Publish in OALib Journal

ISSN: 2333-9721

APC: Only $99


Any time

2019 ( 6 )

2018 ( 8 )

2017 ( 10 )

2016 ( 15 )

Custom range...

Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6858 matches for " Paolo Gaibani "
All listed articles are free for downloading (OA Articles)
Page 1 /6858
Display every page Item
The central region of the msp gene of Treponema denticola has sequence heterogeneity among clinical samples, obtained from patients with periodontitis
Paolo Gaibani, Maria Pellegrino, Giada Rossini, Gualtiero Alvisi, Luisa Miragliotta, Carlo Prati, Vittorio Sambri
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-10-345
Abstract: Nucleotide and amino acid sequence of MSP have been determined by PCR amplification and sequencing in seventeen T. denticola clinical specimens to evaluate the genetic variability and the philogenetic relationship of the T. denticola msp gene among the different amplified sequence of positive samples. In silico antigenic analysis was performed on each MSP sequences to determined possible antigenic variation.The msp sequences showed two highly conserved 5' and 3' ends and a central region that varies substantially. Phylogenetic analysis categorized the 17 specimens into 2 principal groups, suggesting a low rate of evolutionary variability and an elevated degree of conservation of msp in clinically derived genetic material. Analysis of the predicted antigenic variability between isolates, demonstrated that the major differences lay between amino acids 200 and 300.These findings showed for the first time, the nucleotide and amino acids variation of the msp gene in infecting T. denticola, in vivo. This data suggested that the antigenic variability found in to the MSP molecule, may be an important factor involved in immune evasion by T. denticola.Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory condition that is characterized by the progressive destruction of periodontal tissue [1]. This common infection is caused by polymicrobial flora, comprising several anaerobic, gram-negative bacteria. The oral spirochete Treponema denticola is often isolated from the affected sites and plays an important role in the polymicrobial pathogenesis of acute and chronic periodontal disease [2,3]. The outer membrane of T. denticola bears several antigens that control the interaction with host cells and tissues thus contributing to the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. In particular, the major surface protein (MSP) has been recently reported to alter the normal homeostasis of endothelial cells in vitro [4]. Further, MSP mediates the adhesion to and cytopathic effects of T. denticola on host cells
Single-Reaction, Multiplex, Real-Time RT-PCR for the Detection, Quantitation, and Serotyping of Dengue Viruses
Jesse J. Waggoner,Janaki Abeynayake,Malaya K. Sahoo,Lionel Gresh,Yolanda Tellez,Karla Gonzalez,Gabriela Ballesteros,Anna M. Pierro,Paolo Gaibani,Frances P. Guo,Vittorio Sambri,Angel Balmaseda,Kumudu Karunaratne,Eva Harris,Benjamin A. Pinsky
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0002116
Abstract: Background Dengue fever results from infection with one or more of four different serotypes of dengue virus (DENV). Despite the widespread nature of this infection, available molecular diagnostics have significant limitations. The aim of this study was to develop a multiplex, real-time, reverse transcriptase-PCR (rRT-PCR) for the detection, quantitation, and serotyping of dengue viruses in a single reaction. Methodology/Principal Findings An rRT-PCR assay targeting the 5′ untranslated region and capsid gene of the DENV genome was designed using molecular beacons to provide serotype specificity. Using reference DENV strains, the assay was linear from 7.0 to 1.0 log10 cDNA equivalents/μL for each serotype. The lower limit of detection using genomic RNA was 0.3, 13.8, 0.8, and 12.4 cDNA equivalents/μL for serotypes 1–4, respectively, which was 6- to 275-fold more analytically sensitive than a widely used hemi-nested RT-PCR. Using samples from Nicaragua collected within the first five days of illness, the multiplex rRT-PCR was positive in 100% (69/69) of specimens that were positive by the hemi-nested assay, with full serotype agreement. Furthermore, the multiplex rRT-PCR detected DENV RNA in 97.2% (35/36) of specimens from Sri Lanka positive for anti-DENV IgM antibodies compared to just 44.4% (16/36) by the hemi-nested RT-PCR. No amplification was observed in 80 clinical samples sent for routine quantitative hepatitis C virus testing or when genomic RNA from other flaviviruses was tested. Conclusions/Significance This single-reaction, quantitative, multiplex rRT-PCR for DENV serotyping demonstrates superior analytical and clinical performance, as well as simpler workflow compared to the hemi-nested RT-PCR reference. In particular, this multiplex rRT-PCR detects viral RNA and provides serotype information in specimens collected more than five days after fever onset and from patients who had already developed anti-DENV IgM antibodies. The implementation of this assay in dengue-endemic areas has the potential to improve both dengue diagnosis and epidemiologic surveillance.
Mosquito, Bird and Human Surveillance of West Nile and Usutu Viruses in Emilia-Romagna Region (Italy) in 2010
Mattia Calzolari, Paolo Gaibani, Romeo Bellini, Francesco Defilippo, Anna Pierro, Alessandro Albieri, Giulia Maioli, Andrea Luppi, Giada Rossini, Agnese Balzani, Marco Tamba, Giorgio Galletti, Antonio Gelati, Marco Carrieri, Giovanni Poglayen, Francesca Cavrini, Silvano Natalini, Michele Dottori, Vittorio Sambri, Paola Angelini, Paolo Bonilauri
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038058
