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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2976 matches for " Pape Samba Ba "
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Diabetes and Hypertension among Patients Receiving Antiretroviral Treatment Since 1998 in Senegal: Prevalence and Associated Factors
Assane Diouf,Amandine Cournil,Khadidiatou Ba-Fall,Ndèye Fatou Ngom-Guèye,Sabrina Eymard-Duvernay,Ibrahima Ndiaye,Gilbert Batista,Papa Mandoumbé Guèye,Pape Samba Ba,Bernard Taverne,Eric Delaporte,Papa Salif Sow
ISRN AIDS , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/621565
Abstract: Cardiovascular risk factors in people on antiretroviral treatment (ART) are poorly documented in resource-constrained settings. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009 to assess prevalence of diabetes and hypertension in a sample of 242 HIV-infected patients who had initiated ART between 1998 and 2002 in Dakar, Senegal (ANRS 1215 observational cohort). World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were applied to diagnose diabetes and hypertension. Multiple logistic regressions were used to identify factors associated with diabetes and hypertension. Patients had a median age of 46 years and had received ART for a median duration of about 9 years. 14.5% had diabetes and 28.1% had hypertension. Long duration of ART (≥119 months), older age, higher body mass index (BMI), and higher levels of total cholesterol were associated with higher risks of diabetes. Older age, higher BMI at ART initiation, and higher levels of triglycerides were associated with higher risk of hypertension. This study shows that diabetes and hypertension were frequent in these Senegalese HIV patients on ART. It confirms the association between duration of ART and diabetes and highlights the need to implement programs for prevention of cardiovascular risk factors in HIV patients from resource-constrained settings. 1. Introduction In December 2010, over five million people were on antiretroviral treatment (ART) in Sub-Saharan Africa [1]. In Senegal, this number reached 18,000 at the end of 2011, corresponding to a coverage rate of 78% [2]. The efficacy of ART has led to a significant reduction in mortality among people living with HIV [3–6], causing an increase in their life expectancy, which nevertheless remains below that of the general population [7–10]. This excess mortality is partially related to immunodepression but also organic and metabolic disorders that are not classified as AIDS [4, 11–16]. These disorders have multifactor causes. The underlying physiopathological mechanisms have not been clearly established. Nevertheless, it is recognized that they involve phenomena related to the virus [17–21], to antiretrovirals (ARVs) [22–26], and to the host [27–31]. These mechanisms contribute to noninfectious diseases including diabetes and hypertension, which are two major risk factors of cardiovascular disease and are associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Available data on prevalence and the factors associated with diabetes and hypertension have dealt with populations of varying ages and whose duration of ARV exposure varied greatly. These studies have rarely addressed
Coronary Angioplasty in a Low Income Sub-Saharan Country: Situational Analysis  [PDF]
Mouhamed Cherif Mboup, Djibril Marie Ba, Modou Jobe, Massamba Thiam, Khadidiatou Dia, Pape Diadie Fall
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2018.812053
Abstract: Introduction: Coronary angioplasty is not widely conducted in sub-Saharan Africa in general and Senegal in particular. The objective of this work was to describe the indications, techniques, results and difficulties of coronary angioplasty in Senegal. Patients and Methods: We prospectively included all patients who underwent coronary angioplasty between July 2012 and November 2014. We evaluated the clinical characteristics, techniques used, and the peri-procedural complications. Results: 110 coronary angioplasties were performed at the cardiac catheterisation unit of the Clinique du Golf in Dakar. The average age of patients was 60.41 ± 10.93 years. A male predominance was noted with a sex ratio of 6.3. Hypertension was found in 57% of patients. The principal indications for coronary angioplasty were for the management of acute coronary syndromes with or without ST elevation, in 29 and 39 patients respectively. The femoral artery was the puncture site in 104 patients. The lesions treated were type A/B1 or B2/C in 53 and 57 cases respectively. The success rates of coronary angioplasties and 30-day mortality were 91% and 0.9% respectively. Conclusion: In sub-Saharan Africa, Senegal in particular, the practice of coronary angioplasty is low. Indeed, many factors linked to socioeconomic status limit the development of coronary angioplasty in Senegal.
