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Brahmi rasayana Improves Learning and Memory in Mice
Hanumanthachar Joshi,Milind Parle
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2006, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/nek014
Abstract: Cure of cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer's disease is still a nightmare in the field of medicine. Nootropic agents such as piracetam, aniracetam and choline esterase inhibitors like Donepezil? are being used to improve memory, mood and behavior, but the resulting side effects associated with these agents have made their use limited. The present study was undertaken to assess the potential of Brahmi rasayana (BR) as a memory enhancer. BR (100 and 200 mg kg−1 p.o.) was administered for eight successive days to both young and aged mice. Elevated plus maze and passive-avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p.) was used to induce amnesia in mice. The effect of BR on whole brain AChE activity was also assessed. Piracetam (200 mg kg−1 i.p.) was used as a standard nootropic agent. BR significantly improved learning and memory in young mice and reversed the amnesia induced by both scopolamine (0.4 mg kg−1 i.p.) and natural aging. BR significantly decreased whole brain acetyl cholinesterase activity. BR might prove to be a useful memory restorative agent in the treatment of dementia seen in elderly.
Antiamnesic Activity of an Ayurvedic Formulation Chyawanprash in Mice
Milind Parle,Nitin Bansal
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2011, DOI: 10.1093/ecam/neq021
Abstract: Chyawanprash (Chy) is an ayurvedic formulation commonly consumed in Indian households. Chy is a comprehensive herbal tonic, prepared from around 50 herbs employing anwala (Emblica officinalis) as the basic ingredient. The present study was undertaken to explore the beneficial effects of Chy (at the dose of 1 and 2% w/w of diet) administered daily for 15 successive days in mice with memory deficits. A total of 228 mice divided in 38 groups were employed in this study. Morris water maze, Hebb-Williams maze and elevated plus maze served as exteroceptive memory models, whereas scopolamine (Sco)-induced amnesia and alprazolam (Alp)-induced amnesia served as interoceptive memory models. The brain acetylcholinesterase activity, brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione levels (GSH) were also estimated. The administration of Chy for 15 consecutive days significantly protected the animals from developing memory impairment. Furthermore, there was a significant decrease in brain TBARS and increase in GSH levels after administration of Chy (2% w/w), thereby indicating decreased free radical generation and increased scavenging of free radical, respectively. Thus, Chy may prove to be a useful remedy for the management of Alzheimer’s disease owing to its antioxidant effect, pro-cholinergic action and/or antiamnesic potential.
Evaluation of the antiamnesic effects of Phyllanthus amarus in mice
Joshi,Hanumanthachar; Parle,Milind;
Colombia Médica , 2007,
Abstract: alzheimer?s disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a gradual decline in memory. phyllanhus amarus is commonly known as bhumi amla in india and is traditionally used since centuries in ayurveda medicine. the present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of phyllanhus amarus (pa) on cognitive functions and brain cholinesterase activity in mice. elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were employed to evaluate learning and memory parameters. three doses (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) of aqueous extract of pa were administered for 8 successive days to both young and aged mice. pa (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) produced a dose-dependent improvement in memory scores of young and older mice. pa also reversed successfully the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). interestingly, brain acetyl cholinesterase activity was also reduced. the underlying mechanism of action for the observed nootropic effect may be attributed to pro-cholinergic activity exhibited by pa in the present study. therefore, it would be worthwhile to explore the therapeutic potential of pa in the management of patients with cognitive disorders.
Pharmacological Evidences for the Antiamnesic Effects of Desmodium gangeticum in mice
Joshi Hanumanthachar,Parle Milind
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 2007,
Abstract: Dementia is one of the age related mental problems and a characteristic symptom of various neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer’s disease. Desmodium gangeticum DC. (Leguminosae) is widely used in Ayurveda for treating various neurological disorders. In the present study, the effectiveness of aqueous extract of D. gangeticum in attenuating scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice was investigated. Passive avoidance paradigm was used to assess long-term memory. In order to delineate the possible mechanism through which D. gangeticum elicits the anti-amnesic effects, we studied its influence on central cholinergic activity by estimating the acetylcholine content of the whole brain and acetylcholinesterase activity at different regions of the mouse brain, viz., cerebral cortex, midbrain, medulla oblongata and cerebellum. Pretreatment with D. gangeticum (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) for seven successive days, reversed scopolamine induced amnesia in mice. D. gangeticum increased mice brain acetylcholine content and decreased acetyl cholinesterase activity in a similar manner to the standard cerebro-protective drug piracetam. Hence, aqueous extract of D. gangeticum can be used to delay the onset and reduce the severity of the symptoms of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.