Abstract: Background In 2008, after the first West Nile virus (WNV) detection in the Emilia-Romagna region, a surveillance system, including mosquito- and bird-based surveillance, was established to evaluate the virus presence. Surveillance was improved in following years by extending the monitoring to larger areas and increasing the numbers of mosquitoes and birds tested. Methodology/Principal Findings A network of mosquito traps, evenly distributed and regularly activated, was set up within the surveyed area. A total of 438,558 mosquitoes, grouped in 3,111 pools and 1,276 birds (1,130 actively sampled and 146 from passive surveillance), were tested by biomolecular analysis. The survey detected WNV in 3 Culex pipiens pools while Usutu virus (USUV) was found in 89 Cx. pipiens pools and in 2 Aedes albopictus pools. Two birds were WNV-positive and 12 were USUV-positive. Furthermore, 30 human cases of acute meningoencephalitis, possibly caused by WNV or USUV, were evaluated for both viruses and 1,053 blood bags were tested for WNV, without any positive result. Conclusions/Significance Despite not finding symptomatic human WNV infections during 2010, the persistence of the virus, probably due to overwintering, was confirmed through viral circulation in mosquitoes and birds, as well as for USUV. In 2010, circulation of the two viruses was lower and more delayed than in 2009, but this decrease was not explained by the relative abundance of Cx. pipiens mosquito, which was greater in 2010. The USUV detection in mosquito species confirms the role of Cx. pipiens as the main vector and the possible involvement of Ae. albopictus in the virus cycle. The effects of meteorological conditions on the presence of USUV-positive mosquito pools were considered finding an association with drought conditions and a wide temperature range. The output produced by the surveillance system demonstrated its usefulness and reliability in terms of planning public health policies.
Inflammatory Cytokine Expression Is Associated with Chikungunya Virus Resolution and Symptom Severity
Alyson A. Kelvin ,David Banner,Giuliano Silvi,Maria Luisa Moro,Nadir Spataro,Paolo Gaibani,Francesca Cavrini,Anna Pierro,Giada Rossini,Mark J. Cameron,Jesus F. Bermejo-Martin,Stéphane G. Paquette,Luoling Xu,Ali Danesh,Amber Farooqui,Ilaria Borghetto,David J. Kelvin,Vittorio Sambri,Salvatore Rubino
PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0001279
Abstract: The Chikungunya virus infection zones have now quickly spread from Africa to parts of Asia, North America and Europe. Originally thought to trigger a disease of only mild symptoms, recently Chikungunya virus caused large-scale fatalities and widespread economic loss that was linked to recent virus genetic mutation and evolution. Due to the paucity of information on Chikungunya immunological progression, we investigated the serum levels of 13 cytokines/chemokines during the acute phase of Chikungunya disease and 6- and 12-month post-infection follow-up from patients of the Italian outbreak. We found that CXCL9/MIG, CCL2/MCP-1, IL-6 and CXCL10/IP-10 were significantly raised in the acute phase compared to follow-up samples. Furthermore, IL-1β, TNF-α, Il-12, IL-10, IFN-γ and IL-5 had low initial acute phase levels that significantly increased at later time points. Analysis of symptom severity showed association with CXCL9/MIG, CXCL10/IP-10 and IgG levels. These data give insight into Chikungunya disease establishment and subsequent convalescence, which is imperative to the treatment and containment of this quickly evolving and frequently re-emerging disease.
Diagnosis of West Nile Virus Human Infections: Overview and Proposal of Diagnostic Protocols Considering the Results of External Quality Assessment Studies
Vittorio Sambri,Maria R. Capobianchi,Francesca Cavrini,Rémi Charrel,Olivier Donoso-Mantke,Camille Escadafal,Leticia Franco,Paolo Gaibani,Ernest A. Gould,Matthias Niedrig,Anna Papa,Anna Pierro,Giada Rossini,Andrea Sanchini,Antonio Tenorio,Stefania Varani,Ana Vázquez,Caterina Vocale,Herve Zeller
Viruses , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/v5102329
Abstract: West Nile virus, genus Flavivirus, is transmitted between birds and occasionally other animals by ornithophilic mosquitoes. This virus also infects humans causing asymptomatic infections in about 85% of cases and <1% of clinical cases progress to severe neuroinvasive disease. The virus also presents a threat since most infections remain unapparent. However, the virus contained in blood and organs from asymptomatically infected donors can be transmitted to recipients of these infectious tissues. This paper reviews the presently available methods to achieve the laboratory diagnosis of West Nile virus infections in humans, discussing the most prominent advantages and disadvantages of each in light of the results obtained during four different External Quality Assessment studies carried out by the European Network for ‘Imported’ Viral Diseases (ENIVD).
A Field Experiment on the Recurrence of Large Waves in Wind Seas  [PDF]
Paolo Boccotti
Open Journal of Marine Science (OJMS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojms.2011.13007
Abstract: Wind generated sea waves are generally regarded as an example of pure randomness in nature. Here we give a proof that the matter is not exactly so: some identical sequences of relatively large waves were found many hours apart from one another. This finding supports the theory of quasi determinism of sea waves.
Call Auction Markets with Risk-Averse Specialists  [PDF]
Paolo Vitale
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.22030
Abstract: We study a generalization of Kyle’s (1985) model to the case in which the specialist is risk-averse and does not set the transaction price according to semi-strong form efficiency. We see that Kyle’s call auction market is no longer a robust market structure, as linear Bayesian equilibria do not exist, irrespective of fundamentals, such as agents’ information, endowments and preferences. This result holds both when customers can submit only market orders and when limit orders are allowed too.
Democratic, Plutocratic and Social Weights in Price Indexes  [PDF]
Paolo Liberati
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2012.25084
Abstract: This paper introduces social considerations into the calculation of the price index. To this purpose, recourse is made to the concept of distributional characteristic. It is shown how an aggregate price index can be expressed as a weighted average of commodity-specific prices, with weights that depend on both the aggregate share of consumption and the way in which consumption is distributed across households. The proposed index provides a complementary basis for the analysis of the impact of inflation and for the calculation of its social value.
Holographic Bound in Quantum Field Energy Density and Cosmological Constant  [PDF]
Paolo Castorina
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.46110

