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The Effect of Federal Government Size on Long-Term Economic Growth in the United States, 1791-2009  [PDF]
Federico Guerrero, Elliott Parker
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.38120
Abstract: We consider whether there is statistical evidence for a causal relationship between federal government expenditures and growth in real GDP in the United States, using available data going back to 1791. After studying the time-series properties of these variables for stationarity and cointegration, we investigate Granger causality in detail in the context of a Vector Error Correction Model. While we find causal evidence that faster GDP growth leads to faster growth in government spending, we find no evidence supporting the common assertion that a larger government sector leads to slower economic growth.
Business Strategy and Leadership Style: Impact on Organizational Performance in the Manufacturing Sector of Ghana  [PDF]
John Parker Yanney
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.412083
Abstract: This study sought to investigate the impact of leadership styles and business strategy on the organizational performance of small medium scale enterprises (SMEs) in the manufacturing sector of Ghana. This had become necessary due to the fact that available literature on the subject matter lacked precision in terms of the specific leadership style and strategy which could better be employed to improve performance in the chosen area of study. A field survey (by means of questionnaires) was conducted in Accra, involving 60 CEOs and senior managers drawn from 10 organizations, which were randomly sampled for the study. In addition, a time series data from 2008 to 2013 on sales, profits before tax and employment from the 10 organizations were collected to develop performance indices for the organizations. Regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were then run to examine the relationship between leadership, strategy and organizational performance. The study revealed that leadership and business strategy statistically and significantly impacted on organizational performance but strategy had greater influence. Again, transformational leadership style and cost leadership significantly influenced organizational behaviour (p = 0.000 < 0.01) but transactioanal leadership style, differentiation and focus strategies did not. The study recommends that SMEs should take advantage of transformational leadership style and cost leadership to enhance growth and induce greater organizational performance.
Valuation and Risk Assessment of a Portfolio of Variable Annuities: A Vector Autoregression Approach  [PDF]
Albina Orlando, Gary Parker
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2018.82023
Abstract: This paper focuses on assessing the financial position of an insurer issuing a portfolio of Variable Annuities (VAs). Two multivariate models for the underlying and the interest rate are considered. The first model uses a single total rate of return for the basket of assets. The second one, jointly models the rates of return on the n assets in the basket. For simplicity, the insurer is assumed to be able to implement a static hedging programme to manage the risk. As an example, a homogeneous portfolio of VAs with GMDB and GMMB guarantees offering different investment opportunities to the policyholders is studied. The insurer can choose to rebalance the basket of assets regularly or not. Results for these two cases are presented.
Stigma, prejudice and discrimination in global public health
Parker, Richard;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2012000100017
Abstract: this article reviews the development of international research on the relationship between discrimination and health. it provides an overview of theoretical and empirical work on stigma and prejudice and their impact on discrimination and health. it argues that the literature on these issues has drawn primarily from social psychology and has focused on the impact of attitudes associated with stigma and prejudice on discriminatory practices and consequently health outcomes. it also identifies a growing trend in recent research towards a reconceptualization of stigma, prejudice and discrimination from the perspective of social inequality and structural violence, highlighting relations of power and exclusion that reinforce vulnerability within a complex social and political process. it concludes by briefly examining the ways in which this reconceptualization of discriminatory practices has generated a growing interest in the linkages between health and human rights and renewed interest in health and social justice; two major trends in the field of global public health.
Unintended consequences: evaluating the impact of HIV and AIDS on sexuality research and policy debates
Parker, Richard;
Cadernos de Saúde Pública , 2009, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-311X2009001400007
Abstract: the hiv epidemic has had a profound impact on how we think about, talk about, and carry out research on sexuality. the epidemic opened up a wide range of approaches and methodologies within sexuality research, helping to encourage more open public discussion and debate concerning sexuality, sexual values, and sexual norms. sexuality became one of the key contested spaces of public discourse in a previously unimaginable way, and both conservative and progressive forces have entered the debate in ways that have had a lasting impact on sexual policies in the last two decades. the current article seeks to briefly evaluate some of these important changes. it suggests that recent advances have decelerated or become more timid, while emphasizing the continued importance of seeking to address sexuality as a central issue within the context of hiv and aids. although such developments may have been unintended, the ways we respond to the epidemic can have a significant impact (for better or worse) on how issues related to sexuality and sexual health are addressed.
Teoria social lacaniana e prática clínica
Parker, Ian;
Psicologia & Sociedade , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-71822002000200004
Abstract: an intellectual encounter between three writers sympathetic to some degree with lacan's work has been recorded in the book contingency, hegemony, universality (butler, laclau and ·i·ek, 2000a). these three writers are well known in the overlapping collection of fuzzy sets "cultural studies", "literary theory" and "political theory", and, as the subtitle of the book "contemporary dialogues on the left" indicates, they also have some sympathy with marxist, "post-marxist" or feminist politics. one question that the debate between the three often returns to is whether it is possible to articulate lacanian theory with radical politics. however, another question that is embedded in the encounter but which is only obliquely addressed is whether there are clinical implications for the kind of leftist readings of lacan that these three writers engage in. i focus on that question in this paper.
Las elecciones de diciembre 2005 y la cuestión democrática
Revista Venezolana de Economía y Ciencias Sociales , 2006,
Abstract: abstract just days before the venezuelan parliamentary elections of december 2005, the main opposition parties withdrew their candidates, leaving the national assembly in the hands of those parties which support the chávez administration. apparently, the decision was made, taking into account that the most reliable opinion polls indicated that the pro-government parties would manage to win more than the two-thirds majority necessary, according to the constitution, in order to approve major legislative proposals. nevertheless, the opposition parties explained their decision, adducing the lack of ?democratic guaranties?. as both the opposition and the pro-government parties proclaimed their own democratic credentials and accused each other of being anti-democratic, the author of this article tries to examine what one and another understand when they talk about democracy
?De qué democracia estamos hablando?
Revista Venezolana de Economía y Ciencias Sociales , 2006,
Abstract: this article takes as its starting-point the fact that, within the context of a venezuelan society that is politically polarized, the two groups in conflict proclaim their own democratic credentials and accuse their opponents of being anti-democratic. in the december 2005 election campaign, there are two clearly differentiated ways of understanding what is meant by ?democracy? and the author tries to explore the political logic and the inherent tensions of the two: that of an opposition which emphasizes formal and procedural problems; and that of the pro-government forces which defend the notion of a participatory democracy.
Chávez y la búsqueda de una seguridad y soberanía alimentarias
Revista Venezolana de Economía y Ciencias Sociales , 2008,
Abstract: this article examines the concepts of ?security? and ?sovereignty? and the way in which they have been used in the debates over food. after clarifying these issues, the author analyzes the policy of the chávez government during the last ten years, underlining the dimensions of the challenge assumed in 1999, presenting the different measures adopted and their implementation and attempting to evaluate the results. the article concludes that the problem of food sovereignty has not been solved and could well become more acute with the onset of the world recession and the fall in oil prices.
El desarrollo endógeno: ?Camino al socialismo del siglo XXI?
Revista Venezolana de Economía y Ciencias Sociales , 2007,
Abstract: endogenous development is considered by some as the key to advancing towards a twenty first-century socialism. however, little attention has been paid to the potential ambiguities of the concept of endogenous development. the author examines some of the different ways in which it has been understood and suggests that its application in the case of venezuela is sui generis, precisely because it has been tied to a policy of empowering popular organization, which is precisely the feature which could relate it to a socialist perspective
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