IS BOTTLE GOURD A NATURAL GUARD??
Parle Milind,Kaur Satbir
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Bottle gourd is one of the excellent fruits gifted by nature to human beings having composition of all the essential constituents that are required for good health and quality human life. Lagenaria siceraria (Cucurbitaceae), popularly known as bottle gourd, lauki or ghiya, is a climbing plant, which bears hard-shelled and bottle-shaped gourds as fruits. It forms an excellent diet being rich in vitamins, iron and minerals. The fruit is reported to contain the triterepenoide cucurbitacins B, D, G, H, two sterols viz., fucosterol and campesterol, aerpene byonolic acid (an allergic compound), flavone-C glycosides (a ribosome inactivating protein) and lagenin. Extract of the ghiya seeds show antibiotic activity. The fruit juice is helpful in constipation, premature graying hair, urinary disorders and insomnia. Lauki has the highest content of choline among all the vegetables known to man till date, which serves as the precursor of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which in turn is crucial for retaining and enhancing memory. Furthermore, Lagenaria siceraria is a vegetable useful in the management of many diseases like cardiac disorders, hepatic diseases and ulcer. Bottle gourd juice helps to regulate blood pressure of hypertensive patients, because of its high potassium content. It helps in losing weight quickly, because of its high dietary fiber and low fat and cholesterol content. In the light of above facts, the authors have made a humble attempt to compile an up-to-date review article on Lagenaria siceraria covering its phytochemistry, pharmacological actions and folk medicinal uses.
HOW TO LIVE WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS???
Parle Milind,Kaura Sushila
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2012,
Abstract: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic auto-immune disease characterized by painful inflammation of the joints and surrounding tissues, leading to long term disability. Rheumatoid arthritis can begin at any age but has its peak between 35 to 55 years of age. RA shows hereditary linkage. Women and smokers are most often affected. The patient doesn’t feel any symptoms during inactive state of the disease. RA progresses in a symmetrical pattern involving both the sides of the body. Once rheumatoid arthritis is confirmed by diagnosis, treatment should start as early as possible. The treatment for rheumatoid arthritis focuses initially on reducing the joint inflammation and pain with the use of analgesics and anti-inflammatory agents. In the next stage, joint function is restored by administering Disease Modifying Anti-rheumatic Drugs (DMARDs) thus preventing joint deformity. Treatment is generally based on the degree of severity of RA. Patients with mild RA are advised to take rest and are prescribed analgesics and anti-inflammatory medicines, which include fast acting drugs like NSAIDs. Slow acting drugs like (DMARDs) such as methotrexate, sulfasalazine, lelflunomide etc., and Body’s reaction modifiers (BRMs) such as rituximab, anankinra, infliximab etc., are reserved for patients suffering from moderate to severe RA. The patient is advised to undertake regular exercises like walking, stretching, swimming or cycling, which are aimed at reducing body weight. The patient suffering from arthritis can carry out his normal day-to-day activities with the help of proper medication and regular exercise.
PRO-CHOLINERGIC, HYPO-CHOLESTEROLEMIC AND MEMORY IMPROVING EFFECTS OF CLOVE
Parle Milind,Khanna Deepa
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Clove is found to possess useful medicinal properties, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-oxidant. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of Syzygium aromaticum (Clove) on cognitive functions in mice. Clove powder was administered orally along with diet in three doses (400, 800, 1600mg/kg) for seven successive days. 250 Swiss young mice divided in 50 groups and 100 aged mice divided in 20 groups were employed in the present study. The learning and memory parameters were assessed using elevated plus maze, passive avoidance apparatus and Hebb-Williams maze. Clove showed significant improvement in the memory of young and aged animals as reflected by decreased TL as well as TRC and increased SDL values. It also reversed the amnesia caused by ethanol (1.0 g/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1mg/kg, i.p.). Furthermore, Clove reduced significantly the brain cholinesterase activity in young mice by 50.5 % and aged mice by 21.25 % at the dose of 800 mg/kg. Clove also showed remarkable reduction to the extent of 33% and 66.32 % in the total cholesterol levels of young and aged mice at the dose of 800 mg/kg. Diminished cholinergic transmission and high cholesterol levels appear to be responsible for the development of dementia in Alzheimer patients. Since Clove powder enhanced Ach levels and lowered cholesterol levels in the present study; it appears to be a promising candidate for improving memory. Thus it would be worthwhile to explore the potential of this spice (Clove) clinically in the management of Alzheimer’s disease.