Hypertension in Clinical Practice: Control Rate in Short Term and Associated Factors in the Cardiology Department of the University Hospital Gabriel Touré (UH-GT) in Bamako (Mali)  [PDF]
Hamidou Oumar Ba, Ichaka Menta, Ibrahima Sangare, Youssouf Camara, Noumou Sidibe, Souleymane Coulibaly, Djénébou Traoré, Réné Dakouo, Samba Samaké, Aladji Traoré, Samba Sidibé, Mamadou Cissouma, Cheick Hamala Fofana, Lamine Sidibe, Kassoum Mamourou Sanogo
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2018.86028
Abstract: Introduction: Hypertension (HTN) is for many decades a worldwide major risk factor for cardiovascular disease.However, hypertension control rates are globally low in the world. Studies on observance have been published in Mali but there is to our knowledge no published data about HTN control rate. We therefore conducted this study to assess the control rate in short term after 3 months management and to look for factors associated with HTN control. Materials and Methods: This study designed as prospective was conducted in the cardiology department of the University Hospital Gabriel Touré (UH-GT) from March 24 to September 24, 2017. All outpatients aged 18 years and more who came for visit and with hypertension as diagnose were involved. All patients have consented to participate in the study. Sociodemographic and data on physical examination including measures for BP, height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and direct costs as reported by the patients were recorded. Patients were asked about medication discontinuation and if yes why and then they were informed about the need to take regularly medication. The concept of chronic disease was explained to them. A formulary served to collect data that were inserted into a Microsoft Access database and analyzed using SPSS version 18. After describing of sociodemographics and continuous variables, crosstabs and finally a logistic regression was performed to look for blood pressure control predictors. Results: There was no statistical difference in sociodemographics between older and newly diagnosed patients. At 3 months globally 40.90% (31.1 for old Patients and 09.8% for newPatients) of the sample
Numerical Simulation of Unsteady Friction in Transient Two-Phase Flow with Godunov Method  [PDF]
Samba Bousso, Musandji Fuamba
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2013.511110

Most numerical transient flow models that consider dynamic friction employ a finite differences approach or the method of characteristics. These models assume a single fluid (water only) with constant density and pressure wave velocity. But when transient flow modeling attempts to integrate the presence of air, which produces a variable density and pressure-wave velocity, the resolution scheme becomes increasingly complex. Techniques such as finite volumes are often used to improve the quality of results because of their conservative form. This paper focuses on a resolution technique for unsteady friction using the Godunov approach in a finite volume method employing single-equivalent twophase flow equations. The unsteady friction component is determined by taking into account local and convective instantaneous accelerations and the sign of both convective acceleration and velocity values. The approach is used to reproduce a set of transient flow experiments reported in the literature, and good agreement between simulated and experimental results is found.

Minimum and Maximum Temperature Trends in Congo-Brazzaville: 1932-2010  [PDF]
Gaston Samba, Dominique Nganga
Atmospheric and Climate Sciences (ACS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/acs.2014.43040

Maximum and minimum temperatures time series of Congo-Brazzaville are analyzed for trend and discontinuities over the period 1932 to 2010. Temperatures series show an irregular increase. A total of 8 synoptic stations show positive trends in their annual mean maximum temperature series, and 7 of them are significant, with higher trends for urban stations. Annual mean minimum temperature showed 6 stations having positive trends. This increase is in relation with observations at regional scale. However, the differences are observed between large towns (Brazzaville and Pointe-Noire), and small or rural towns (Dolisie, Sibiti, Impfondo, Djambala). Trends in diurnal temperature range (DTR) are large positive trends in maximum temperature that are mainly observed in cities. The curve of DTR shows a decreasing trend which indicates the increasing of minimum temperatures. The effects of urbanization on temperature trends are investigated. Most stations regarded as urban stations are still useful for trend analysis; being situated on the suburban of the studied cities, they are therefore, not substantially influenced by the urban heat island.

Arrival Analysis of Dry Weather Sanitary Sewer Overflows  [PDF]
Kenneth Tuffour, Chris Samba
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2016.63038
Abstract: This study investigates arrivals of sanitary sewer overflows collected from a municipality. The data set consists of recorded overflows from 2011 to 2014 during dry weather. Reliability analysis is conducted upon each data set. The Weibull distribution is adopted to evaluate the data sets. The results show that the arrival of dry weather SSOs cannot be simply modeled with a Poisson process that is featured with a constant arrival rate. For annual data set, 2-parameter Weibull generally has an acceptable fitting (except 2014 data). The shape parameters are close to 1 or a little greater than 1, indicating relatively constant arrival rate or slightly increased rate. For the entire data set, the 3-parameter Weibull distribution is able to fit the data well. The shape parameter is also greater than 1. Therefore, an increased SSO arrival rate is noticed for this data set. There are needs to make more efforts in maintaining the sewer system.
