic index with a simultaneous decrease in drug side effects. Despite these advantages, one of the greatest challenges to transdermal delivery is that only a limited number of drugs are amenable to administration by this route. Gemifloxacin, a broad spectrum fourth generation quinolone antibacterial agent has pharmacokinetic characteristics (particularly its low maximum plasma concentration, obtained following repeat oral dose of 320 mg) that makes it a potential target for transdermal delivery. The objective of the study was to explore the possibility of surfactants (anionic, cationic and nonionic) acting as dermal enhancers of gemifloxacin assuming that the drug is to be formulated into topical or transdermal pharmaceutical dosage form. To accomplish the objective, gemifloxacin was partitioned between chloroform and surfactants containing varying concentrations of sodium lauryl sulfate, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, polysorbate-20 and polysorbate-80. The data obtained were used to estimate the dermal permeability coefficient. The partitioning was carried out by shake flask method at room temperature. It was observed that all the surfactants decreased the partition behavior of gemifloxacin when compared to that of water alone. Sodium lauryl sulfate produced the most decreasing partition effect at the highest concentration studied (2% w/v). The permeability coefficient (Kp) was estimated from the partition coefficient data and the molecular weight of the drug. As permeability coefficient is an important descriptor for evaluating dermal absorption of drugs employed in clinical treatment of various dermal accessible ailments, the results of the study suggest that the investigated surfactants might not be potential transdermal enhancers of gemifloxacin.

Abstract:
A second-order dynamic phase transition in a non-equilibrium Eggers urn model for the separation of sand is studied. The order parameter, the susceptibility and the stationary probability distribution have been calculated. By applying the Lee--Yang zeros method of equilibrium phase transitions, we study the distributions of the effective partition function zeros and obtain the same result for the model. Thus, the Lee--Yang theory can be applied to a more general non-equilibrium system.

Abstract:
Spectral clustering algorithms are newly developing technique in recent years.Unlike the traditional clustering algorithms,these apply spectral graph theory to solve the clustering of non-convex sphere of sample spaces,so that they can be converged to global optimal solution.In this paper,the clustering principle based on graph theory is first introduced,and then spectral clustering algorithms are categorized according to rules of graph partition,and typical algorithms are studied emphatically,as well as th...

Abstract:
The rough set theory is introduced to deal with vagueness and uncertainty. In some aspects, the rough set theory overlaps with the DempsterShafer theory of evidence, but the rough set theory uses partitions to specify rough sets, lower and upper approximations, and then to capture uncertainty in knowledge representation. In this paper, directing against the discrepancy in the specification between the two theories, the authors explore their relationship in order for ones to understand them and open the way of applying them. In addition, in evidence theory, the basic aperation to combine evidences is the orthogonal sum, while in the rough set theory, the basic operation is the intersection of partition. Therefore, Does the evidence combination correspond to the partition? is the question which may be naturally raised. An example is presented to show that the answer is no.

Abstract:
The purpose of this paper is to introduce to you, the Western people, nowadays a “widely unknown” Japanese thermodynamicist by the name of Motoyosi Sugita and his study on the thermodynamics of transient phenomena and his theory of life. This is because although he was one of the top theoretical physicists in Japan before, during and after WWII and after WWII he promoted the establishment of the biophysical society of Japan as one of the founding members, he himself and his studies themselves have seemed to be totally forgotten nowadays in spite that his study was absolutely important for the study of life. Therefore, in this paper I would like to present what kind of person he was and what he studied in physics as a review on the physics work of Motoyosi Sugita for the first time. I will follow his past studies to introduce his ideas in theoretical physics as well as in biophysics as follows: He proposed the bright ideas such as the quasi-static change in the broad sense, the virtual heat, and the field of chemical potential etc. in order to establish his own theory of thermodynamics of transient phenomena, as the generalization of the Onsager-Prigogine’s theory of the irreversible processes. By the concept of the field of chemical potential that acquired the nonlinear transport, he was seemingly successful to exceed and go beyond the scope of Onsager and Prigogine. Once he established his thermodynamics, he explored the existence of the 4th law of thermodynamics for the foundation of theory of life. He applied it to broad categories of transient phenomena including life and life being such as the theory of metabolism. He regarded the 4th law of thermodynamics as the maximum principle in transient phenomena. He tried to prove it all life long. Since I have recently found that his maximum principle can be included in more general maximum principle, which was known as the Pontryagin’s maximum principle in the theory of optimal control, I would like to explain such theories produced by Motoyosi Sugita as detailed as possible. And also I have put short history of Motoyosi Sugita’s personal life in order for you to know him well. I hope that this article helps you to know this wonderful man and understand what he did in the past, which was totally forgotten in the world and even in Japan.

Many problems of discrete optimization are connected
with partition of the n-dimensional
space into certain subsets,and the requirements needed for these subsets
can be geometrical—for instance, their sphericity—or they can be connected
with certain metrics—for instance, the requirement that subsets are Dirichlet’s
regions with Hamming’s metrics [1]. Often partitions into some subsets are
considered, on which a functional is optimized [2].In the present work, the
partitions of the n-dimensional space
into subsets with “zero” limitation are considered. Such partitions allowus to construct the set of the group codes,V, and the set of the channels,A, between the arbitrary
elements, V

Abstract:
This short expository note establishes that
the whole of science is derivable from a certain cosmic parameter called the
index of the universe.