The cosmological constant problem is reanalyzed by imposing the limitation of the number of degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) due to entropy bounds directly in the calculation of the energy density of a field theory. It is shown that if a quantum field theory has to be consistent with gravity and holography, i.e. with an upper limit of storing information in a given area, the ultraviolet momentum cut-off is not the Planck mass, Mp, as naively expected, but \"\" where Nu is the number of d.o.f. of the universe. The energy density evaluation turns out completely consistent with Bousso’s bound on the cosmological constant value. The scale \"\" , that in the “fat graviton” theory corresponds to the graviton size, originates by a self-similar rearrangement of the elementary d.o.f. at different scales that can be seen as an infrared-ultraviolet connection.

Cosmogonic Speculations: Particle Creation from Energy Conservation in the Universe Evolution  [PDF]
Paolo Christillin
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2016.711119
Abstract: Information about the Universe from Hubble’s law is consistent with that coming from the evaluation of inertial forces, supporting the picture of a steady state expansion of a black hole Universe. Backed up also by the consideration of the black body self energy, the post big bang temperature decrease is consistent with particle creation if energy conservation applies at every scale. This process is shown to provide a gravitational repulsive force which can counterbalance gravitational attraction thus allowing the possibility of a steady non-inflationary expansion. That seems to provide an alternative coherent scheme for our picture of the Universe evolution, disposing of the cosmological term, of dark energy and of the bulk of dark matter.
Page 1 /6858
Display every page Item

Copyright © 2008-2017 Open Access Library. All rights reserved.