Pulmonary Embolism in Hospitalization in the Department of Cardiology of Gabriel Toure University Hospital  [PDF]
Ichaka Menta, Souleymane Coulibaly, Hamidou Oumar Ba, Djénébou Traore, Mougnon Walbane, Youssouf Camara, Ibrahima Sangare, Illo Bela Diall, Samba Sidibé, Noumou Sidibé, Mamadou Diakité, Coumba Thiam, Kassoum Sanogo
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2018.81003
Abstract: Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and Para clinical characteristics in patients hospitalized for pulmonary embolism in the cardiology department of Gabriel Toure University Hospital. Methodology: It was a retrospective and descriptive study from January 2011 to December 2014 and involved all patients hospitalized during the study period. Results: The study included 21 patients out of 1738 hospitalized patients, with a prevalence of 1.21%. The mean age was 38.57 years with extreme ages of 18 and 64 years. The sex ratio was 0.40. Risk factors found in the study were oral contraception (19.05%), overweight (19.05%), smoking (14.28%), HIV (4.76%) and heart failure (4, 76%). 61.90% (n = 13) had isolated pulmonary embolism, 38.09% (n = 8) had venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism association. Through the chest angio-CT, 28.57% of obstructions were located at the left branch of the pulmonary artery, 9.52% at the right branch and 61.90% were bilateral obstructions. Four deaths were recorded, all in a context of massive pulmonary embolism, with a fatality rate of 19.05%. Conclusion: Pulmonary embolism is a serious and common disease, often difficult to diagnose. It is a cardiovascular emergency and requires immediate and adequate care.
High Blood Pressure in External Consultation in Cardiology of Kati  [PDF]
Ichaka Menta, Hamidou Oumar Ba, Souleymane Coulibaly, Ibrahima Sangare, Djénébou Traore, Coumba Thiam, Yacouba Fofana, Ilo Bella Diall, Youssouf Camara, Samba Sidibe, Mamadou Diakite, Massama Konate, Kassoum Mamourou Sanogo
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2018.812052
Abstract: Objective: To study hypertension and its manifestations inOut-patients’ Department of Cardiology of Kati. Methods: The study was traversal and it was based on a sample of 300 patients, reached during the interval of 12 (twelve) months (from June 2012 to June 2013). Results: The predominance was among the females with 68.7%. The average age was about55.8 ± 12.2 years old. The extreme ages wereabout 21 and 90 yearsold. In the set,?66% of the patients lived in the town of Kati.The symptoms of Dieulafoy were predominantly the reasons for consultation with 55.7%. The cardiac frequency in the vast majority of cases was normal (85.3%). The left ventricular hypertrophy in the electrocardiogram was observed in more than half of the cases,?that is to say,?51.3%. In a bit higher proportion,?the echocardiography Doppler became normal,?that is to say,?54%. Brain scanner done on 9 patients found out signs of cerebrovascular stroke in 8 patients,?that is to say,?a frequency of 88.9%. In 76% of casesof orthostatic hypotension,?the patients were hypertensive.The blood pressure was normal during the
Prognostic Factors for Acute Heart Failure (AHF) in the Cardiology Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of the University Hospital Point G (UH Pt G)  [PDF]
Camara Youssouf, Ba Hamidou Oumar, Sangare Ibrahima, Toure Karamba, Coulibaly Souleymane, Sacko Abdoul Karim, Coulibaly Alfousseyni, Diallo Nouhoum, Sidibe Samba, Daou Adama, Menta Ichaka, Diall Ilo Bella, Diallo Boubakar Abdoulaye
World Journal of Cardiovascular Diseases (WJCD) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/wjcd.2019.91005
Abstract: Background and Aim: The absence of data in our context motivates this study aiming to determine the frequency of AHF at the ICU, assess the in-hospital evolution of the disease and to find out poor prognosis.Material and Methods: It was an observational and descriptive study covering the time from January 1, 2014 to March 30, 2017 involving all inpatient records in ICU. From January 2014 to December 2017, collected data included those on socio-demographic, history of diseases and physical examination, and some labor dataincluding Pro BNP, serum creatinine, blood ionogram,?cardiac enzymes and blood count. Also data electrocardiography, echocardiography and in-hospital evolution were collected. Statistical Analysis:Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS (IBM Inc) version 18. Results: AHF occured in 47.36% with a mean age of 58.74 ± 18.407 and extremes of 17 and 90 years, women representing 53.1% (sex ratio Male:Female = 0.88). Hypertension and diabetes were the predominant cardiovascular risk factors with respectively 67.4% and 18.4%. At admission?44%, 37.7% and 17.9% of patients were respectively hypertensive,?normotensive and hypotensive. The clinical expression was mainly global heart failure with 42.6% followed by left heart failure and right heart failure with respectively 37% and 20.4%. The coronary syndromes (all forms) was the first cause of ICA with 34% of cases followed by pulmonary embolism and hypertension
Action-Independent Subjective Expected Utility without States of the World  [PDF]
Andreas Duus Pape
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.35A2004
Abstract: This paper develops an axiomatic theory of decision-making under uncertainty that has no state-space. The choice setting follows Karni [1,2]: a set of effects (outcomes), a set of actions which induce these effects, and a set of real-valued bets over effects. In Karni’s representation, a preference over action/bet pairs yields utility, which is action-dependent. In our representation, utility is action-independent. This is achieved by augmenting Karni’s choice set with lotteries over actions. Identification is achieved similarly to Anscombe-Aumann [3], in which there are objective “roulette” lotteries over subjective “horse race” lotteries.
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