WALNUT: NOT A HARD NUT TO CRACK
Parle Milind,Khanna Deepa
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Walnuts grow on large trees, known for their beauty, timber and tasty edible nuts. There are many varieties of walnuts that vary in hardiness, nut size and thickness of the nut shell. When it comes to their health benefits, Walnuts definitely are not hard nuts to crack. They contain free radical scavenging compounds like ellagic acid, juglone and certain phytosterols that support the immune system and appear to have anti-cancer properties. Walnuts have higher contents of polyunsaturated fatty acids including α-Linolenic acid, than do other nuts which may give walnuts additional anti-atherogenic and cosmetic value. It was found in clinical trials that walnut consumption in the amount of two to three servings per day consistently decreased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Linolenic acid and Linoleic acids present abundantly in walnuts are crucial for maintaining skin functions such as regulation of transepidermal water loss and anti- inflammatory action. The beneficial action of walnut oil on skin is known for centuries and is widely used in cosmetic industry. The walnut oil is a component of dry skin creams, anti-wrinkle and anti-ageing products as it possesses moisturizing property as well as free radical scavenging capacity. Besides, they also exhibit anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, anti-stress, anti-ageing and Hepatoprotective activities. “Walnuts are better than cookies, french fries or potato chips, when you need a snack” as they provide rich nutrients. In the light of above, we thought it worthwhile to compile an up-to-date review article on Walnuts covering its synonyms, phytoconstituents, phytopharmacology and medicinal uses.
BASKETFUL BENEFITS OF PAPAYA
Parle Milind,Gurditta
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Papaya (Carica papaya linn) is well known for its exceptional nutritional and medicinal properties throughout the world. From the times immemorial, the whole Papaya plant including its leaves, seeds, ripe and unripe fruits and their juice is used as a traditional medicine. The fruit has a large oval shape, yellowish-green skin and yellow flesh. Nowadays, Papaya is considered as a Nutraceutical fruit due to its multi-faceted medicinal properties. The prominent medicinal properties of Papaya include Anti-fertility, Uterotonic, Diuretic, Anti-hypertensive, Hypolipidemic, Anti-helmintic, Wound-healing, Anti-fungal, Anti-bacterial, Anti-tumor and Free radical scavenging activities. Phytochemically, the whole plant contains enzymes (Papain), carotenoids, alkaloids, monoterpenoids, flavonoids, minerals and vitamins. In the present review article, a humble attempt is made to compile all the strange facts available about this tasty fruit. This tasty fruit of Papaya is popular among family members of all ages for the delicious dishes derived from it.
MUSK MELON IS EAT-MUST MELON
Parle Milind,Singh Kulwant
International Research Journal of Pharmacy , 2011,
Abstract: Benjamin Franklin, America’s greatest citizen, a printer by trade, scientist and philosopher by fame said, “Women & Melons are difficult to understand”. Musk melon (Cucumis melo) is a beautiful, juicy, tasty fruit of the Cucurbitaceae family, which includes 825 species in 118-119 genera. This family contains all the edible gourds, such as cucumbers, watermelons, Musk melons, squash, and pumpkins. Musk melon is cultivated in all tropical and subtropical areas of the world for its nutritional and medicinal value. The fruit is commonly known as Kharbooja in Hindi and Musk melon or Cantaloupe in English. The phytoconstituents from various parts of the plant include β-carotenes, apocaretenoids, ascorbic acid, flavonoids, terpenoids, chromone derivatives, carbohydrates, amino acids, fatty acids, phospholipids, glycolipids, volatile components and various minerals. Cucumis melo has been shown to possess useful medicinal properties such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, free radical scavenging, anti-platelet, anti-ulcer, anti-cancer, anti-microbial, hepato-protective, diuretic, anti-diabetic, anthelmintic and anti-fertility activity. Thus, it is evident that Musk melon fruit possess a wide range of useful medicinal properties, which can be exploited clinically. The present review article covers comprehensively up-to-date information on the chemical constituents and medicinal profile of Musk melon.
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