Abstract:
Luttinger's theorem is a fundamental result in the theory of interacting Fermi systems: it states that the volume inside the Fermi surface is left invariant by interactions, if the number of particles is held fixed. Although this is traditionally justified using perturbation theory, it can be viewed as arising from a momentum balance argument that examines the response of the ground state to the insertion of a single flux quantum [M. Oshikawa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 3370 (2000)]. This reveals that the Fermi sea volume is a topologically protected quantity. Extending this approach, I show that spinless or spin-rotation-preserving fermionic systems in non-symmorphic crystals possess generalized topological 'Luttinger invariants' that can be nonzero even in cases where the Fermi sea volume vanishes. A nonzero Luttinger invariant then forces energy bands to touch, leading to semimetals whose gaplessness is thus rooted in topology; opening a gap without symmetry breaking automatically triggers fractionalization. The existence of these invariants is linked to the inability of non-symmorphic crystals to host band insulating ground states except at special fillings. I exemplify the use of these new invariants by showing that they distinguish various classes of two- and three-dimensional semimetals.

Abstract:
The slopes of maximal subbundles of rank $s$ divided by the degree of the map under various pull backs form a bounded collection of numbers called the $s$-spectrum of the bundle. We study the supremum of the $s$-spectrum and determine it in terms of the Harder Narasimhan filtration of the bundle.

Abstract:
Let X be an irreducible smooth projective curve, of genus at least two, defined over an algebraically closed field of characteristic different from two. If X admits a nontrivial automorphism \sigma that fixes pointwise all the order two points of Pic}^0(X), then we prove that X is hyperelliptic with \sigma being the unique hyperelliptic involution. As a corollary, if a nontrivial automorphisms \sigma' of X fixes pointwise all the theta characteristics on X, then X is hyperelliptic with \sigma' being its hyperelliptic involution.

Abstract:
We give an algebraic approach to the study of Hitchin pairs and prove the tensor product theorem for Higgs semistable Hitchin pairs over smooth projective curves defined over algebraically closed fields $k$ of characteristic $0$ and characteristic $p$, with $p$ satisfying some natural bounds. We also prove the corresponding theorem for polystable bundles.

Abstract:
We prove an analogue in higher dimensions of the classical Narasimhan-Seshadri theorem for strongly stable vector bundles of degree 0 on a smooth projective variety $X$ with a fixed ample line bundle $\Theta$. As applications, over fields of characteristic zero, we give a new proof of the main theorem in a recent paper of Balaji and Koll\'ar and derive an effective version of this theorem; over uncountable fields of positive characteristics, if $G$ is a simple and simply connected algebraic group and the characteristic of the field is bigger than the Coxeter index of $G$, we prove the existence of strongly stable principal $G$ bundles on smooth projective surfaces whose holonomy group is the whole of $G$.

Abstract:
Let $X$ be a smooth projective curve defined over an algebraically closed field $k$, and let $E$ be a vector bundle on $X$. We compute the nef cone of any flag bundle associated to $E$.

Abstract:
We define formal orbifolds over an algebraically closed field of arbitrary characteristic as curves together with some branch data. Their \'etale coverings and their fundamental groups are also defined. These fundamental group approximates the fundamental group of an appropriate affine curve. We also define vector bundles on these objects and the category of orbifold bundles on any smooth projective curve. Analogues of various statement about vector bundles which are true in characteristic zero are proved. Some of these are positive characteristic avatar of notions which appear in the second author's work ([Par]) in characteristic zero.

Abstract:
Let $M$ be an irreducible projective variety over an algebraically closed field $k$ of characteristic zero equipped with an action of a group $\Gamma$. Let $E_G$ be a principal $G$--bundle over $M$, where $G$ is a connected reductive algebraic group over $k$, equipped with a lift of the action of $\Gamma$ on $M$. We give conditions for $E_G$ to admit a $\Gamma$--equivariant reduction of structure group to $H$, where $H \subset G$ is a Levi subgroup. We show that for $E_G$, there is a naturally associated conjugacy class of Levi subgroups of $G$. Given a Levi subgroup $H$ in this conjugacy class, $E_G$ admits a $\Gamma$--equivariant reduction of structure group to $H$, and furthermore, such a reduction is unique up to an automorphism of $E_G$ that commutes with the action of $\Gamma$.

Abstract:
Let $X$ be a geometrically irreducible smooth projective curve defined over a field $k$. Assume that $X$ has a $k$-rational point; fix a $k$-rational point $x\in X$. From these data we construct an affine group scheme ${\mathcal G}_X$ defined over the field $k$ as well as a principal ${\mathcal G}_X$-bundle $E_{{\mathcal G}_X}$ over the curve $X$. The group scheme ${\mathcal G}_X$ is given by a ${\mathbb Q}$--graded neutral Tannakian category built out of all strongly semistable vector bundles over $X$. The principal bundle $E_{{\mathcal G}_X}$ is tautological. Let $G$ be a linear algebraic group, defined over $k$, that does not admit any nontrivial character which is trivial on the connected component, containing the identity element, of the reduced center of $G$. Let $E_G$ be a strongly semistable principal $G$-bundle over $X$. We associate to $E_G$ a group scheme $M$ defined over $k$, which we call the monodromy group scheme of $E_G$, and a principal $M$-bundle $E_M$ over $X$, which we call the monodromy bundle of $E_G$. The group scheme $M$ is canonically a quotient of ${\mathcal G}_X$, and $E_M$ is the extension of structure group of $E_{{\mathcal G}_X}$. The group scheme $M$ is also canonically embedded in the fiber ${\rm Ad}(E_G)_{x}$ over $x$ of the adjoint bundle.